Konark Sun Temple

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UNESCO World Heritage Site
Sun Temple, Konârak
Name as inscribed on the World Heritage List
Konark Sun Temple
Type Cultural
Criteria i, iii, vi
Reference 246
UNESCO region Asia-Pacific
Inscription history
Inscription 1984 (8th Session)
Konark Sun Temple is located in India
Konark Sun Temple
Location of Konark Sun Temple in India.
Konark Sun Temple

Konark Sun Temple (Oriya: କୋଣାର୍କ ସୂର୍ଯ୍ୟ ମନ୍ଦିର [koɳarkə]; also Konârak) is a 13th-century Sun Temple (also known as the Black Pagoda),[1] at Konark, in Odisha, India. It was supposedly built by king Narasimhadeva I of Eastern Ganga Dynasty around 1250.[2] It has been built in the shape of a gigantic chariot with elaborately carved stone wheels, pillars and walls. A major part of the structure is now in ruins. The temple is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.[3] It is also featured on NDTV's list of Seven Wonders of India and Times of India's list of Seven Wonders of India.

Etymology[edit]

The name Konark derives from the combination of the Sanskrit words, Kona (corner) and Arka (sun), in reference to the temple which was dedicated to the Sun god Surya.[3]

The monument was also called the Black Pagoda by European sailors. In contrast, the Jagannath Temple in Puri was called the White Pagoda. Both temples served as important landmarks for the sailors.[1][4]

Architecture[edit]

Original temple compared to the surviving structure (yellow)
Plan of the temple (top-side is west)

The temple was originally built at the mouth of the river Chandrabhaga, but the waterline has receded since then. The temple has been built in the form of a giant ornamented chariot of the Sun god, Surya. It has twelve pairs of elaborately carved stone wheels some of which are 3 meters[3] wide and is pulled by seven pairs of horses.[5] The temple follows the traditional style of Kalinga architecture. It is carefully oriented towards the east so that the first rays of sunrise strikes the principal entrance.[3] The temple is built from Khondalite rocks.[6][7]

The original temple had a main sanctum sanctorum (vimana), which was supposedly 229 feet[5] (70 m) tall. Due to the weight of the super structure (70m tall) and weak soil of the area the main vimana fell in 1837.[10] The audience hall (Jagamohana), which is about 128 feet (30 m) tall, still stands and is the principal structure in the surviving ruins. Among the structures, which have survived to the current day, are the dance hall (Nata mandira) and dining hall (Bhoga mandapa).[3][5]

The Konark temple is also known for its erotic sculptures of maithunas.[11]

Two smaller ruined temples have been discovered nearby. One of them is called the Mayadevi Temple and is located southwest from the entrance of the main temple. It is presumed to have been dedicated to Mayadevi, one of the Sun god's wives. It has been dated to the late 11th century, earlier than the main temple.[12] The other one belongs to some unknown Vaishnava deity. Sculptures of Balarama, Varaha and Trivikrama have been found at the site, indicating it to be a Vaishnavite temple. Both temples have their primary idols missing.

A collection of fallen sculptures can be viewed at the Konark Archaeological Museum which is maintained by the Archaeological Survey of India.[13]

History[edit]

Ancient Texts[edit]

According to Bhavishya Purana and Samba Purana, there may have been a sun temple in the region earlier than current one, dating to the 9th century or earlier.[14] The books mention three sun temples at Mundira (possibly Konark), Kalapriya (Mathura), and Multan.[15][16]

According to the scriptures, Samba, the son of Krishna, was cursed with leprosy. He was advised by the sage, Kataka,[17] to worship the sun god to cure his aliment. Samba underwent penance for 12 years in Mitravana near the shores of Chandrabhaga.[18] Both the original Konark temple and the Multan temple[19] have been attributed to Samba.

The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea (1st Century CE) mentions a port called Kainapara, which has been identified as current day Konark.[20]

Second Temple[edit]

According to the Madala Panji, there was another temple in the region. It was built by one Pundara Kesari. He may have been Puranjaya, the 7th century ruler, of the Somavasmi Dynasty dynasty.[21]

Narasimhadeva I[edit]

The current temple is attributed to Narasimhadeva I of the Eastern Ganga Dynasty. His reign spanned from 1238 to 1264 CE. The temple may have been a monument to his victory against Tughral Tughan Khan.[18][22]

Dharmapada's Tale[edit]

According to local folklore, Narasimhadeva I had hired a chief architect called Bisu Maharana to build the temple. After a period of twelve years, a workforce of twelve thousand almost finished the construction. But, they failed to mount the crown stone. The impatient king ordered the temple to be finished in three days or the artisans be put to death. At the time, Bisu Maharana's twelve year old son, Dharmapada arrived at the site. Bisu Maharana had never seen his son, as he had left his village when his wife was still pregnant. Dharmapada successfully proposed a solution to mount the crown stone. But, the artisans were still apprehensive that the king will be displeased to learn that a boy succeeded where his best artisans failed. Dharmapada climbed onto the temple and leapt into the water to save his father and his co-workers.

Collapse[edit]

A lithography plate from James Fergusson's 'Ancient Architecture in Hindoostan' (1847). It depicts part of the main tower still standing.

There have been several proposed theories for the collapse of the main sanctum. The date of the collapse is also not certain.

The Kenduli copper plates of Narasimha IV (Saka 1305 or 1384 CE) states the temple to be in a perfect state.[23]

In the 16th century Ain-i-Akbari, Abul Fazl also mentions Konark being in a proper state.[23] The account also mentions the cost of construction being 12 years of revenue.[24]

The cause of collapse is also placed on Kalapahad who invaded Odisha in 1568.[23]

In 1627, the then Raja of Khurda had removed the sun idol from Konark and moved it to the Jagannath temple in Puri.[25]

James Fergusson (1808–1886) had the opinion that marshy foundation had caused the collapse.[23] But, the structure has shown no sign of sinking into its foundation.[24] Fergusson, who visited the temple in 1837, recorded a corner of the main sanctum still standing.[23] It also fell down in 1848 due to a strong gale.[21]

According to Percy Brown (1872–1955), the temple was not properly completed and so it collapsed.[23] This contradicts earlier recorded accounts of the temple being in a proper state.

In 1929, an analysis of a moss covered rock estimated the date of abandonment at around 1573.[23]

Other proposed causes include lighting and earthquake.[23]

Aruna Stambha[edit]

In the last quarter of the 18th century, when worship had ceased in the temple, the Aruna stambha (Aruna pillar) was removed from the entrance of Konark temple and placed at the Singha-dwara (Lion's Gate) of the Jagannath temple in Puri by a Maratha Brahmachari called Goswain (or Goswami).[26][27] The pillar is made of monolithic chlorite and is 33 feet 8 inches (10.26 m) tall . It is dedicated to Aruna, the charioteer of the Sun god.[27]

Preservation Efforts[edit]

An inscription from 1903 about the filling of the temple with sand.

In 1803, requests were made for conservations by the East India Marine Board, but only removal of stones from the site was prohibited by the Governor General. As a result, a part of the main tower, which was still standing, collapsed in 1848.[28]

The then Raja of Khurda removed some stones and sculptures to use in a temple he was building in Puri. A few gateways and some sculptures were destroyed in the process.[29] In 1838, after the depredation of the Raja of Khurda, Asiatic Society of Bengal requested conservation, but the requests were denied and only preventative of human-caused damages were guaranteed.[28] The Raja was forbidden to remove any more stones.

In 1859, Asiatic Society of Bengal proposed moving an architrave depicting the navagraha to the Indian Museum in Calcutta. The first attempt in 1867 was abandoned as the funds ran out.[28]

In 1894, thirteen sculptures were moved to the Indian Museum.[28]

In 1903 when a major excavation was attempted nearby, the then Lieutenant governor of Bengal, J. A. Baurdilon, ordered the temple to be sealed and filled with sand to prevent the collapse of the Jagamohana.[23][30]

In 1906, casuarina and punnang trees were planted facing the sea to buffer the site against sand-laden winds.[28]

In 1909, the Mayadevi temple was discovered while removing sand and debris.[28]

The temple was granted World Heritage Site status by the UNESCO in 1984.[3]

Konark Sun Temple panoramic view

Gallery[edit]

Antique paintings and photographs[edit]

Current day photographs[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Official website". Tourism Department, Government of Orissa. Retrieved 3 May 2013. 
  2. ^ Indian History. Tata McGraw-Hill Education. p. 2. ISBN 978-0-07-132923-1. Retrieved 3 May 2013. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f "Sun Temple, Konârak". UNESCO. Retrieved 3 May 2013. 
  4. ^ Lewis Sydney Steward O'Malley (1 January 2007). Bengal District Gazetteer : Puri. Concept Publishing Company. p. 283. ISBN 978-81-7268-138-8. Retrieved 3 May 2013. 
  5. ^ a b c "Official website: The Sun Temple". Tourism Department, Government of Orissa. Retrieved 3 May 2013. 
  6. ^ N. Chenna Kesavulu (1 February 2009). Textbook of Engineering Geology. Macmillan Publishers India Limited. p. 188. ISBN 978-0-230-63870-9. Retrieved 27 July 2013. 
  7. ^ P. C. Varghese (November 2012). Engineering Geology for Civil Engineers. PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd. p. 126. ISBN 978-81-203-4495-2. Retrieved 2 August 2013. 
  8. ^ Manish Telikic Chary (2 February 2009). India: Nation on the Move: An Overview of India's People, Culture, History, Economy, IT Industry, & More. iUniverse. p. 389. ISBN 978-1-4401-1635-3. Retrieved 17 May 2013. 
  9. ^ Somen Sengupta (22 September 2012). "Poetry in stone". Daily Pioneer. Retrieved 27 July 2013. 
  10. ^ Description from British Library archives, accessed 30April2014
  11. ^ "Konarak Sun Temple: Mithuna Sculptures". Archaeological Survey of India. Retrieved 17 May 2013. 
  12. ^ "World Heritage Sites: Konarak Sun Temple". Archaeological Survey of India. Retrieved 17 May 2013. 
  13. ^ "Archaeological Museum, Konarak". Archaeological Survey of India. Retrieved 17 May 2013. 
  14. ^ Linda Kay Davidson; David Martin Gitlitz (1 January 2002). Pilgrimage: From the Ganges to Graceland : an Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 318. ISBN 978-1-57607-004-8. Retrieved 27 July 2013. 
  15. ^ John M. Rosenfield (1 January 1967). The Dynastic Arts of the Kushans. [Mit Faks.]. University of California Press. p. 195. GGKEY:0379L32LPNJ. Retrieved 27 July 2013. 
  16. ^ N. K. Singh (2009). Coronation Of Shiva: Rediscovering Masrur Temple. Har-Anand Publications Pvt. Limited. p. 18p. ISBN 978-81-241-1478-0. Retrieved 27 July 2013. 
  17. ^ K.S. Krishna Rao (2008). Global Encyclopaedia of the Brahmana Ethnography. Global Vision Publishing House. p. 452. ISBN 978-81-8220-208-5. Retrieved 27 July 2013. 
  18. ^ a b "Official website: The Sun Temple Legend". Tourism Department, Government of Orissa. Retrieved 27 July 2013. 
  19. ^ Sir Alexander Cunningham (1871). The Ancient Geography of India: I. The Buddhist Period, Including the Campaigns of Alexander, and the Travels of Hwen-Thsang. Trübner & Company. p. 233. Retrieved 27 July 2013. 
  20. ^ Helaine Selin (16 April 2008). Encyclopaedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Western Cultures. Springer. pp. 1731–. ISBN 978-1-4020-4559-2. Retrieved 2 August 2013. 
  21. ^ a b "Konark Sun Temple: Introduction". Archaeological Survey of India. Retrieved 29 July 2013. 
  22. ^ David H. Kelley; Eugene F. Milone (16 February 2011). Exploring Ancient Skies: A Survey of Ancient and Cultural Astronomy. Springer. p. 285. ISBN 978-1-4419-7624-6. Retrieved 27 July 2013. 
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Konarak, Conservation". Archaeological Survey of India. Retrieved 27 July 2013. 
  24. ^ a b Dr. Benudhar Patra (April 2006). "Antiquity of Arkakshetra Konark". Orissa Review (Government of Odisha). Retrieved July 27, 2013. 
  25. ^ L.S.S. O'malley (1 January 2007). Bengal District Gazetteer : Puri. Concept Publishing Company. p. 47. ISBN 978-81-7268-138-8. Retrieved 2 August 2013. 
  26. ^ Narayan Miśra (1 January 2007). Annals and Antiquities of the Temple of Jagannātha. Sarup & Sons. p. 19. ISBN 978-81-7625-747-3. Retrieved 1 August 2013. 
  27. ^ a b Prajna Paramita Behera (June 2004). "The Pillars of Homage toLord Jagannatha". Orissa Review (Government of Odisha). Retrieved August 1, 2013. 
  28. ^ a b c d e f "Konark Conservation". Government of Odisha. Retrieved 1 August 2013. 
  29. ^ N. S. Ramaswami (1 December 1971). Indian Monuments. Abhinav Publications. p. 166. ISBN 978-0-89684-091-1. Retrieved 2 August 2013. 
  30. ^ Sandeep Mishra (10 July 2010). "The Sun Temple of Orissa". The Times of India. Retrieved 27 July 2013. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 19°53′15″N 86°05′41″E / 19.887444°N 86.094596°E / 19.887444; 86.094596