23rd Street (Manhattan)
West 23rd Street from the High Line
|Length||1.9 mi (3.1 km)|
|Location||Manhattan, New York City|
|Postal code||10011, 10010|
|West end||Eleventh Avenue in Chelsea|
|East end||FDR Drive in Kips Bay / Peter Cooper Village|
23rd Street is a broad thoroughfare in the New York City borough of Manhattan, one of the major two-way, east-west streets in the borough's grid. As with Manhattan's other "crosstown" streets, it is divided into its east and west sections at Fifth Avenue. The street runs from Avenue C and FDR Drive in the east to Eleventh Avenue in the west.
23rd Street was created under the Commissioners' Plan of 1811. The street hosts several famous hotels, including the Fifth Avenue Hotel and Hotel Chelsea, as well as many theaters. Several skyscrapers are located on 23rd Street, including the Flatiron Building, the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company Tower, and One Madison.
As with other numbered streets in Manhattan, Fifth Avenue separates West and East 23rd Street. This intersection occurs in Madison Square, near Madison Square Park, both of which are part of the Flatiron District. West of Sixth Avenue, West 23rd Street passes through Chelsea. East of Lexington Avenue, East 23rd Street runs along the southern boundary of Kips Bay and the northern boundaries of Gramercy and Peter Cooper Village.
West 23rd Street
West 23rd Street, which runs through the heart of Chelsea, contains many art galleries and several theaters. For much of the late 19th century and early 20th century its western end was the site of the Pavonia Ferry at Pier 63, just north of the current Chelsea Piers.
In 1907, a small lot of land on the north side of 23rd Street, between Twelfth and Eleventh Avenues, was acquired by the Commissioner of Docks and Ferries. The land was transferred to the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation in 1915, becoming a public park called the Thomas F. Smith Park, later the Chelsea Waterside Park. In 2000, the westernmost block of 23rd Street was demolished as part of a reorganization of traffic patterns and an expansion of the park. The expanded 2.5-acre (1.0 ha) park contains a dog run, children's playground, basketball court, and soccer green.
Just west of Tenth Avenue, the street passes under the High Line, a 1.45-mile (2.33 km) elevated linear park built on the structure of the former West Side Line railroad. The High Line contains both a staircase and an elevator entrance from 23rd Street.
On the north side of 23rd Street, just west of the High Line, is "HL23", a residential building that hangs over the narrow linear park. London Terrace is located across Tenth Avenue, occupying the full block to Ninth Avenue between 23rd and 24th Streets.
The Hotel Chelsea, New York City's first co-op apartment complex, was built at 222 West 23rd Street in 1883. The Emunah Israel synagogue, built in the 1860s as a Presbyterian church, is located a few doors to the west at 236 West 23rd.
The block of 23rd Street between Fifth and Sixth Avenues is part of the Ladies' Mile Historic District. Designated a New York City landmark in May 1989, it is an irregularly-shaped district consisting of 440 buildings on 28 blocks and parts of blocks, from roughly 15th Street to 24th Street and from Park Avenue South to west of Sixth Avenue.
East 23rd Street
The 22-story Flatiron Building is located on the south side of East 23rd Street at the street's intersection with Fifth Avenue and Broadway, occupying the triangular parcel bounded by these two avenues and 22nd Street. The origin of the term "23 skidoo" is said to be from wind gusts caused by the building's triangular shape or hot air from a shaft through which immense volumes of air escaped, producing gusts that supposedly lifted women's skirts.[a]
The Metropolitan Life Insurance Company (MetLife), headquartered at 1 Madison Avenue at East 23rd Street, played a significant role in shaping the character of development along East 23rd Street in the early 20th century, constructing six buildings successively along the street and around the block to the corner of 24th. The tallest of these is the 700-foot (210 m) Metropolitan Life Insurance Company Tower, built in 1909 at the intersection of 24th Street and Madison Avenue. The tower, with its ornate clocktower faces, was one of Manhattan's first skyscrapers. For four years, until the construction of the Woolworth Building in 1913, it was the tallest building in the world. It also owned a building across the street, which was the location of the 23rd Street Fire that killed 12 firefighters. A new apartment building, the current Madison Green, was announced for the site in the 1970s, but the building itself was not constructed until 1982.
A large hospital run by the Veterans Health Administration, the Manhattan Campus of the VA NY Harbor Healthcare System, is located at 423 East 23rd Street, near the northeast corner of the intersection with First Avenue.
Near 23rd Street's eastern end is the Asser Levy Public Baths. Built at the beginning of the 20th century, the baths were named after Asser Levy, one of the city's first Jewish settlers. In 1980, the baths were added to the National Register of Historic Places. Stuyvesant Cove Park is located across FDR Drive, along the East River coast. Stretching south to 18th Street, the 2-acre (0.81 ha) public space is built on the site of a concrete plant and parking lot. The street ends at the New York Skyports Seaplane Base, which opened in 1962. The seaplane base, which is part of a marina, also contains a parking lot whose entrance and exit is located at the eastern end of 23rd Street.
On the south side of East 23rd between First Avenue and Avenue C, Peter Cooper Village was one of MetLife's experiments in middle-income community building until it was bought by Tishman Speyer. Peter Cooper Village was a sister project to MetLife's Stuyvesant Town, which was built across 20th Street to the south.
Street staircase to the 23rd Street and Eighth Avenue station
23rd Street was designated in the Commissioners' Plan of 1811, which established the Manhattan street grid, as one of 15 east-west streets that would be 100 feet (30 m) in width, as opposed to minor side streets that were designated as 60 feet (18 m) in width. The plan also reserved the 240 acres (97 ha) of land bounded by 23rd Street, Third Avenue, 33rd Street and Seventh Avenue as the "Grand Parade", an area upon which development was prohibited. Instead, the area was to be used as an open space for military training, as well as an assembly point in the event the city was invaded. At the time, some thought that the Grand Parade might become a "central park" for the city, but the grounds were gradually reduced over the course of time. By 1847, the open area was 7 acres (2.8 ha), comprising the land of the current Madison Square Park.
By the middle of the 19th century, there was a railroad, the Hudson (later West Side) Line, running from the current Hudson Yards area between 30th and 32nd Streets south to Chambers Street. At the time, the city prohibited steam locomotives from operating below 30th Street because of the risk of the train's steam boiler exploding, so passengers from points north were forced to switch to horse-drawn trains. The horse-drawn line's stops were located at 23rd, 14th, Christopher and Chambers Streets.
The West Side Line caused so many accidents between freight trains and other traffic that the nickname "Death Avenue" was given to Tenth and Eleventh Avenues. In 1929 the city, the state, and New York Central agreed on the West Side Improvement Project, a 13-mile (21 km) project that eliminated 105 street-level railroad crossings and cost more than US$150,000,000 (about US$2,188,663,000 today). A viaduct, the High Line, replaced the street-level tracks and was dedicated on June 29, 1934. The growth of interstate trucking during the 1950s led to a drop in rail traffic throughout the United States, and the viaduct was effectively abandoned in 1980.
The Twenty-third Street Railway, a street railway originally operated as horse cars and later electric traction, was chartered on January 29, 1872. In 1893, the Twenty-third Street Railway was leased to the Houston, West Street and Pavonia Ferry Railroad, which in turn was consolidated into the Metropolitan Street Railway on December 12, 1893. The Metropolitan Street Railway was leased by the Interurban Street Railway on April 1, 1902, and the latter went bankrupt six years later. The Metropolitan Street Railway separated on July 31, 1908, becoming the 23rd Street crosstown bus route. Originally called the M18-15 and then the M26, the route was renamed the M23 in 1989.
During the 1870s, the Sixth Avenue Elevated was built, significantly increasing the number of customers who shopped at stores along the route. Elevated lines with stations on 23rd Street were also constructed along Ninth Avenue in 1867, Third Avenue in 1878, and Second Avenue in 1880. By the middle of the 20th century, they were all demolished. Several New York City Subway stations now serve 23rd Street (see § Public transit).
In 1869, Pavonia Ferry opened a terminal on the shore of the Hudson River at Pier 63, which aligned with the western end of 23rd Street. The ferries traveled to Jersey City, located opposite Manhattan. By the beginning of the 20th century ferries were already aging and deteriorating under heavy use, and in 1942 the terminal itself was demolished. In the late 1980s, boat enthusiast John Krevey converted an old railroad barge on the Hudson River to a floating jetty called Pier 63. A restaurant was opened on the pier. The lightship Frying Pan and the fire vessel John J. Harvey were also originally moored to Pier 63, with both listed on the National Register of Historic Places. In 2007, the barge was moved to Pier 66 on 26th Street.
On January 1, 1825, the New York House of Refuge, a jail for juvenile delinquents, opened on Broadway between 22nd and 23rd Streets. The jail housed prisoners up to 16 years old who were serving long jail sentences, including boys who were being imprisoned until at least age 21 and girls until at least age 18. During the first 10 years, the jail held 1,120 prisoners. In 1854, the prison moved to Randall’s Island in the East River.
A collection of four-story houses called London Terrace was built on the block bounded by 23rd Street, 24th Streets, Ninth Avenue, and Tenth Avenue in 1845. London Terrace was rebuilt in 1930, with the houses being replaced with 14 apartment buildings that each had sixteen to eighteen floors. The new complex had a total of 1,670 apartments, housing 5,000 total residents. At the time of construction it was the largest residential complex in the city.
In 1857, the merchant Amos Eno bought a land parcel at the intersection with Fifth Avenue and 23rd Street. He built the luxury Fifth Avenue Hotel on this site by 1859. The six-story-high structure, which was designed to accommodate 800 guests, became the largest hotel in the world at that time. The hotel served as the headquarters of the Republican Party and was used by Presidents Ulysses S. Grant and Chester A. Arthur. When the Prince of Wales, Edward VII, visited the hotel in 1860, the commercial appeal of the adjacent neighborhood was greatly increased. The area bounded by 14th and 23rd Streets between Sixth Avenue and Broadway was soon dubbed Ladies' Mile. In 1908, the hotel was demolished and replaced by the Toy Center.
By about 1860, Irish immigrants had displaced African-Americans living in Five Points, the latter of whom later resettled all over Manhattan. A thousand African-Americans eventually settled in an area bordered by 23rd Street on the south, 40th Street on the north, and Sixth Avenue on the east.
The National Academy of Design building opened in 1863 at the intersection of 23rd Street and Fourth (now Park) Avenue. The building was designed by Peter Bonnett Wight in a style evocative of Doge's Palace in Venice. However, by the beginning of the 20th century, it had been demolished and replaced with the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company Tower.
In 1878, the Stern Brothers department store opened between Fifth and Sixth Avenues. The building, designed by Henry Fernbach, was massive by contemporary standards, standing seven stories high and measuring 200 feet (61 m) wide. It became one of the largest cast-iron structures in New York City.
A second notable hotel on the street, the Hotel Chelsea, was built between 1883 and 1885, with the first portions opening in 1884. It was New York's tallest building until 1902. Sid Vicious and Nancy Spungen lived in the Hotel Chelsea from August 1978. The building has been a designated New York City landmark since 1966, and on the National Register of Historic Places since 1977.
The emergence of many new hotels after the American Civil War contributed to the increase of prostitution in the area. By 1876, there were so many brothels in the area bounded by 23rd and 57th Streets, between Fifth and Seventh Avenues, that New York City Police Department captain Alexander S. Williams nicknamed this strip of land "Tenderloin". Referring to the increased number of bribes he would receive for police protection of both legitimate and illegitimate businesses there – especially the many brothels – Williams said, "I've been having chuck steak ever since I've been on the force, and now I'm going to have a bit of tenderloin."
There were several Broadway and Off-Broadway theaters being built along West 23rd Street beginning in the late 19th century. By the turn of the century, the street contained a "Theater Row", which was a prominent fixture in American theater. 23rd Street remained New York's main theater strip until the Empire Theatre opened on Broadway some twenty blocks uptown, ushering in a new era of theater.
In 1868, Pike's Opera House (later the Grand Opera House) was built at Eighth Avenue and 23rd Street for several million dollars. The film company RKO Pictures converted the building into a movie theater in 1938. By 1960, it was demolished to make room for the Penn South residential complex.
In 1888, the entrepreneur Frederick Freeman Proctor opened a theater between Seventh and Eighth Avenues, across the street from the Hotel Chelsea. Proctor used innovations such as electric lighting and phonographs in his "continuous daily vaudeville" theater. In 1907, the theater was converted to an RKO cinema, and 30 years later, it was destroyed in a fire. During the late 19th century, Bryant's Minstrels also performed a minstrel show in Proctor's Theatre.
Modern theaters include the Chelsea Bow Tie Cinemas, on the south side of West 23rd between Seventh and Eighth Avenues; the SVA Theatre, operated by the School of Visual Arts on the north side of West 23rd one block west; and the Cell Theatre, across the street from the SVA Theatre.
In 1849, James Renwick Jr. constructed the Free Academy Building for the City College of New York, following a statewide referendum two years prior that had allowed the construction of the school. The Gothic Revival building was located at the intersection of Lexington Avenue and 23rd Street. The building was demolished in 1928.
Baruch College, an institution within the City University of New York system, was a successor to the Free Academy. Founded by businessman and City College alumnus Bernard Baruch, the campus includes the Lawrence and Eris Field Building at the southeast corner of Lexington Avenue and 23rd Street in Gramercy. The 16-story building, opened in 1929, is the oldest structure that is part of Baruch College.
The New York Public Library contains two branches on opposite sides of 23rd Street: the Muhlenberg branch on West 23rd Street and Seventh Avenue, and the Epiphany branch on East 23rd Street west of Second Avenue. The Epiphany branch, which is located in Gramercy/Kips Bay, opened in 1887 and moved to its current location, a Carnegie library on 23rd Street, in 1907. It was renovated from 1982 to 1984. The Muhlenberg branch, also a Carnegie library, opened in Chelsea in 1906 and was renovated in 2000.
On October 17, 1966, the street was the location of New York's deadliest fire until the September 11 attacks, in terms of firefighters killed. The "23rd Street Fire", as it came to be called, began in a cellar at 7 East 22nd Street and soon spread to the basement of 6 East 23rd Street, a five-story commercial building that housed a drugstore at street level. Twelve firefighters were killed; two chiefs, two lieutenants, and six firefighters plunged into the flaming cellar, while two more firefighters were killed by the blast of flame and heat on the first floor. The site is now the location of Madison Green, a 31-story apartment building.
On September 17, 2016, several bombs detonated in New York and New Jersey. One of these was a pressure cooker bomb that exploded on West 23rd Street between Sixth Avenue and Seventh Avenue, injuring 31 people. A New Jersey resident, Ahmed Khan Rahimi, was later detained in connection with the bombings.
23rd Street was historically one of the city's fashion hubs, and the street still contains many clothing stores. There are also several major retailers with stores located on the street, such as Best Buy and The Home Depot.
Restaurants, cafes, fast-food outlets and other eating establishments on 23rd Street are mostly oriented toward office workers, and many of these establishments provide catering services. These restaurants offer cuisine from a variety of cultures, including Thai, Italian, Spanish and French cuisine.
23rd Street contains some upper-class areas with expensive real estate. One 2,500-square-foot (230 m2) office space between Park and Lexington Avenues was leased for $240,000 per year in March 2017, while a 1,000-square-foot (93 m2) apartment three blocks east was being sold for $1,000,000. In July 2015, a four-bedroom penthouse apartment sold for $6,440,000.
- 23rd Street on the BMT Broadway Line serving the N, R, and W trains
- 23rd Street on the IND Eighth Avenue Line serving the C and E trains
- 23rd Street on the IND Sixth Avenue Line serving the F, <F>, and M trains
- 23rd Street on the IRT Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line serving the 1 train
- 23rd Street on the IRT Lexington Avenue Line serving the 6 and <6> trains
In the past, every former IRT elevated line had a station at 23rd Street, most of which were local stations:
- 23rd Street on the IRT Second Avenue Line
- 23rd Street on the IRT Third Avenue Line which served local and express trains
- 23rd Street on the IRT Sixth Avenue Line
- 23rd Street on the IRT Ninth Avenue Line
Additionally, MTA New York City Transit's M23 route runs the length of 23rd Street. In 2003, the Straphangers Campaign listed the M23 as one of the slowest in the city, winning its "Pokey Award" for going at an average speed of 3.7 miles per hour (6.0 km/h). In 2016 it was converted to a Select Bus Service route, with bus rapid transit components such as exclusive bus lanes and all-door bus boarding, to speed up service.
- Dolkart, Andrew S. "The Architecture and Development of New York City: The Birth of the Skyscraper - Romantic Symbols". Columbia University. Retrieved May 15, 2007.
In the early twentieth century, men would hang out on the corner here on Twenty-third Street and watch the wind blowing women's dresses up so that they could catch a little bit of ankle. This entered into popular culture and there are hundreds of postcards and illustrations of women with their dresses blowing up in front of the Flatiron Building. And it supposedly is where the slang expression "23 skidoo" comes from because the police would come and give the voyeurs the 23 skidoo to tell them to get out of the area.
- Google (August 31, 2015). "23rd Street (Manhattan)" (Map). Google Maps. Google. Retrieved August 31, 2015.
- Morris, Gouverneur, De Witt, Simeon, and Rutherford, John [sic] (March 1811) "Remarks Of The Commissioners For Laying Out Streets And Roads In The City Of New York, Under The Act Of April 3, 1807", Cornell University Library. Accessed June 27, 2016. "These streets are all sixty feet wide except fifteen, which are one hundred feet wide, viz.: Numbers fourteen, twenty-three, thirty-four, forty-two, fifty-seven, seventy-two, seventy-nine, eighty-six, ninety-six, one hundred and six, one hundred and sixteen, one hundred and twenty-five, one hundred and thirty-five, one hundred and forty-five, and one hundred and fifty-five--the block or space between them being in general about two hundred feet."
- Jackson (2010), p. 234.
- White, Norval; Willensky, Elliot & Leadon, Fran (2010), AIA Guide to New York City (5th ed.), New York: Oxford University Press, p. 255, ISBN 9780195383867
- Jackson (2010), p. 541.
- Jackson (2010), p. 991.
- Louie, Elaine (August 5, 1999). "The Trendy Discover NoMad Land, And Move In". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 4, 2010.
- Feirstein, Sanna (2001), Naming New York: Manhattan Places & How They Got Their Names, New York: New York University Press, p. 103, ISBN 978-0-8147-2712-6
- Sternbergh, Adam (April 11, 2010). "Soho. Nolita. Dumbo. NoMad? Branding the last unnamed neighborhood in Manhattan". New York. Retrieved July 4, 2010.
- "Guide to Chelsea, 23-24th Street (Manhattan) Art Galleries and Museums". New York Art. Retrieved July 30, 2017.
- Geberer, Raanan (March 2, 2016). "When 23rd Street Was Broadway - Manhattan, New York, NY - Local News". NY Press. Retrieved July 30, 2017.
- Baxter, Raymond J.; Adams, Arthur G. (1999). Railroad Ferries of the Hudson: And Stories of a Deckhand. Fordham University Press. p. 91. ISBN 9780823219544.
- "Historical Sign Listings: Chelsea Waterside Park". New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. December 17, 2001. Retrieved July 31, 2017.
- "Chelsea Waterside Park". NYCgo.com. Retrieved July 31, 2017.
- "High Line Map" (PDF). Friends of the High Line. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 27, 2014. Retrieved July 30, 2017.
- Walsh, Kevin (September 2011). "HIGH LINE 2011: Rail to trail opens from 20th to 30th Streets". Forgotten NY. Retrieved September 21, 2014.
- Ouroussoff, Nicolai (April 25, 2011). "Neil Denari's HL23 Residential Tower Rises in Chelsea - Review". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 31, 2017.
- Washburn, Alexandros (October 3, 2013). The Nature of Urban Design: A New York Perspective on Resilience. Island Press. p. 151. ISBN 9781610915168.
- Burrows & Wallace (1999), p. 763.
- Gray, Christopher (October 30, 1988). "Streetscapes: London Terrace; Time Erodes Unity of a 1,665-Unit City Within a City". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 30, 2017.
- Jackson (2010), p. 235.
- Chamberlain, Lisa (June 19, 2007). "Change at the Chelsea, Shelter of the Arts". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved September 19, 2008.
- Dunlap, David W. (August 14, 2012). From Abyssinian to Zion: A Guide to Manhattan's Houses of Worship. Columbia University Press. p. 64. ISBN 9780231500722.
- Diamonstein-Spielvogel (2011), pp. 695-696.
- Pearson, Marhorie (ed.) "Ladies' Mile Historic District Designation Report" New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission (May 2, 1989)
- Jackson (2010), p. 458.
- Alexiou (2010), pp. 149-150.
- Gray, Christopher (May 26, 1996). "Streetscapes/Metropolitan Life at 1 Madison Avenue;For a Brief Moment, the Tallest Building in the World". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 31, 2017.
- Matlins, Melissa. "Metropolitan Life Insurance Tower". Skyscraper Museum. Retrieved July 4, 2010.
- Alexiou (2010), pp. 268-269.
- Satow, Julie (September 12, 2013). "Finally, One Madison Is Back". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 31, 2017.
- Carmiel, Oshrat and Lee (February 21, 2014). "Murdoch Buys 4 Floors of NYC Condo Tower for $57 Million". Bloomberg News. Retrieved February 21, 2014.
- Finn, Robin (July 11, 2014). "Big Ticket | Rupert Murdoch's Trophy Pad, Expanded". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 12, 2015.
- Bailey, M. (1893). The Chautauquan (Public domain ed.). Chautauqua, N.Y.: Chautauqua Institution. pp. 209–211.
- "Woman's Press Club of New York City records, 1889-1980". Columbia University Libraries. Retrieved May 9, 2017.
- "Manhattan Campus of the VA NY Harbor Healthcare System - Locations". Veterans Health Administration. Retrieved July 31, 2017.
- "Asser Levy Recreation Center". Reed Construction Data. Retrieved July 4, 2010.
- New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission, Dolkart & Postal (2009), p. 88.
- Burrows & Wallace (1999), p. 60.
- "Asset Detail: Public Baths". National Park Service. Retrieved July 31, 2017.
- Lynn, Morrone & Toran (2013), p. 65.
- "Seaplane Base Speeded; Mayor Reports to Chamber on New East River Project". The New York Times. February 12, 1936. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 4, 2010.
- "$1,400,000 Marina Opened at 23D St". The New York Times. April 19, 1962. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 4, 2010.
- Schneider, Daniel B. (May 20, 2001). "F.Y.I." The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 31, 2017.
- "Urban Apartment Dwelling Builds Momentum, 1930-1950". On-Line Residential. Archived from the original on September 28, 2007. Retrieved July 4, 2010.
- Lynn, Morrone & Toran (2013), pp. 64-65.
- Burrows & Wallace (1999), p. 421.
- Kane, Michael (February 24, 2013). "The making of Manhattan". New York Post. Retrieved November 6, 2016.
- Mendelsohn, Joyce (1998). Touring the Flatiron. New York: New York Landmarks Conservancy. p.13. ISBN 0-9647061-2-1
- Koeppel (2015), pp. 124–25.
- Eldredge & Horenstein (2014), p. 116.
- Burrows & Wallace (1999), p. 715.
- Burrows & Wallace (1999), p. 655.
- Gray, Christopher (December 22, 2011). "When a Monster Plied the West Side". The New York Times. Archived from the original on May 17, 2014. Retrieved May 12, 2014.
The New York World referred to the West Side route as Death Avenue in 1892, long after the Park Avenue problem had been solved, saying 'many had been sacrificed' to 'a monster which has menaced them night and day.'
- Amateau, Albert. "Newspaper was there at High Line's birth and now its rebirth". The Villager. 77 (48). Archived from the original on July 13, 2011. Retrieved August 12, 2011.
- Dunlap, David W. (February 18, 2015). "New York City Rail Crossings Carry a Deadly Past". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 12, 2018.
- "The Highline: past and present". GeoWeb, Harvard University. May 13, 2010. Archived from the original on October 23, 2014. Retrieved October 23, 2014.
- "High Line History". Friends of the High Line. Archived from the original on September 22, 2014. Retrieved August 2, 2009.
- "MAYOR DEDICATES WEST SIDE PROJECT; ' Death to Death Av.' Is Toast to Terminal and Vast System of Tracks on West Side" (PDF). The New York Times. June 29, 1934. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 12, 2018.[dead link]
- Gray, Christopher (1988). "Streetscapes: The West Side Improvement; On the Lower West Side, Fate Of Old Rail Line Is Undecided". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 26, 2018.
- Gottlieb, Martin (January 16, 1984). "Rail Fan Finds Rusting Dream of West Side". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 18, 2018.
- "NEW YORK CITY TRANSIT". CHICAGO TRANSIT & RAILFAN. Retrieved September 22, 2016.
- "Full text of "Street railways of greater New York"". Internet Archive. May 1, 1937. Retrieved September 23, 2016.
- Reports of Decisions (1913), p. 187.
- Carman, H.J. (1919). The Street Surface Railway Franchises of New York City. pp. 204–220. Retrieved September 22, 2016 – via Google Books.
- Nicholas, F. (1908). McGraw Electric Railway Manual. McGraw Publishing Company. pp. 237–244. Retrieved September 22, 2016 – via Google Books.
- Poor's Manual of Public Utilities: Street, Railway, Gas, Electric, Water, Power, Telephone and Telegraph Companies. Poor's Railroad Manual Company. 1915. p. 325. Retrieved September 22, 2016 – via Google Books.
- Reports of Decisions (1913), p. 185.
- Kihss, Peter (March 1, 1962). "BUS FRANCHISES VAGUE ON SERVICE; It Must be 'Adequate,' but Term Is Not Definite". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved September 22, 2016.
- "2 BOROUGHS' BUSES GET NEW NUMBERS". The New York Times. June 20, 1974. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 2, 2016.
- "NEW YORK CITY TRANSIT ROUTES". www.chicagorailfan.com. Retrieved September 22, 2016.
- Diamonstein-Spielvogel (2011), p. 250.
- Burrows & Wallace (1999), p. 1145.
- "NEW-YORK.; AFFAIRS AT THE SEATS CAPITAL. The Metropolitan Transit Company--Christian-like Act--The Cretans--Prospects. NEW-YORK LEGISLATURE. ASSEMBLY" (PDF). The New York Times. February 13, 1867. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved August 3, 2017.
- Walsh, Kevin (December 1999). "REMNANTS OF THE NINTH AVENUE EL". Forgotten New York. Retrieved July 30, 2017.
- "RAPID TRANSIT ON THE BOWERY.; OPENING OF THE EAST SIDE ELEVATED RAILROAD TO-DAY TIME-TABLE AND FARES" (PDF). The New York Times. August 26, 1878. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 30, 2017.
- "MORE ELEVATED FACILITIES.; THE SECOND-AVENUE LINE AND CITY HALL BRANCH OPENED" (PDF). The New York Times. March 2, 1880. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 30, 2017.
- "Last Train Rumbles On Third Ave. 'El'; An Era Ends With Final Run of Third Avenue 'El' LAST TRAIN ROLLS ON THIRD AVE. 'EL'" (PDF). Retrieved July 30, 2017.
- "Subway Map" (PDF). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. October 21, 2019. Retrieved January 18, 2018.
- "23rd Street Station - PATH". Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. Retrieved July 30, 2017.
- "Pavonia Ferry Service". The New York Times. January 20, 1903. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 30, 2017.
- Adams, Arthur G. (1996). The Hudson Through the Years. Fordham University Press. p. 307. ISBN 9780823216772.
- Amateau, Albert (February 22, 2010). "John Krevey, 62; Activist enlivened the waterfront". The Villager. Retrieved November 2, 2019.
- A Maritime History of New York. Going Coastal. 2004. p. 288. ISBN 9780972980319.
- "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. July 9, 2010. See also:
- "Asset Detail - JOHN J. HARVEY (fireboat)". National Park Service. Retrieved July 30, 2017.
- "Asset Detail - FRYING PAN SHOALS LIGHTSHIP NO. 115 (lightship)". National Park Service. Retrieved July 30, 2017.
- Amateau, Albert (February 16, 2011). "John Krevey, 62; Activist enlivened the waterfront". The Villager. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved July 29, 2017.
- Burrows & Wallace (1999), pp. 501-502.
- "OUR CITY CHARITIES.; The New-York House of Refuge for Juvenile Delinquents". The New York Times. January 23, 1860. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
- Jackson (2010), p. 763.
- "London Terrace in Modern Garb, Huge Apartments in Famous Chelsea Block Will Accommodate 5,000 Persons". The New York Times. November 16, 1930. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 20, 2018.
- Gray, Christopher (October 30, 1988). "Streetscapes: London Terrace; Time Erodes Unity of a 1,665-Unit City Within a City". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
- Alexiou (2010), pp. 26-29.
- Burrows & Wallace (1999), p. 672.
- Jackson (2010), p. 442.
- Sprague, Stuart (1977). "Lure of the city: New York's great hotels in the golden age, 1873-1907: Conspectus of History". Ball State University. p. 74. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
- Karabell, Zachary (2004). Chester Alan Arthur: The American Presidents Series: The 21st President, 1881-1885. Macmillan. p. 35. ISBN 9781466834620.
- Pollak, Michael (December 12, 2004). "They Hear Dead People". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
- Burrows & Wallace (1999), p. 854.
- Davis, John (June 1, 2006). "Real Estate and Artistic Identity in Turn‐of‐the‐Century New York". American Art. 20 (2): 56–75. doi:10.1086/507500. ISSN 1073-9300.
- Jackson (2010), p. 880.
- Moudry, Roberta (2005). The American Skyscraper: Cultural Histories. Cambridge University Press. p. 124. ISBN 9780521624213.
- Burrows & Wallace (1999), p. 945.
- Bedoire, Fredric; Tanner, Robert (2004). The Jewish Contribution to Modern Architecture, 1830-1930. KTAV Publishing House, Inc. p. 423. ISBN 9780881258080.
- Schoemer, Karen (October 19, 2008). "The Day Punk Died". New York.
- New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission, Dolkart & Postal (2009), p. 70.
- Gobrecht, Lawrence E. (April 20, 1977). "National Register of Historic Places Inventory/Nomination: Hotel Chelsea". Archived from the original on October 8, 2012. Retrieved February 21, 2010. and Accompanying three photos, exterior, from 1977 Archived October 8, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
- See also: "Asset Detail - Hotel Chelsea". National Park Service. Retrieved July 30, 2017.
- Burrows & Wallace (1999), p. 959.
- Jackson (2010), p. 1161.
- "When 23rd Street Was Broadway". NY Press. March 2, 2016. Retrieved July 31, 2017.
- "Obituary: Samuel N. Pike" (PDF). The New York Times. December 8, 1872. ISSN 0362-4331.
- Gody, Lou; Harvey, Chester D.; Reed, James, eds. (1939). New York City Guide. American Guide Series. New York: Random House. p. 153.
- Brown, Thomas Allston (1903). A History of the New York Stage, Vol. 2. New York: Dodd, Mead and Company. p. 599.
- "RKO 23rd Street Theatre". Cinema Treasures.
- "BOOTH'S THEATRE SOLD; THE PLAY HOUSE TO BE MADE A DRY GOODS STORE" (PDF). The New York Times. December 23, 1881. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 31, 2017.
- Federal Writers' Project (1939), New York City Guide, New York: Random House, pp. 153–154, ISBN 0-403-02921-X (Reprinted by Scholarly Press, 1976; often referred to as WPA Guide to New York City)
- "THE DEAD MINSTREL.; SKETCH OF DAN BRYANT'S LIFE ACCOUNT OF HIS SICKNESS PREPARATIONS FOR THE FUNERAL A BENEFIT TO MRS. BRYANT PROPOSED" (PDF). The New York Times. April 12, 1875. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 31, 2017.
- Burrows & Wallace (1999), p. 717.
- "The City College of New York: North Campus" (PDF). City University of New York. p. 5. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
- Roff, Sandra Shoiock; Cucchiara, Anthony M.; Dunlap, Barbara J. (2000). From the Free Academy to CUNY: Illustrating Public Higher Education in New York City, 1847-1997. Fordham University Press. p. 6. ISBN 9780823220205.
- Burrows & Wallace (1999), p. 1119.
- "Map and Directions - Baruch College". cuny.edu. Baruch College. Retrieved August 2, 2017.
- Holland, Heather (April 24, 2014). "Baruch College's Oldest Building Gets $90M Upgrade". DNAinfo New York. Archived from the original on August 2, 2017. Retrieved August 2, 2017.
- "NYPL Locations". New York Public Library. Retrieved August 2, 2017.
- "About the Epiphany Library". The New York Public Library. Retrieved March 23, 2019.
- "About the Muhlenberg Library". The New York Public Library. Retrieved March 23, 2019.
- O'Donnell, Michelle (October 17, 2006). "Oct. 17, 1966, When 12 Firemen Died". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved August 7, 2008.
- Zauderer, Alyssa; Mannarino, Dan (September 18, 2016). "Surveillance videos from Chelsea gym show terrifying moment bomb detonates". WPIX-TV. Retrieved September 18, 2016.
- Workman, Karen; Rosenberg, Eli; Mele, Christopher (September 18, 2016). "Chelsea Explosion: What We Know and Don't Know". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved September 18, 2016.
- Bump, Philip; Berman, Mark; Wang, Amy B.; Zapotosky, Matt (September 18, 2016). "Explosion that injured 29 in New York 'obviously an act of terrorism,' governor says". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 18, 2016.
- Santora, Marc; Goldman, Adam (September 21, 2016). "Ahmad Khan Rahami Was Inspired by Bin Laden, Charges Say". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved September 21, 2016.
- Sandoval, Edgar; Marcius, Chelsia Rose; Rayman, Graham (September 19, 2016). "Cops arrest New Jersey resident Ahmad Khan Rahami, wanted for NYC and N.J. bombings, after he shoots police officer". New York Daily News. Retrieved September 19, 2016.
- "Bombing Suspect Ahmad Khan Rahami Captured in Linden, Charged With 5 Counts Attempted Murder". WABC-TV. September 19, 2016. Retrieved September 19, 2016.
- "The Top Shopping Streets & Neighborhoods in New York City". Frommer's. Retrieved July 30, 2017.
- Musto, Michael (October 4, 2012). "23rd Street Has Become Thrift Shop Row". Village Voice. Retrieved July 30, 2017.
- Not For Tourists Guide to New York City 2014. Skyhorse Publishing, Inc. 2013. p. 65. ISBN 9781628735840.
- Gershman, Suzy (2006). Suzy Gershman's Born to Shop New York: The Ultimate Guide for Travelers Who Love to Shop. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 111, 264. ISBN 9780470056790.
- Shockey, Lauren (November 11, 2011). "Our 10 Best Things to Eat on 23rd Street". Village Voice. Retrieved July 30, 2017.
- Radomsky, Rosalie R. (March 14, 2017). "Recent Commercial Real Estate Transactions". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 30, 2017.
- Walker, Ameena (March 24, 2017). "5 Gramercy apartments to check out this weekend". Curbed NY. Retrieved July 30, 2017.
- Kussin, Zachary (July 15, 2015). "The luxury real estate boom taking over Midtown South". New York Post. Retrieved July 30, 2017.
- "Manhattan Bus Map" (PDF). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. December 2017. Retrieved April 24, 2018.
- MTA Regional Bus Operations. "M23 bus schedule" (PDF).
- Chan, Sewell (August 9, 2016). "And the Award for Slowest City Bus Goes to ..." City Room. Retrieved September 22, 2016.
- "Straphangers Campaign". NYPIRG Straphangers Campaign. November 12, 2003. Archived from the original on March 5, 2017. Retrieved September 22, 2016.
- "Effective November 6, 2016 M23 Select Bus Service". web.mta.info. Metropolitan Transportation Authority. October 2016. Retrieved October 31, 2016.
- Alexiou, Alice Sparberg (2010), The Flatiron: The New York Landmark and the Incomparable City that Arose With It, New York: Thomas Dunne/St. Martin's, ISBN 978-0-312-38468-5
- Burrows, Edwin G. & Wallace, Mike (1999), Gotham: A History of New York City to 1898, New York: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-195-11634-8
- Diamonstein-Spielvogel, Barbaralee (2011), The Landmarks of New York, Albany, New York: State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-1-4384-3769-9
- Eldredge, Niles & Horenstein, Sidney (2014). Concrete Jungle: New York City and Our Last Best Hope for a Sustainable Future. Berkeley, California: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-27015-2.
- Jackson, Kenneth T., ed. (2010), The Encyclopedia of New York City (2nd ed.), New Haven: Yale University Press, ISBN 978-0-300-11465-2
- Koeppel, Gerard (2015), City on a Grid: How New York Became New York, Boston: Da Capo Press, ISBN 978-0-306-82284-1
- Lynn, Robin; Morrone, Francis; Toran, E.A. (2013). Guide to New York City Urban Landscapes. W. W. Norton. ISBN 978-0-393-73357-0.
- New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission; Dolkart, Andrew S.; Postal, Matthew A. (2009), Postal, Matthew A. (ed.), Guide to New York City Landmarks (4th ed.), New York: John Wiley & Sons, ISBN 978-0-470-28963-1
- Reports of Decisions. 3. 1913. Retrieved September 22, 2016 – via Google Books.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 23rd Street (Manhattan).|
- New York Songlines: 23rd Street – a virtual walking tour
|Preceding station||Erie Railroad||Following station|