Roza Bal

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Roza Bal shrine – The sign reads "Ziarati Hazrati Youza Asouph and Syed Nasir-u-Din."[clarification needed]

The Roza Bal or Rauza Bal or Rozabal (Kashmiri: रोज़ाबल or रौज़ाबल (Devanagari), Urdu: روضة بل) is the name of a shrine located in the Khanyaar quarter of the city of Srinagar in Kashmir. The word rauza means tomb, the word bal means place, often a landing place by a lake, hence "place of the tomb."[1][2][3][4][5] Locals believe a sage buried there is Yuzasaf (one word), more recently Yuz Asaf (two words; or "Youza Asouph"). and the other man is Mir Sayyid Naseeruddin.

The shrine is currently under Muslim control and visitors are either not allowed or discouraged from visiting by having rocks thrown at them.[citation needed] They[who?] claim it is an insult to their faith that some believe it to be the tomb of Jesus.[citation needed] Although the shrine was an existence before Muslim rule in the 14th century. Originally a center of Buddhism, Hinduism and Shaivism for thousands of years before Islam, the shrine was relatively unknown until the founder of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, claimed in 1899 that it is actually the tomb of Jesus.[6] This belief is shared by many Ahmadis today, though the local Sunni caretakers of the shrine believe that "the theory that Jesus is buried anywhere on the face of the earth is blasphemous to Islam."[7]

Building[edit]

The structure stands in front of a Muslim cemetery.[8] It consists of a low rectangular building on a raised platform, surrounded by railings at the front and an entry. Within is a shrine to Youza Asouph.[9] The building also houses the burial tomb of a Shia Muslim saint, Mir Sayyid Naseeruddin, a descendant of Imam Musa-Raza, 8th Imam of the Shias whose shrine is in Mashhad. The structure was previously maintained by the local community, but is now maintained by a board of directors consisting of Sunni Muslims.[10] According to Fida Hassnain, a supporter of Ahmadi beliefs, the tomb contains a rock carving that is said to show feet bearing crucifixion wounds and the body is buried according to what Hassnain considers are the Jewish tradition of directions and not according to the Islamic tradition.[11] The Sunni Muslim authorities at the shrine believe Youza Asouph and Mir Sayyid Naseeruddin to be Muslim holy men.[citation needed]

History[edit]

Buddhist and Hindu period[edit]

There is no record of the shrine during Kashmir's Buddhist period, nor during the Kashmir Sultanate (1346–1586) when many Buddhist temples were converted into mosques, such as the Shankaracharya Temple or "Throne of Solomon."[12]

Muhammad Dedamari, 1747[edit]

The shrine is first mentioned in the Waqi'at-i-Kashmir (Story of Kashmir, published 1747), also known as the Tarikh Azami (History by Azam)[13] by the Khwaja Muhammad Azam Didamari, a local Srinagar Sufi writer. Muhammed Azam states that the tomb is of a foreign prophet and prince, Yuzasuf, or in modern local Kashimiri transcription Youza Asouph. The name may derive from the Urdu "Yuzasaf" in the legend of Balauhar and Yuzasaf, Yuzasaf being a name for Gautama Buddha.[14] Yuzasaf occurs as a spelling in the Rasail Ikhwan al-Safa of the Brethren of Purity and other sources.[15] David Marshall Lang (1960) notes that the connection of the Buddhist Yuzasaf with Kashmir in part results from a printing error in the Bombay Arabic edition referencing the legend of the Wisdom of Balahvar which makes its hero prince Yuzasaf die in "Kashmir" (Arabic: كشمير) by confusion with Kushinara (Pali: كوشينر), the traditional place of the original Buddha's death.[16][17]

Court case 1770[edit]

A court case was brought mentioning the shrine in 1184AH/1770AD:[18]

The Seal of The Justice of Islam Mullah Fazil 1194-A.H. Verdict: Now this Court, after obtaining evidence, concludes that during the reign of Raja Gopadatta, who built and repaired many temples, especially the Throne of Solomon, Yuz Asaph came to the Valley. Prince by descent, he was pious and saintly and had given up earthly pursuits. He spent all his time in prayers and meditation. The people of Kashmir, having become idolators, after the great flood of Noah, the God Almighty, sent Yuz Asaph as a Prophet to the people of Kashmir. He proclaimed oneness of God till he passed away. Yuz‐Asaph was buried at Khanyar on the banks of the lake and his shrine is known as Roza Bal. In the year 871 A.H. Syed Nasir-ud-Din, a descendant of Imam Musa-Raza, was also buried besides the grave of Yuz Asaph. Orders – Since the shrine is visited by devotees, both high and common, and since the applicant, Rehman Khan, is the hereditary custodian of the shrine, it is ordered that he be entitled to receive the offerings made at the shrine as before, and no one else shall have any right to such offerings. Given under our hand, 11th Jamad-ud-sani, 1184 A.H" (translation by Fida Hassnain 1988)

Hassnain's translation follows Ghulam Ahmad in dividing the name of Yuzasaf, found in the Bilhawar and Yuzasaf tradition about Gautama Buddha, into two syllables, "Yuz Asaf."[19] Yuzasaf, Arabic Yūdhasaf or Būdhasaf, is derived from the Sanskrit Bodhisattva. The Sanskrit word was changed to Bodisav in Persian texts in the 6th or 7th century, then to Budhasaf or Yudasaf in an 8th-century Arabic document (from Arabic initial "b" ﺑ to "y" ﻳ by duplication of a dot in handwriting).[20]

Indo-Pakistan War, 1965[edit]

In the aftermath of the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 and continuing Hindu-Muslim and Muslim-Muslim tensions and incidents the Ziarat Rozabal was desecrated and the grave dug up on 27 October 1965. Indian columnist Praveen Swami (2006) identified the culprits as a "stay-back cell" of Pakistani operatives, but this is not confirmed by other sources.[21]

Ahmadiyya claims regarding the shrine[edit]

Mirza Ghulam Ahmad[edit]

The founder of Ahmadiyyat, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, inferring from the Verse 23:50 of the Quran, believed that the only occasion in the life of Jesus, son of Mary, that his life was seriously threatened, when an attempt was made to kill him by the cross. The Quran saying that "We…prepared an abode for them in an elevated part of the earth, being a place of quiet and security, and watered with running springs" ;,[22] Ahmad says, may very fittingly apply to the Valley of Kashmir.[23][24] A Narration from the Prophet Muhammad is also referred to in support of this interpretation of Quran 23:50 by the Ahmadiyya.[25]

In his book Jesus in India he elaborately claimed that Roza Bal was the tomb of Jesus (Urdu 1899, English 1944 مسیح ہندوستان میں Masih Hindustan-mein).[26][27] The book was fully published in 1908, and the first complete English translation in 1944.[27] Ahmad had separately advocated the view that Jesus did not die by crucifixion, but travelled to the Indian subcontinent and died there at age 120.[28][29] Per Beskow states that Ghulam Ahmad separated Yuzasaf into two components Yuz and Asaf, interpreted Yuz as Jesus and Asaf (the Hebrew for gather) as signifying "Jesus he gatherer".[30]

The Ahmadiyya writer Khwaja Nazir Ahmad's Jesus in Heaven on Earth (1952) developed Ghulam Ahmad's ideas.[31] There are ruins of a Hindu temple near Srinagar where Ghulam Ahmad claimed Jesus had preached.[32] Due to the lack of other western sources, the Ahmadi rely on the 3rd century apocryphal Acts of Thomas and generally post-15th century Muslim sources in their reconstruction of an eastern travel path for Jesus.[33]

J. Gordon Melton states that having assumed the mujaddid (faith renewer) appellation in the 1880s, and having declared himself the Promised Messiah for the Christians, Ghulam Ahmad simply picked up the legend that Jesus had visited India to increase his self-identification with Jesus.[34] Gerald O'Collins states that no historical evidence has been provided to support Ghulam Ahmad's theory that Jesus died in India.[29] Simon Ross Valentine classifies the theory as a legend and considers the burial of Jesus in Roza Bal a myth in the scale of the legend of Joseph of Arimathea taking the Holy Grail to Britain.[35] Paul C. Pappas states that from a historical perspective, the Ahmadi identification of Yuzasaf with Jesus was derived from legends and documents which include a number of clear historical errors (e.g. confusing the reign of Gondophares) and that "it is almost impossible to identify Yuz Asaf with Jesus".[36]

Ghulam Ahmad's theory that Jesus died in India is distinct from the 1894 suggestion of Nicolas Notovitch that Jesus travelled to India in his earlier years (before the start of his ministry) during the unknown years of Jesus and Ghulam Ahmad specifically disagreed with Notovitch.[37] Notovitch's claims to have found a manuscript about Jesus' travels to India have been totally discredited by modern scholarship as a hoax.[38] Notovitch later confessed to having fabricated his evidence.[39] Modern scholars generally hold that in general there is no historical basis to substantiate any of the claims of the travels of Jesus to India.[40][41]

20th century[edit]

Khwaja Nazir Ahmad[edit]

After Notovich and Ahmad the next widely noticed text was the 1908 The Aquarian Gospel of Jesus Christ – Transcribed from The Book of God's Remembrance (Akashic Records), which Levi H. Dowling (1844–1911) claimed he had transcribed from lost "Akashic" records.[42]

Khwaja Nazir Ahmad, an Ahmadi missionary in Woking, developed Ghulam Ahmad's ideas in the 1940s. He also claimed that Moses was buried at Boot on Mt. Niltoop near Bandipur.[43] His book (1952) contained a translated section of the Ikmal al-din of Shia authority Ibn Babawayh (d. 991, called "as-Saduq") where Yuzasaf (Ahmad "Yuz Asaf") is mentioned.

He compared the tree with 'Bushra' towards which he used to draw people; the spring with learning, and the birds with the people who sat around him and accepted the religion he preached. Then Yuz Asaf, after roaming about in many cities, reached that country which is called Kashmir. He travelled in it far and wide and stayed there and spent his remaining life there until death overtook him He left the earthly body and was elevated towards the Light. But before his death, he sent for a disciple of his, Ba'bad (Thomas) by name who used to serve him and was well-versed in all matters. Translation into English from Original Arabic of Ikmal al-din of Ibn Babawayh, republished Khwaja Nazir Ahmad "Jesus in Heaven on earth" 1952 Page 362 (insertion "Thomas" not in original Ghulam Ahmad 1908 translation).

The claim that this text relates to Isa (Jesus) and not Barlaam and Josaphat originates in Ahmad's earlier 1902 use of the same text. Ahmadiyya claims that this section of the Ikmal al-din of Ibn Babawayh relates to Isa (Jesus) is rejected by Shia Muslims.[44] The Orientalist Max Müller had already translated this section into German (1894) when refuting the claims of Nicolas Notovitch.[45]

Ahmadi websites and print sources cite various local documents and traditions in support of Ghulam Ahmad's identification of the Srinagar shrine as Jesus tomb. These include:
(1) Islamic versions of the legend of Barlaam and Josaphat, in Arabic Budasaf or Yuzasaf:

(2) Texts mentioning Jesus (Isa)

(3) Local history of Kashmir

  • A 1946 photograph of a single page purporting to be from Tarikh-i-Kashmir, (History of Kashmir) a lost history by Mullah Nadri 1420 AD, used as a source by Haidar Malik (1620s). Khwaja Nazir Ahmad printed this photograph in Jesus in Heaven on Earth (1952)[47] The text in the photograph contains mention of Yuzasaf, but the standard text of the Mullah Nadri traditions transmitted by Haidar Malik contain no mention of Yuzasaf, and no historian cites Tarikh-i-Kashmir as containing a Yuzasaf tradition. The original page, which Ahmad tried to buy in 1946 is now lost, so no tests can be conducted to the age of the document.
  • Waqiat-i-Kashmir of Muhammed Azam Didamari (1747) History of Kashmir, mention of Prince Yuzasaf
  • Official Decree of 1770 court case, – identifying the two saints at the Rozabal as Yuzasaf and Sayyid Naseeruddin.
  • Bagh-i-Sulaiman (The Garden of Solomon) of Mir Saadullah Shahabadi Kashmiri (1780), a history of Kashmir which comments on the other Muslim holy man buried at the Roza Bal shrine, Sayyid Naseeruddin.[48]
  • Wajeesut Tawarikh of Abdul Nabi Khanyari (1857) – History of the Sikh period of Kashmir which mentions the Rozabal as grave of Sayyid Naseeruddin and prince Yuzasaf.
  • Takhat Sulaiman (Throne of Solomon), remains of a temple on hill near Dal Lake in Srinagar, Kashmir
  • Tahrik-i-kabir-Kashmir, of Haji Mohiuddin, (Amritsar, Suraj Prakash Press, 1902) – the first source to mention that some believe the Roza Bal to be the tomb of Jesus (Isa), three years after Mirza Ghulam Ahmad's identification.[49]

Pappas states that the analysis of any possible combinations of date assignment to Nazir Ahmad's theory about the travels of Jesus indicates that none of the scenarios can be consistent with the generally accepted historical dates such as the reign of Gondophares, in part because Nazir Ahmad relied on the dating methods used in the court of Zain-ul-Abidin (1423–1474).[50]

Andreas Faber-Kaiser and Holger Kersten[edit]

In 1976 Andreas Faber-Kaiser, a Spanish UFOlogist, and in 1983 Siegfried Obermeier and Holger Kersten, two German writers on esoteric subjects, popularised the subject in Christ died in Kashmir, Christ in Kashmir and Christ Lived in India respectively.[51] Kersten's ideas were among various expositions of the theory critiqued by Günter Grönbold in Jesus in Indien. Das Ende einer Legende (Munich, 1985).[52] Wilhelm Schneemelcher a German theologian states that the work of Kersten (which builds on Ahmad and The Aquarian Gospel) is fantasy and has nothing to do with historical research.[53] Gerald O'Collins an Australian Jesuit priest, states that Kersten's work is simply the repackaging of a legend for consumption by the general public.[29]

The interpretation that the tomb is aligned East-West is found in the Ahmadi publications, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad's Kashti Noh[54] and other sources such as Islamic Review 1981 and Review of Religions 1983.[55][56] This is supported by the reference from Ibn Babuwayah's version of the Yuzasif-Siddhartha story in Kamal-ud-Din "Then he stretched out his legs and turned his head to the west and his face to the east. He died in this position."[57][58][59]

Popular media[edit]

Richard Denton wrote and produced a documentary for BBC Four titled Did Jesus Die? in 2004. It is narrated by Bernard Hill and features Elaine Pagels, Peter Stanford, John Dominic Crossan, Paula Fredriksen, Father Jerome Murphy-O'Connor, Tom Wright, Thierry LaCombe (French Knights Templar conspiracy theorist), Richard Andrews, James Tabor, Steve Mason, and Ahmadi editor Abdul Aziz Kashmiri.[60] The documentary explores the survival from the cross theory and, in passing, mentions theories such as a journey to India by Jesus, with a section on the story of Yuz Asaf.[11]

On Christmas Day 2007 Channel 4 showed the documentary The Hidden Story of Jesus presented by Robert Beckford, which included filming inside the shrine of Roza Bal, and among those interviewed for the documentary was Fida Hassnain. Robert Beckford remained open-minded to the possibility that Yuz Asaf was Jesus.

More recently the tomb at Roza Bal began to gain popularity among western tourists as the possible tomb of Jesus.[61] According to a 2010 BBC correspondent report, the old story may have been recently promoted by local shopkeepers who "thought it would be good for business", and its inclusion in the Lonely Planet travel guide to India helped drive the tourist business.[61] The novel The Rozabal Line by Ashwin Sanghi makes reference to the shrine. In 2010, a 53-minute documentary was launched by the Indian film director Rai Yashendra Prasad with the name Roza Bal Shrine of Srinagar.[62]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ghulām Muhyi'd Dīn Sūfī Kashīr, being a history of Kashmir from the earliest times to our own 1974 – Volume 2 – Page 520 "Bal, in Kashmiri, means a place and is applied to a bank, or a landing place."
  2. ^ B. N. Mullik – My years with Nehru: Kashmir – Volume 2 1971 – Page 117 "Due to the presence of the Moe-e-Muqaddas on its bank the lake gradually acquired the name Hazratbal (Bal in Kashmiri means lake) and the mosque came to be known as the Hazratbal Mosque. Gradually the present Hazratbal village grew ..."
  3. ^ Nigel B. Hankin Hanklyn-janklin: a stranger's rumble-tumble guide to some words 1997 Page 125 (Although bal means hair in Urdu, in this instance the word is Kashmiri for a place – Hazratbal – the revered place.) HAZRI n Urdu Lit. presence, attendance. In British days the word acquired the meaning to Europeans and those associated with ..."
  4. ^ Andrew Wilson The Abode of Snow: Observations on a Journey from Chinese Tibet to ... 1875 reprint 1993– Page 343 Bal means a place, and Ash is the satyr of Kashmir traditions."
  5. ^ Parvéz Dewân Parvéz Dewân's Jammû, Kashmîr, and Ladâkh: Kashmîr – 2004 Page 175 "Manas means 'mountain' and 'bal' means 'lake' (or even 'place'). Thus, the ..."
  6. ^ J. Gordon Melton The Encyclopedia of Religious Phenomena 2007 "Ahmad specifically repudiated Notovich on Jesus' early travels to India, but claimed that Jesus did go there late in His life. The structure identified by Ahmad as Jesus' resting place is known locally as the Roza Bal (or Rauza Bal)."
  7. ^ Times of India Tomb Raider: Jesus buried in Srinagar? 8 May 2010 "One of the caretakers of the tomb, Mohammad Amin, alleged that they were forced to padlock the shrine ... He believed that the theory that Jesus is buried anywhere on the face of the earth is blasphemous to Islam."
  8. ^ map
  9. ^ J. Gordon Melton The Encyclopedia of Religious Phenomena – Page 337 – 2007 "It stands in front of a Muslim cemetery in the Kan Yar district of Srinagar, the capital of Kashmir. Inside is a wooden sepulcher surrounded by four recently installed glass walls. The sepulcher is empty, though, and the entombed personage ...."
  10. ^ Three Testaments: Torah, Gospel, and Quran edited by Brian Arthur Brown 2012, ISBN 1442214929 Rowman & Littlefield page 196
  11. ^ a b "Did Jesus die?". BBC. Retrieved 25 May 2009. 
  12. ^ W. Wakefield The Happy Valley: Sketches of Kashmir and Kashmiri 1996 – Page 61 "Sketches of Kashmir and Kashmiri W. Wakefield. 6. 1. Originally a Buddhist temple, like the country, later on it became Mohammedan, and was converted into a mosque; while the presence within it at the present day of this emblem of the worship of Siva, testifies that it has also been utilized by the followers of the Hindu religion."
  13. ^ Khwaja Muhammad 'Azam Didamari, Waqi'at-i-Kashmir being an Urdu translation of the Persian MSS Tarikh-i-Kashmir 'Azmi, translated by Khwaja Hamid Yazdani), Jammu and Kashmir "Islamic" Research Centre, Srinagar, 1998, p. 117.
  14. ^ Per Beskow in The Blackwell Companion to Jesus ed. Delbert Burkett 2011 "Only later did Ahmad's disciples invent the compromise that Jesus had been twice in India. Ahmad's primary source is a legend, known in the West as the tale of Barlaam and Josaphat. It was widely read all through the Middle Ages as an edifying... Yuzasaf as the principal character is named in Urdu, is helped on his way by the wise Bilhawar ... Ahmad divided Yuzasaf in two: Yuz Asaf. He declared that Yuz signified Jesus (who is not called by that name in any"
  15. ^ The March of India The Contemporary Society for Contemporary Studies Volume 7, No.1 1963 – Page 119 "Ibn Babuya of Qum incorporated an adaptation of it in his treatise, Kitabi Kamal al Din wa Itman ... Akbar al Furs wa'l Arab. The authors of Rasail Ikhwan al-Safa refers to Balauhar's conversation with Budasaf (given here in the form of Yuzasaf). Thus the legend of Sakya Muni Gautam, the Buddha, entered into the religious thought of Islam with results which have not yet been properly assessed by scholars. In the development of Muslim mysticism, India's contribution is unmistakable."
  16. ^ John Rippon in Journal of Ecclesiastical History Volume 18, Issue 02, October 1967, pp 247–248, online "In The Wisdom of Balahvar Professor Lang assembled the evidence for the Buddhist origins of the legends of the Christian saints Barlaam and Josephat. He suggested the importance of Arabic intermediaries, showing that confusion of diacritical markings turned Budhasaf (Bodhisattva, the Buddha-to-be) into Yudasaf, Iodasaph, Yuzasaf and Josaphat. By a curious roundabout journey this error reappears in once Buddhist Kashmir where the modern Ahmadiyya Muslims, well known for their Woking mosque, claim that a tomb of Yus Asaf was the tomb of Jesus who died in Kashmir, after having been taken down live from the cross; though though the Bombay Arabic edition of the book Balahvar makes its hero die in Kashmir, by confusion with Kushinara the traditional place of the Buddha's death."
  17. ^ Trilok Chandra Majupuria, Indra Majupuria Holy places of Buddhism in Nepal & India: a guide to sacred places-1987 Page 295 "(Kushinara-Pali) (Place of Parinirvana) The Pali name of this town where Buddha entered mahaparinir-vana is Kushinara, while the Sanskrit name for it is Kushinagara, Kushinagri, Kushigrama, Kushigramaka, etc."
  18. ^ Fida Hassnain, The Fifth Gospel, Dastgir Publications Srinagar, Kashmir, Printed by Leo Printers of Delhi, 1988 Pp. 222–223; confirmed by citation in Mark Bothe Die "Jesus-in-Indien-Legende" – Eine alternative Jesus-Erzählung? 2011 – Page 53.
  19. ^ Per Beskow in the The Blackwell Companion to Jesus Delbert Burkett 2011 ISBN 140519362X p463 "During the transmission of the legend, this name underwent several changes: to Budhasaf, Yudasaf, and finally Yuzasaf. In Greek, his name is Ioasaph; in Latin, Josaphat, the name of one of the kings of Israel. Ahmad divided Yuzasaf in two: Yuz Asaf ..."
  20. ^ Emmanuel Choisnel Les Parthes et la Route de la soie 2004 Page 202 "Le nom de Josaphat dérive, tout comme son associé Barlaam dans la légende, du mot Bodhisattva. Le terme Bodhisattva passa d'abord en pehlevi, puis en arabe, où il devint Budasaf. Étant donné qu'en arabe le "b" et le "y" ne different que ..."
  21. ^ Praveen Swami India, Pakistan and the Secret Jihad: The Covert War in Kashmir 2006 Page 70 "Then, on October 27, Cell members dug up the grave of a Saint interred at the Ziarat Rozabal, a shrine in downtown Srinagar."
  22. ^ George Sale Trans: "And we appointed the son of Mary, and his mother, for a sign: and we prepared an abode for them in an elevated part of the earth, being a place of quiet and security, and watered with running springs." [G Sale, page 261, the Quran 23:50][1]
  23. ^ The Quran 23:50, may apply to Kashmir. Book "Ijaz e Ahmadi (Zameema Nazool ul Mahih)", (p.23) (RK Vol 19, page 127 [2]
  24. ^ The Quran 23:50, may apply to Kashmir. Book 'Kashti e Noah' [the Ark of Noah], page 19, (footnote) and page 77 (footnote), Published 5 October 1902. [Ruhani Khazain, Volume 19, p.33]. [3]
  25. ^ A narration from the Holy Prophet Muhammad, as recorded in Kanz ul Ummal of Ali Muttaqi, 3/158 , Hadith No. 5955, which says: "Allah revealed this to Jesus; O Jesus keep moving from one place to another lest they know you and tease you." is also referred to in support of this interpretation of Quran 23:50.
  26. ^ J. Gordon Melton The Encyclopedia of Religious Phenomena 2007 p377 "His tomb has been traced and found in Khanyar Street, Srinagar. This tradition, though attributed to ... Ahmad specifically repudiated Notovich on Jesus' early travels to India, but claimed that Jesus did go there late in His life. The structure identified by Ahmad as Jesus' resting place is known locally as the Roza Bal (or Rauza Bal)."
  27. ^ a b The publisher's note (page v) at the beginning of the book states: "Written in 1899, and partly serialized in Review of Religions in 1902 and 1903, the book itself was posthumously published on 20th November 1908." Jesus in India by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (1 July 2003) ISBN 1853727237
  28. ^ Merriam Webster's Collegiate Encyclopedia by Mark A. Stevens (Jan 2001) ISBN 0877790175 page 26
  29. ^ a b c Focus on Jesus by Gerald O'Collins and Daniel Kendall (1 September 1998) ISBN 0852443609 Mercer Univ Press pages 169–171
  30. ^ Per Beskow "Mystifications: Jesus in Kasmir" pages 458–475 of The Blackwell Companion to Jesus ed. Delbert Burkett 2011 ISBN 140519362X "Ahmad divided Yuzasaf in two: Yuz Asaf. He declared that Yuz signified Jesus (who is not called by that name in any language) and that Asaf was the Hebrew verb for “gather.” Yuz Asaf would then be “Jesus the Gatherer."
  31. ^ Mark Bothe Die "Jesus-in-Indien-Legende" – Eine alternative Jesus-Erzählung? -2011 Page 19 "Der wahrscheinlich erste Autor, der diesen Schritt vollzieht, ist Al-Haj Khwaja Nazir Ahmad, Mitglied der AhmadiyyaBewegung, der sein Buch „Jesus in Heaven on Earth“ 1952 als programmatische Untermauerung von Ghulam Ahmads Thesen verfasst."
  32. ^ Delbert Burkett The Blackwell Companion to Jesus 2011 "This very addition is the origin of the legend of Yuz Asaf's arrival in Srinagar and of his tomb in Mohalla Khaniyar. Ahmad referred to a Persian inscription on a Hindu temple near the city, which had already then been obliterated, but where Yuz Asaf was said to have been ..."
  33. ^ Jesus' Tomb in India: The Debate on His Death and Resurrection by Paul C. Pappas 1991 ISBN 0895819465 ; page 77: "Because of the absence of any western records of Jesus' travels from Nisibis and on, the Ahmadis rely on the Acts of Thomas and Muslim sources written primarily since the fifteenth century in their endeavor to trace Jesus' journey to the East"
  34. ^ Religions of the World: A Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Beliefs and Practices Second Edition, ISBN 978-1-59884-203-6 ABC-CLIO page 55
  35. ^ Islam and the Ahmadiyya Jama'at: History, Belief, Practice by Simon Ross Valentine (14 October 2008) Columbia University Press ISBN 0231700946 page 28
  36. ^ Jesus' Tomb in India: The Debate on His Death and Resurrection by Paul C. Pappas 1991 ISBN 0895819465 ; page 155: "Al-Haj Nazir Ahmad's work Jesus in Heaven on Earth, which constitutes the Ahmadi's best historical defense of Jesus' presence in Kashmir as Yuz Asaf, appears to be full of flaws, especially concerning Gondophares' reign", page 100: "The Ahmadi thesis can rest only on eastern legends recorded in oriental works, which for the most part are not reliable, not only because they were written long after the facts, but also because their stories of Yuz Asaf are different and in contradiction", page 115: "It is almost impossible to identify Yuz Asaf with Jesus"
  37. ^ Jesus in India by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (1 July 2003) ISBN 1853727237 pages iv–v
  38. ^ Ehrman, Bart D. (February 2011). "8. Forgeries, Lies, Deceptions, and the Writings of the New Testament. Modern Forgeries, Lies, and Deceptions" (EPUB). Forged: Writing in the Name of God—Why the Bible’s Authors Are Not Who We Think They Are. (First Edition. EPub Edition. ed.). New York: HarperCollins e-books. pp. 282–283. ISBN 978-0-06-207863-6. Retrieved 8 September 2011. 
  39. ^ Indology, Indomania, and Orientalism by Douglas T. McGetchin (1 January 2010) Fairleigh Dickinson University Press ISBN 083864208X page 133 "Faced with this cross-examination, Notovich confessed to fabricating his evidence."
  40. ^ All the People in the Bible by Richard R. Losch (1 May 2008) Eerdsmans Press ISBN 0802824544 page 209
  41. ^ Van Voorst, Robert E (2000). Jesus Outside the New Testament: An Introduction to the Ancient Evidence. Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN 0-8028-4368-9 page 17
  42. ^ J. Gordon Melton The Encyclopedia of Religious Phenomena 2007 Page 337 "The theses articulated by Notovich and Ahmad have generated a variety of writings through the twentieth century, including one relatively famous text, the Aquarian Gospel of Jesus Christ, by Levi Dowling. The idea of the Srinagar site being the grave ofJesus has been severely hindered by antagonism toward the Ahmadiyya movement by mainstream Islam, which has declared the movement heretical. Its most recent exponent is German Holger Kersten......"
  43. ^ Balraj Puri, 5000 years of Kashmir Institute of Jammu and Kashmir Affairs – 1997 – Page 100- "He identified his grave at a village called Boot. He also holds that Jesus Christ, too, came to Kashmir and is buried at Rozabal at Khanyar in Srinagar (Kashmir). It has been authoritatively said by many that Buddha also came to Kashmir to .."
  44. ^ Al-Shikh-us-Sadiq Abi Ja-far Muhammed Ibn 'Ali ibn Husain – Kamal-ud-Din vas TmamunNi'mat fi Ashat-ul-Ghaibat was Kaf-ul-Hairet. in Persian Sayyid-us-Sanad Press. 1882
  45. ^ Per Beskow in The Blackwell Companion to Jesus Delbert Burkett – 2011 "Its main propagandist in the West was Andreas Faber-Kaiser with his book Jesus Died in Kashmir (1978), where he ... This claim, however,was severely refuted by the famous orientalist Max Müller (1894), who had himself visited Himis and had ..."
  46. ^ Mahdi Muntazir Qa'im Jesus: Through the Qur'an and Shi'ite Narrations 2007 – Page 19 "Bihar al-Anwar is a collection of hadiths in Arabic written by Mawla Muhammad Baqir ibn Muhammad Taqi, known as Majlisi the Second, or simply 'Allamah Majlisi (A.H. 1037–1110). He is one of the most prolific Shi'i writers, and "
  47. ^ Khwaja Nazir Ahmad Jesus in Heaven on Earth (1952) page 393 (11 of pdf) "Photograph of a folio from Tarikh-i-Kashmir (See page 401)"
  48. ^ Mir Saadullah Shahabadi Kashmiri Bagh-i-Sulaiman "Virtuous Sayyid Naseeruddin: The assembly of believers owes its existence to him. His tomb exists in Khanyar in Anzimar. This tomb is significant because of the illuminated grave of a Prophet. All those who visit this sacred place receive aroma of perfumes! It has been narrated that a prince came, abandoned materialistic life, and adopted the path of piety and righteousness. God liked his obedience to Him [and] raised him to the status of an Apostle. He guided the people towards the Truth [and was] a mercy to the Valley (of Kashmir). It is due to this reason that his tomb is famous all over the country."
  49. ^ Arifkhan.co.uk "Historical Sources" New Ahmadi website redirecting from tombofjesus.com in earlier article references
  50. ^ Jesus' Tomb in India: The Debate on His Death and Resurrection by Paul C. Pappas 1991 ISBN 0895819465 ; page 116 presents a detailed analysis and a table of the possible date assignments to Khwaja Nazir Ahmad's story and concludes that none of them can be consistent with the general historical records. Page 116 of Pappas states: ".. as indicated previously, the Kalyugi era is rejected by Ahmad in favor of the Laukika (Haptrakesh-waran) era only because Mullah Ahmad, the fifteenth-century historian of the court of Sultan Zain-ul-Abidin, maintained that this era was used in Kashmir until the conversion of Ratanju (Sultan Sadr-ud-Din) to Islam in 1324 A.D."
  51. ^ Jesus Lived in India: His Unknown Life Before and After the Crucifixion by Holger Kersten 1981 ISBN 0143028294 Penguin India
  52. ^ Gregorianum Page 258 Pontificia università gregoriana (Rome) "The whole story of how this legend was simply created (without a shred of evidence in its support), spread widely among a gullible public and still finds such latter-day exponents as Holger Kersten is splendidly told by Günt[h]er Grönbold."
  53. ^ New Testament Apocrypha, Vol. 1: Gospels and Related Writings by Wilhelm Schneemelcher and R. Mcl. Wilson (1 December 1990) ISBN 066422721X page 84. Schneemelcher states that Kersten's work is based on "fantasy, untruth and ignorance (above all in the linguistic area)"
  54. ^ The Site Map of the Grave attested by a Jewish Scholar Suleman Yousaf Ishaq on 12 June 1899 . Mirza Ghulam Ahmad , Kashti Noah, page 78, in Hebrew. [4]
  55. ^ Review of Religions Ahmadiyya Community Srinagar 1983 Volume 78 – Page 32 "As one reads the legends of Yuz Asaf gathered by the Ahmadiyya from sources as far apart as Iran and Sri Lanka – the conviction ... While the stone cover of the tomb is of Muslim date, underneath is a more ancient burial aligned east-west."
  56. ^ Trevor Drieberg -Jammu and Kashmir: a tourist guide – 1978 Page 99 "To the people of Rozabal, this is the tomb of Yuz Asaf, the name under which Christ is said to have lived in Kashmir. ... on the mountain pointing east-west like Jewish graves is called the shrine of the Prophet of the Book by inhabitants of the "
  57. ^ Kammaaluddin wa Tamaamum Ni'ma English translation
  58. ^ The India magazine of her people and culture Volume 3 1982 – Page 57 "there an old tomb, blackened by time, which bears the signs of a recent It. The tomb, as all Jewish tombs t, is oriented East-West. ... Yuz Asaf – the oriental historian says – preached to the people in parables and on page 327 p the Kamal-ud-Din, a parable »hich"
  59. ^ Ibn Babuwayah Bombay Arabic edition, Kamal-ud-Din English translation section Kamaaluddin wa Tamaamun Ni’ma p275
  60. ^ Dean R. Eyerly Between Heaven & Hell: The Historical Jesus 2010 Page 106 "In 2004, the BBC aired a special called Did Jesus Die? In this documentary, biblical scholars and scientists concluded “that is certainly a possibility.” "
  61. ^ a b Miller, Sam (27 March 2010). "Tourists flock to 'Jesus's tomb' in Kashmir". BBC. Retrieved 27 November 2010. 
  62. ^ The Rozabal Shrine of Srinagar, Watch Documentary Films

Coordinates: 34°05′39″N 74°48′59″E / 34.09417°N 74.81639°E / 34.09417; 74.81639