Western Ghats

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Western Ghats
Western Ghats Gobi.jpg
Western Ghats as seen from Gobichettipalayam, Tamil Nadu
Highest point
Peak Anamudi (Eravikulam National Park)
Elevation 2,695 m (8,842 ft)
Coordinates 10°10′N 77°04′E / 10.167°N 77.067°E / 10.167; 77.067Coordinates: 10°10′N 77°04′E / 10.167°N 77.067°E / 10.167; 77.067
Dimensions
Width 100 km (62 mi) E–W
Area 160,000 km2 (62,000 sq mi)
Geography
Indiahills.png
The Western Ghats lie roughly parallel
to the west coast of India
Country India
States
Settlements
Biome Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests
Geology
Period Cenozoic
Type of rock Basalt and Laterite
Official name: Natural Properties - Western Ghats (India)
Type: Natural
Criteria: ix, x
Designated: 2012 (36th session)
Reference No. 1342
State Party: India
Region: Indian subcontinent

The Western Ghats are a mountain range that runs almost parallel to the western coast of Indian peninsula. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and is one of the eight "hottest hotspots" of biological diversity in the world.[1][2] It is sometimes called the Great Escarpment of India.[3] The range runs north to south along the western edge of the Deccan Plateau, and separates the plateau from a narrow coastal plain, called Konkan, along the Arabian Sea. A total of thirty nine properties including national parks, wildlife sanctuaries and reserve forests were designated as world heritage sites - twenty in Kerala, ten in Karnataka, five in Tamil Nadu and four in Maharashtra.[4][5]

The range starts near the border of Gujarat and Maharashtra, south of the Tapti river, and runs approximately 1,600 km (990 mi) through the states of Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala ending at Kanyakumari, at the southern tip of India. These hills cover 160,000 km2 (62,000 sq mi) and form the catchment area for complex riverine drainage systems that drain almost 40% of India. The Western Ghats block rainfall to the Deccan Plateau.[6] The average elevation is around 1,200 m (3,900 ft).[7]

The area is one of the world's ten "Hottest biodiversity hotspots" and has over 5000 species of flowering plants, 139 mammal species, 508 bird species, 179 amphibian species and 288 freshwater fish species; it is likely that many undiscovered species live in the Western Ghats. At least 325 globally threatened species occur in the Western Ghats.[8][9]

Geology[edit]

The Western Ghats are not true mountains, but are the faulted edge of the Deccan Plateau. They are believed to have been formed during the break-up of the super continent of Gondwana some 150 million years ago. Geophysicists Barron and Harrison from the University of Miami advocate the theory that the west coast of India came into being somewhere around 100 to 80 mya after it broke away from Madagascar. After the break-up, the western coast of India would have appeared as an abrupt cliff some 1,000 m (3,300 ft) in elevation.[10]

Basalt is the predominant rock found in the hills reaching a depth of 3 km (2 mi). Other rock types found are charnockites, granite gneiss, khondalites, leptynites, metamorphic gneisses with detached occurrences of crystalline limestone, iron ore, dolerites and anorthosites. Residual laterite and bauxite ores are also found in the southern hills.

Mountains[edit]

A view of Anamudi, the highest peak of western Ghats 2,695 metres (8,842 ft) from Eravikulam National Park, Kerala.
Hill ranges

The Western Ghats extend from the Satpura Range in the north, go south past Maharashtra, Goa, through Karnataka and into Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Major gaps in the range are the Goa Gap, between the Maharashtra and Karnataka sections, and the Palghat Gap on the Tamil Nadu and Kerala border between the Nilgiri Hills and the Anaimalai Hills.

Sahyadhris

The major hill range starting from the north is the Sahyadhri (the benevolent mountains) range. This range is home to many hill stations like Matheran, Lonavala-Khandala, Mahabaleshwar, Panchgani, Amboli Ghat, Kudremukh and Kodagu. The range is called Sahyadri in Maharashtra, Karnataka and Sahya Parvatam in Kerala.

Nilgiris

The Nilgiri Hills,also known as the Nilagiri malai, are in northwestern Tamil Nadu. The Nilgiri Hills are home to the hill station Ooty. The Bili giri rangana Betta southeast of Mysore in Karnataka, meet the Shevaroys (Servarayan range) and Tirumala range farther east, linking the Western Ghats to the Eastern Ghats. In the South, the range is or Nilgiris in Tamil Nadu.

Anaimalai Hills

South of the Palghat Gap are the Anaimalai Hills, in western Tamil Nadu and Kerala. Smaller ranges are further south, including the Cardamom Hills.

In the southern part of the range is Anamudi peak 2,695 metres (8,842 ft) in Kerala the highest peak in Western Ghats. Chembra Peak 2,100 metres (6,890 ft), Banasura Peak 2,073 metres (6,801 ft), Vellarimala 2,200 metres (7,218 ft) and Agasthya mala 1,868 metres (6,129 ft) are also in Kerala. Doddabetta in the Nilgiri Hills is 2,637 metres (8,652 ft). Mullayanagiri is the highest peak in Karnataka 1,950 metres (6,398 ft). The Western Ghats in Kerala and Tamil Nadu is home to many tea and coffee plantations.

Shola Grasslands and forests in the Kudremukh National Park, Western Ghats, Karnataka.
Poomparai village in the foothills of Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu.

The northern portion of the narrow coastal plain between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea is known as the Konkan Coast or simply Konkan, the central portion is called Kanara and the southern portion is called Malabar region or the Malabar Coast. The foothill region east of the Ghats in Maharashtra is known as Desh, while the eastern foothills of the central Karnataka state is known as Malenadu.[11] The largest city within the mountains is the city of Pune (Poona), in the Desh region on the eastern edge of the range. The Biligirirangan Hills lies at the confluence of the Western and Eastern Ghats.

The mountains intercept the rain-bearing westerly monsoon winds, and are consequently an area of high rainfall, particularly on their western side. The dense forests also contribute to the precipitation of the area by acting as a substrate for condensation of moist rising orographic winds from the sea, and releasing much of the moisture back into the air via transpiration, allowing it to later condense and fall again as rain.

Peaks[edit]

Following is a list of some of the highest peaks of the Western Ghats:

Rank Name Elevation (m) Location
01. Anamudi 2695 Eravikulam National Park, Kerala
02. Meesapulimala 2640 Eravikulam National Park, Kerala
03. Doddabetta 2637 Nilgiris, Tamil Nadu
04. Kolaribetta 2629 Mukurthi National Park, Tamil Nadu
05. Mukurthi 2554 Mukurthi National Park, Tamil Nadu
06. Vandaravu Peak 2553 Palani Hills Wildlife Sanctuary and National Park, Tamil Nadu
07. Kattumalai 2552 [12] Eravikulam National Park, Kerala
08. Anginda peak 2383 Silent Valley National Park, Kerala
09. Vavul Mala 2339 [13] Vellarimala, Kerala
10. Kodaikanal 2133 Kodaikanal, Tamil Nadu
11. Chembra Peak 2100 Wayanad, Kerala
12. Elivai Malai 2088 [14] Palakkad, Kerala
13. Banasura Peak 2073 Wayanad, Kerala
14. Kottamalai 2019 Periyar National Park, Kerala
15. Mullayanagiri 1930 Chikmagalur, Karnataka
16. Baba Budangiri 1895 Chikmagalur, Karnataka
17. Kudremukh 1894 Chikmagalur, Karnataka
18. Agasthyamalai 1868 Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala
19. Biligiriranga Hills 1800 Chamarajanagar, Karnataka
20. Velliangiri Mountains 1778[15] Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu
21. Tadiandamol 1748 Kodagu, Karnataka
22. Kumara Parvata 1712 Dakshina Kannada, Karnataka
23. Pushpagiri 1712 Pushpagiri Wildlife Sanctuary, Karnataka
24. Kalsubai 1648 Ahmednagar, Maharashtra
25. Brahmagiri 1608 Kodagu, Karnataka
26. Salher 1567 Nashik, Maharashtra
27. Madikeri 1525 Kodagu, Karnataka
28. Himavad Gopalaswamy Betta 1450 Chamarajanagar, Karnataka
29. Torna Fort 1405 Pune, Maharashtra
30. Purandar fort 1387 Pune, Maharashtra
31. Raigad fort 1346 Raigad, Maharashtra
32. Kodachadri 1343 Shimoga, Karnataka.
33. Paital Mala 1343 Kudiyanmala, Kerala
34. Kote Betta 1620 Coorg, Karnataka

Lakes and reservoirs[edit]

View from Varandha Pass showing the numerous waterfalls
As seen from Silent Valley National Park, Palghat

The Western Ghats have several manmade lakes and reservoirs. The well known lakes are the Ooty (2500 m altitude, 34.0 ha) in Nilgiris, and the Kodaikanal (2285 m, 26 ha) and the Berijam in the Palani Hills. The Pookode lake of Wayanad in Kerala at Lakkadi is a beautiful scenic one with boating and garden arrangements. Most of the bigger lakes are situated in the state of Tamil Nadu. Two smaller lakes, the Devikulam (6.0 ha) and the Letchmi Elephant (2.0 ha) are in the Munnar range.

The majority of streams draining the Western Ghats and joining the Rivers Krishna and Kaveri carry water during monsoon months only and have been dammed for hydroelectric and irrigation purposes. The major reservoirs are: Lonavala and Walwahn in Maharashtra; V.V. Sagar, K.R. Sagar and Tungabhadra in the Malenadu area of Karnataka; Mettur Dam, Upper Bhavani, Mukurthi, Parson's Valley, Porthumund, Avalanche, Emerald, Pykara, Sandynulla, Karaiyar, Servalar, Kodaiyar, Manimuthar Dam and Glenmorgan in Tamil Nadu; and Kundallay and Maddupatty in the High Range of Kerala. Of these the Lonavla, Walwahn, Upper Bhavani, Mukurthi, Parson's Valley, Porthumund, Avalanche, Emerald, Pykara, Sandynulla, Glenmorgan, Kundally and Madupatty are important for their commercial and sport fisheries for rainbow trout (introduced), mahseer (native) and common carp (introduced).[16]

Rivers[edit]

Western Ghats in Maharashtra, during the Monsoon

The Western Ghats form one of the four watersheds of India, feeding the perennial rivers of India. Important rivers include the Godavari, Krishna and Kaveri. These rivers flow to the east and drain out into the Bay of Bengal. The west flowing rivers, that drain into the Arabian Sea and the Laccadive Sea, are fast-moving, owing to the short distance travelled and steeper gradient. Important rivers include the Periyar, Bharathappuzha, Netravati, Sharavathi, Mandovi and Zuari. Many of these rivers feed the backwaters of Kerala and Maharashtra. Rivers that flow eastwards of the Ghats drain into the Bay of Bengal. These are comparatively slower moving and eventually merge into larger rivers such as the Kaveri and Krishna. The larger tributaries include the Tunga River, Bhadra river, Bhima River, Malaprabha River, Ghataprabha River, Hemavathi river, Kabini River. In addition there are several smaller rivers such as the Chittar River, Manimuthar River, Kallayi River, Kundali River and the Pachaiyar River.

Nilgiris a part of Western Ghats From Masinangudi

Fast running rivers and steep slopes have provided sites for many large hydro-electric projects. There are about 50 major dams along the length of the Western Ghats with the earliest project up in 1900 near Khopoli in Maharashtra.[17] Most notable of these projects are the Koyna Hydroelectric Project in Maharashtra, the Parambikulam Dam in Kerala, and the Linganmakki Dam in Karnataka.[11] The reservoir behind the Koyna Dam, the Shivajisagar Lake, has a length of 50 km (31 mi) and depth of 80 m (262 ft).[18] It is the largest hydroelectric project in Maharashtra, generating 1,920 MW of electric power.[19] Another major Hydro Electric project is Idukki dam in Kerala. This dam is one of the biggest in Asia and generates around 70% of power for Kerala state. Mullaperiyar dam near Thekkady is one of the oldest in the world and a major tourist attractions in Kerala. Water from this dam is drawn to the vast coastal plain of Tamil Nadu, forming a delta and making it rich in vegetation.

The Jog Falls in Karnataka, one of the most spectacular waterfalls in India
Sakaleshpur-Hassan highway in Karnataka runs through the Western Ghats

During the monsoon season, numerous streams fed by incessant rain drain off the mountain sides leading to numerous and often spectacular waterfalls. Among the most well known is the Jog Falls, Kunchikal Falls, Dudhsagar Falls, Sivasamudram Falls, and Unchalli Falls. The Jog Falls is the highest natural plunge waterfall in South Asia and is listed among the 1001 natural wonders of the world.[20] Talakaveri wildlife sanctuary is a critical watershed and the source of the river Kaveri. This region has dense evergreen and semi-evergreen vegetation, with shola-grassland in areas of higher elevation. The steep terrain of the area has resulted in scenic waterfalls along its many mountain streams. Sharavathi and Someshvara Wildlife sanctuaries in Shimoga district are the source of the Tungabhadra River system. The Netravathi river has also its origin at western ghats of India flowing westwards to join Arabian sea at Mangalore.

Climate[edit]

Annual rainfall along the Western Ghat region.

Climate in the Western Ghats varies with altitudinal gradation and distance from the equator. The climate is humid and tropical in the lower reaches tempered by the proximity to the sea. Elevations of 1,500 m (4,921 ft) and above in the north and 2,000 m (6,562 ft) and above in the south have a more temperate climate. Average annual temperature here are around 15 °C (60 °F). In some parts frost is common, and temperatures touch the freezing point during the winter months. Mean temperature range from 20 °C (68 °F) in the south to 24 °C (75 °F) in the north. It has also been observed that the coldest periods in the south western ghats coincide with the wettest.[21]

During the monsoon season between June and September, the unbroken Western Ghats chain acts as a barrier to the moisture laden clouds. The heavy, eastward-moving rain-bearing clouds are forced to rise and in the process deposit most of their rain on the windward side. Rainfall in this region averages 3,000–4,000 mm (120–160 in) with localised extremes touching 9,000 mm (350 in). The eastern region of the Western Ghats which lie in the rain shadow, receive far less rainfall averaging about 1,000 mm (40 in) bringing the average rainfall figure to 2,500 mm (150 in). Data from rainfall figures reveal that there is no relationship between the total amount of rain received and the spread of the area. Some areas to the north in Maharashtra while receiving heavier rainfall are followed by long dry spells, while regions closer to the equator receiving less annual rainfall, have rain spells lasting almost the entire year.[21]

Ecoregions[edit]

Nilgiri Hills (Tectona grandis) and Wattle
Western Ghats near Rajapalayam, Tamil Nadu
Western Ghats near Mangalore, Karanataka

The Western Ghats are home to four tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forest ecoregions – the North Western Ghats moist deciduous forests, North Western Ghats montane rain forests, South Western Ghats moist deciduous forests, and South Western Ghats montane rain forests.

The northern portion of the range is generally drier than the southern portion, and at lower elevations makes up the North Western Ghats moist deciduous forests ecoregion, with mostly deciduous forests made up predominantly of teak. Above 1,000 meters elevation are the cooler and wetter North Western Ghats montane rain forests, whose evergreen forests are characterised by trees of family Lauraceae.

The evergreen Wayanad forests of Kerala mark the transition zone between the northern and southern ecologic regions of the Western Ghats. The southern ecologic regions are generally wetter and more species-rich. At lower elevations are the South Western Ghats moist deciduous forests, with Cullenia the characteristic tree genus, accompanied by teak, dipterocarps, and other trees. The moist forests transition to the drier South Deccan Plateau dry deciduous forests, which lie in its rain shadow to the east.

Above 1,000 meters are the South Western Ghats montane rain forests, also cooler and wetter than the surrounding lowland forests, and dominated by evergreen trees, although some montane grasslands and stunted forests can be found at the highest elevations. The South Western Ghats montane rain forests are the most species-rich ecologic region in peninsular India; eighty percent of the flowering plant species of the entire Western Ghats range are found in this ecologic region.

Biodiversity protection[edit]

A view of Ponmudi Hills in Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala
Western Ghats near Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu

Historically the Western Ghats were well-covered in dense forests that provided wild foods and natural habitats for native tribal people. Its inaccessibility made it difficult for people from the plains to cultivate the land and build settlements. After the arrival of the British in the area, large swathes of territory were cleared for agricultural plantations and timber. The forest in the Western Ghats has been severely fragmented due to human activities, especially clear felling for tea, coffee, and teak plantations during 1860 to 1950. Species that are rare, endemic and habitat specialists are more adversely affected and tend to be lost faster than other species. Complex and species rich habitats like the tropical rainforest are much more adversely affected than other habitats. [22]

The area is ecologically sensitive to development and was declared an ecological hotspot in 1988 through the efforts of ecologist Norman Myers. Though this area covers barely five percent of India's land, 27% of all species of higher plants in India (4,000 of 15,000 species) are found here. Almost 1,800 of these are endemic to the region. The range is home to at least 84 amphibian species, 16 bird species, seven mammals, and 1,600 flowering plants which are not found elsewhere in the world.

The Government of India established many protected areas including 2 biosphere reserves, 13 National parks to restrict human access, several wildlife sanctuaries to protect specific endangered species and many Reserve Forests, which are all managed by the forest departments of their respective state to preserve some of the ecoregions still undeveloped. Many National Parks were initially Wildlife Sanctuaries. The Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve comprising 5500 km² of the evergreen forests of Nagarahole, deciduous forests of Bandipur National Park and Nugu in Karnataka and adjoining regions of Wayanad, Mudumalai National Park and Mukurthi National Park in the states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu forms the largest contiguous protected area in the Western Ghats.[23] The Western Ghats is home to numerous serene hill stations like Munnar, Ponmudi and Waynad. The Silent Valley National Park in Kerala is among the last tracts of virgin tropical evergreen forest in India.[24]

Regarding the Western Ghats, in November 2009, Minister of Environment and Forests, Jairam Ramesh said,

"The Western Ghats has to be made an "ecologically sensitive zone". It is as important as the ecological system of the Himalayas for protection of the environment and climate of the country. The Central government will not give sanction for mining and hydroelectric projects proposed by the State Governments of Maharashtra, Karnataka and Goa that will destroy the Western Ghats eco-system.’’[25]

In a letter dated 20 June 2009, Mr. Ramesh said,

“The (proposed) 200-MW Gundia hydel project of Karnataka Power Corporation in Hassan district would drown almost 1,900 acres (7.7 km2) of thick forest in the already endangered Western Ghats along with all its fauna. This is something that both Karnataka and our country can ill-afford." "Power generation should not happen at the cost of ecological security."

The Expert Appraisal Committee appointed by Union Government also said that the project should not be taken up.[26]

In August 2011, the Western Ghats Ecology Expert Panel (WGEEP) designated the entire Western Ghats as an Ecologically Sensitive Area (ESA) and, assigned three levels of Ecological Sensitivity to its different regions.[27]

Tea plantations in Munnar, Kerala
View of the Western Ghats at Kanyakumari,Tamil Nadu
Western ghats at Kodachadri

UNESCO World Heritage Site[edit]

In 2006, India applied to the UNESCO MAB for the Western Ghats to be listed as a protected World Heritage Site.[28] In 2012 following 39 places are declared as World Heritage Sites:[29][30]

Fauna[edit]

The Western Ghats are home to thousands of animal species including at least 325 globally threatened species. Many are endemic species, especially in the amphibian, reptilian and fish classes. Thirty two threatened species of mammals live in the Western Ghats. Of the 16 endemic mammals, 13 are threatened.[31]

These hill ranges serve as important wildlife corridors, allowing seasonal migration of endangered Asian elephants. The Nilgiri Bio-sphere is home to the largest population of Asian Elephants and forms an important Project Elephant and Project Tiger reserve. Brahmagiri and Pushpagiri wildlife sanctuaries are important elephant habitats. Karnataka's Ghat areas hold over six thousand elephants (as of 2004) and ten percent of India's critically endangered tiger population.[34]
The largest population of India's tigers outside the Sundarbans is in the unbroken forests bordering Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala. The largest numbers and herds of vulnerable gaur are found here with the Bandipur National Park and Nagarhole together holding over five thousand Gaur.[35] To the west the forests of Kodagu hold sizeable populations of the endangered Nilgiri langur.
Bhadra Wildlife Sanctuary and project tiger reserve in Lakkavalli of Chikmagalur has large populations of Indian muntjac. Many Asian elephant, gaur, sambar, vulnerable sloth bears, leopard, tiger and wild boars dwell in the forests of Karnataka.
Bannerghatta National Park and Annekal reserve forest is an important elephant corridor connecting the forests of Tamil Nadu with those of Karnataka. Dandeli and Anshi national parks in Uttara Kannada district are home to the normal variety of leopards and significant populations of Great Indian Hornbill. Bhimgad in Belgaum district is a proposed wildlife sanctuary and is home to the endemic critically endangered Wroughton's freetailed bat. the Krishnapur caves close by are one of only three places in the country where the little-known Theobald's tomb bat is found. Large Lesser False Vampire bats are found in the Talevadi caves.[36]
  • Reptiles – The snake family Uropeltidae of the reptile class is almost entirely restricted to this region.
  • Amphibians – The amphibians of the Western Ghats are diverse and unique, with more than 80% of the 179 amphibian species being endemic to the region. Most of the endemic species have their distribution in the rainforests of these mountains.[37] The endangered purple frog was discovered in 2003 to be a living fossil. This species of frog is most closely related to species found in the Seychelles. Four new species of frogs belonging to the genera Rhacophorus, Polypedates, Philautus and Bufo were described from the Western Ghats in 2005.[38] The region is also home to many caecilian species.
Denison's barb is threatened from habitat loss and overcollection for the aquarium trade, but is now bred in large quantities in captivity
There is a higher fish richness in the southern part of the Western Ghats than in the northern,[42] and the highest is in the Chalakudy River, which alone holds 98 species.[43] Other rivers with high species numbers include the Periyar, Bharatapuzha, Pamba and Chaliyar, as well as upstream tributaries of the Cauvery, Pambar, Bhavani and Krishna rivers.[42] The most species rich families are the Cyprinids (72 species), hillstream loaches (34 species; including stone loaches, now regarded a separate family), Bagrid catfishes (19 species) and Sisorid catfishes (12 species).[9][42][43] The region is home to several brilliantly coloured ornamental fishes like Denison's (or red line torpedo) barb,[44] several species of Dawkinsia barbs, zebra loach, Horabagrus catfish, dwarf pufferfish and dwarf Malabar pufferfish.[45] The rivers are also home to Osteobrama bakeri, and larger species such as the Malabar snakehead and Malabar mahseer.[46][47]
According to the IUCN, 97 freshwater fish species from the Western Ghats were considered threatened in 2011, including 12 critically endangered, 54 endangered and 31 vulnerable.[42] All but one (Tor khudree) of these are endemic to the Western Ghats. An additional 26 species from the region are considered data deficient (their status is unclear at present). The primary threats are from habitat loss, but also from overexploitation and introduced species.[42]
  • Birds – There are at least 508 bird species. Most of Karnataka's five hundred species of birds[48] are from the Western Ghats region.[49] Bhadra Wildlife Sanctuary is located at the northern end of the Malabar ranges and the southern tip of the Sahyadri ranges and bird species from both ranges can be seen here.
There are at least 16 species of birds endemic to the Western Ghats including the endangered Rufous-breasted Laughingthrush, the vulnerable Nilgiri Wood-pigeon, White-bellied Shortwing and Broad-tailed Grassbird, the near threatened Grey-breasted Laughingthrush, Black-and-rufous Flycatcher, Nilgiri Flycatcher, and Nilgiri Pipit, and the least concern Malabar (Blue-winged) Parakeet, Malabar Grey Hornbill, White-bellied Treepie, Grey-headed Bulbul, Rufous Babbler, Wynaad Laughingthrush, White-bellied Blue-flycatcher and the Crimson-backed Sunbird.[50]
The Western Ghats is home to 174 species of odonates (107 dragonflies and 67 damselflies), including 69 endemics.[42] Most of the endemic odonate are closely associated with rivers and streams, while the non-endemics typically are generalists.[42]
  • Molluscs – Seasonal rainfall patterns of the Western Ghats necessitate a period of dormancy for its land snails, resulting in their high abundance and diversity including at least 258 species of gastropods from 57 genera and 24 families.[53]
A total of 77 species of freshwater molluscs (52 gastropods and 25 bivalves) have been recorded from the Western Ghats, but the actual number is likely higher.[42] This include 28 endemics. Among the threatened freshwater molluscs are the mussels Pseudomulleria dalyi, which is a Gondwanan relict, and the snail Cremnoconchus, which is restricted to the spray zone of waterfalls.[42] According to the IUCN, 4 species of freshwater molluscs are considered endangered and 3 are vulnerable. An additional 19 species are considered data deficients (their status is unclear at present).[42]

Flora[edit]

The damp forested slopes are the original location of Piper nigrum, the black pepper of history and commerce.

Western Ghats Ecology Expert Panel[edit]

The Western Ghats Ecology Expert Panel, headed by ecologist Madhav Gadgil, was a committee appointed by the Union Ministry of Environment and Forests to assess the biodiversity and environmental issues of the Western Ghats spread across six states-Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Goa, Maharashtra and Gujarat. The panel which was set up on March 14, 2010, submitted its report to the government on August 31, 2011.[54] Gadgil Committee and its successor Kasturirangan Committee recommended suggestions to protect the Western Ghats. However, both of them ran into controversy and were not implemented. Gadgil report was criticised for being too environment-friendly and not in tune with the ground realities. The Kasturirangan Committee tried to balance development and environment, but was labelled as being anti-environmental.[55][56][57] An unbiased comparison between the two reports is never given by the media. Media reporting regarding this issue is politically motivated. An independent blogger has made an attempt to publish such an unbiased comparison: Protecting the Western Ghats: Gadgil vs. Kasturiranjan Committee Reports.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities". Nature. Retrieved 16 Nov 2013. 
  2. ^ "UN designates Western Ghats as world heritage site". Times of India. Retrieved 2 July 2012. 
  3. ^ Migon, Piotr (2010-05-21). Geomorphological Landscapes of the World. Springer. p. 257. ISBN 978-90-481-3054-2. Retrieved 2012-12-01. 
  4. ^ "Western Ghats". Whc.unesco.org. Retrieved 2013-01-03. 
  5. ^ Clara Lewis, TNN Jul 3, 2012, 04.02AM IST (2012-07-03). "39 sites in Western Ghats get world heritage status". The Times of India. Retrieved 2013-02-21. 
  6. ^ V.S. Vijayan. "Research needs for the Western Ghats". Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment (ATREE). Retrieved 21 June 2007. 
  7. ^ "The Peninsula". Asia-Pacific Mountain Network. Archived from the original on 12 August 2007. Retrieved 19 March 2007. 
  8. ^ Myers, N., R.A. Mittermeier, C.G. Mittermeier, G.A.B. Da Fonseca, and J. Kent. (2000) "Biodiversity Hotspots for Conservation Priorities." Nature 403:853–858, retrieved 6/1/2007 MYERS, N.
  9. ^ a b c d Dahanukar, N.; Raut, R.; and Bhat, A. (2004). Distribution, endemism and threat status of freshwater fishes in the Western Ghats of India. Journal of Biogeography 31(1): 123–136
  10. ^ Barron, E.J., Harrison, C.G.A., Sloan, J.L. II and Hay, W.W. (1981). "Paleogeography, 180 million years ago to the present". Eclogae geologicae Helvetiae 74 (2): 443–470. 
  11. ^ a b "The Geography of India". all-aboit-india.com. Retrieved 19 November 2010. 
  12. ^ Eravikulam National Park, Munnar, Kerala, India, the home of Nilgiri Tahr. Eravikulam.org. Retrieved on 2013-07-28.
  13. ^ Vavul Mala. Peakbagger.com (2004-11-01). Retrieved on 2013-07-28.
  14. ^ Elivai Malai. Peakbagger.com (2004-11-01). Retrieved on 2013-07-28.
  15. ^ http://theindia.info/travel/velliangiri_Trek_Coimbatore
  16. ^ Sehgal K. L. "Coldwater fish and fisheries in the Western Ghats, India". FAO. Retrieved 22 September 2008. 
  17. ^ "Indian Dams by River and State". Rain water harvesting. Retrieved 19 March 2007. 
  18. ^ Rajesh Menon (3 October 2005). "Tremors may rock Koyna for another two decade". Indian Express, Pune. Retrieved 19 March 2007. 
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References[edit]

External links[edit]

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Western Ghats.

Template:Map of ESA Villages in Kerala

Map of ESA Villages in Google Map & Earth