Annexin A2 also known as annexin II is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ANXA2gene.
Annexin 2 is involved in diverse cellular processes such as cell motility (especially that of the epithelial cells), linkage of membrane-associated protein complexes to the actin cytoskeleton, endocytosis, fibrinolysis, ion channel formation, and cell matrix interactions. It is a calcium-dependent phospholipid-binding protein whose function is to help organize exocytosis of intracellular proteins to the extracellular domain. Annexin II is a pleiotropic protein meaning that its function is dependent on place and time in the body.
The ANXA2 gene, located at 15q22.2, has three pseudogenes located on chromosomes 4, 9 and 10, respectively. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.
This protein is a member of the annexin family. Members of this calcium-dependent phospholipid-binding protein family play a role in the regulation of cellular growth and in signal transduction pathways. This protein functions as an autocrine factor which heightens osteoclast formation and bone resorption.
Annexin A2 has been proposed to function inside the cell in sorting of endosomes and outside the cell in anticoagulant reactions.
^Takahashi S, Reddy SV, Chirgwin JM, Devlin R, Haipek C, Anderson J, Roodman GD (Nov 1994). "Cloning and identification of annexin II as an autocrine/paracrine factor that increases osteoclast formation and bone resorption". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 269 (46): 28696–701. PMID7961821.
^Bacher S, Achatz G, Schmitz ML, Lamers MC (Dec 2002). "Prohibitin and prohibitone are contained in high-molecular weight complexes and interact with alpha-actinin and annexin A2". Biochimie. 84 (12): 1207–20. doi:10.1016/S0300-9084(02)00027-5. PMID12628297.
^Kirshner J, Schumann D, Shively JE (Dec 2003). "CEACAM1, a cell-cell adhesion molecule, directly associates with annexin II in a three-dimensional model of mammary morphogenesis". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 278 (50): 50338–45. doi:10.1074/jbc.M309115200. PMID14522961.
^Réty S, Sopkova J, Renouard M, Osterloh D, Gerke V, Tabaries S, Russo-Marie F, Lewit-Bentley A (Jan 1999). "The crystal structure of a complex of p11 with the annexin II N-terminal peptide". Nature Structural Biology. 6 (1): 89–95. doi:10.1038/4965. PMID9886297.
^Ohta S, Shiomi Y, Sugimoto K, Obuse C, Tsurimoto T (Oct 2002). "A proteomics approach to identify proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-binding proteins in human cell lysates. Identification of the human CHL12/RFCs2-5 complex as a novel PCNA-binding protein". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 277 (43): 40362–7. doi:10.1074/jbc.M206194200. PMID12171929.
Kwon M, MacLeod TJ, Zhang Y, Waisman DM (Jan 2005). "S100A10, annexin A2, and annexin a2 heterotetramer as candidate plasminogen receptors". Frontiers in Bioscience. 10 (1-3): 300–25. doi:10.2741/1529. PMID15574370.
Babiychuk EB, Draeger A (Jun 2006). "Regulation of ecto-5'-nucleotidase activity via Ca2+-dependent, annexin 2-mediated membrane rearrangement?". Biochemical Society Transactions. 34 (Pt 3): 374–6. doi:10.1042/BST0340374. PMID16709165.
Bohn E, Gerke V, Kresse H, Löffler BM, Kunze H (Jan 1992). "Annexin II inhibits calcium-dependent phospholipase A1 and lysophospholipase but not triacyl glycerol lipase activities of rat liver hepatic lipase". FEBS Letters. 296 (3): 237–40. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(92)80294-Q. PMID1531641.
Jindal HK, Chaney WG, Anderson CW, Davis RG, Vishwanatha JK (Mar 1991). "The protein-tyrosine kinase substrate, calpactin I heavy chain (p36), is part of the primer recognition protein complex that interacts with DNA polymerase alpha". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 266 (8): 5169–76. PMID1825830.
Filipek A, Gerke V, Weber K, Kuźnicki J (Feb 1991). "Characterization of the cell-cycle-regulated protein calcyclin from Ehrlich ascites tumor cells. Identification of two binding proteins obtained by Ca2(+)-dependent affinity chromatography". European Journal of Biochemistry / FEBS. 195 (3): 795–800. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1991.tb15768.x. PMID1999197.
Spano F, Raugei G, Palla E, Colella C, Melli M (Nov 1990). "Characterization of the human lipocortin-2-encoding multigene family: its structure suggests the existence of a short amino acid unit undergoing duplication". Gene. 95 (2): 243–51. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(90)90367-Z. PMID2174397.
Johnsson N, Johnsson K, Weber K (Aug 1988). "A discontinuous epitope on p36, the major substrate of src tyrosine-protein-kinase, brings the phosphorylation site into the neighbourhood of a consensus sequence for Ca2+/lipid-binding proteins". FEBS Letters. 236 (1): 201–4. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(88)80314-4. PMID2456953.
Huebner K, Cannizzaro LA, Frey AZ, Hecht BK, Hecht F, Croce CM, Wallner BP (May 1988). "Chromosomal localization of the human genes for lipocortin I and lipocortin II". Oncogene Research. 2 (4): 299–310. PMID2969496.
Huang KS, Wallner BP, Mattaliano RJ, Tizard R, Burne C, Frey A, Hession C, McGray P, Sinclair LK, Chow EP (Jul 1986). "Two human 35 kd inhibitors of phospholipase A2 are related to substrates of pp60v-src and of the epidermal growth factor receptor/kinase". Cell. 46 (2): 191–9. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(86)90736-1. PMID3013422.
Buday L, Egan SE, Rodriguez Viciana P, Cantrell DA, Downward J (Mar 1994). "A complex of Grb2 adaptor protein, Sos exchange factor, and a 36-kDa membrane-bound tyrosine phosphoprotein is implicated in ras activation in T cells". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 269 (12): 9019–23. PMID7510700.
Kato S, Sekine S, Oh SW, Kim NS, Umezawa Y, Abe N, Yokoyama-Kobayashi M, Aoki T (Dec 1994). "Construction of a human full-length cDNA bank". Gene. 150 (2): 243–50. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(94)90433-2. PMID7821789.
Richard I, Broux O, Chiannilkulchai N, Fougerousse F, Allamand V, Bourg N, Brenguier L, Devaud C, Pasturaud P, Roudaut C (Oct 1994). "Regional localization of human chromosome 15 loci". Genomics. 23 (3): 619–27. doi:10.1006/geno.1994.1550. PMID7851890.
Takahashi S, Reddy SV, Chirgwin JM, Devlin R, Haipek C, Anderson J, Roodman GD (Nov 1994). "Cloning and identification of annexin II as an autocrine/paracrine factor that increases osteoclast formation and bone resorption". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 269 (46): 28696–701. PMID7961821.
Hyatt SL, Liao L, Chapline C, Jaken S (Feb 1994). "Identification and characterization of alpha-protein kinase C binding proteins in normal and transformed REF52 cells". Biochemistry. 33 (5): 1223–8. doi:10.1021/bi00171a023. PMID8110754.
Wright JF, Kurosky A, Wasi S (Feb 1994). "An endothelial cell-surface form of annexin II binds human cytomegalovirus". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 198 (3): 983–9. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1994.1140. PMID8117306.
Maruyama K, Sugano S (Jan 1994). "Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides". Gene. 138 (1-2): 171–4. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(94)90802-8. PMID8125298.