Botolan language

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Botolan
Botolan Sambal
Native to Philippines
Region some parts of Zambales province, Luzon
Native speakers
33,000 (2000)[1]
Official status
Regulated by Komisyon sa Wikang Filipino
Language codes
ISO 639-3 sbl
Glottolog boto1242[2]
Botolan Sambal language map.png
Area where Botolan Sambal is spoken according to Ethnologue
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Botolan is a Sambalic language spoken by 32,867 (SIL 2000) Sambal, primarily in the Zambal municipalities of Botolan and Cabangan in the Philippines.

Varieties[edit]

The Ayta people of sitio Villar, Botolan, and sitio Kakilingan, Santa Fe, Cabangan also speak a Botolan dialect with some unique lexical items.[3]

Phonology[edit]

Botolan has 20 phonemes: 16 consonants and four vowels. Syllable structure is relatively simple. Each syllable contains at least a consonant and a vowel.[citation needed]

Vowels[edit]

Botolan has four vowels. They are:

There are five main diphthongs: /aɪ/, /uɪ/, /aʊ/, /ij/, and /iʊ/.

Consonants[edit]

Below is a chart of Botolan consonants. All the stops are unaspirated. The velar nasal occurs in all positions including at the beginning of a word.

Bilabial Dental Palatal Velar Glottal
Stops Voiceless p t k - [ʔ]
Voiced b d g
Affricates Voiceless (ts, ty) [tʃ]
Voiced (dy) [dʒ]
Fricatives s (sy) [ʃ] h
Nasals m n (ny) [ɲ] ng [ŋ]
Laterals l (ly) [lj]
Flaps r
Semivowels w j

Note: Consonants /d/ and /ɾ/ can sometimes interchange as they were once allophones.

Stress[edit]

Stress is phonemic in Botolan. Stress on words is very important, they differentiate words with the same spellings, but with different meanings, e.g. hikó (I) and híko (elbow).

Historical sound changes[edit]

Many words pronounced with /s/ and /ɡ/ in Filipino have /h/ and /j/, respectively, in their cognates in Botolan. Compare hiko and bayo with the Filipino siko and bago.

Sample texts[edit]

The Lord’s Prayer[edit]

Version from Matthew[edit]

Tatay nawen ya anti ha katatag-ayan,
Hay ngalan mo ay igalang dayi nin kaganawan.
Andawaten nawen ya tampol kayna dayin mag-arí.
Mangyari dayi ya kalabayan mo bayri ha babon lotá
Bilang ombayro ha katatag-ayan.
Hapa-eg ay biyan mo kayin pamamangan ya
angka-ilanganen nawen.
Patawaren mo kayi ha kawkasalanan
nawen bilang pamatawad nawen ha nakapagkasalanan konnawen.
Agmo kayi biyan ma-irap ya pagsobok boy
ipakarayó mo kayi koni Satanas.[4]

Philippine national proverb[edit]

Below is a translation in Botolan of the Philippine national proverb[5] “He who does not acknowledge his beginnings will not reach his destination,” followed by the original in Filipino.

  • Botolan: “Hay ahe tanda nin nanlek ha pinangibatan, ay ahe makalateng ha lalakwen.
  • Filipino: “Ang hindi marunong lumingon sa pinanggalingan ay hindi makararating sa paroroonan.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Botolan at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Botolan Sambal". Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  3. ^ Himes, Ronald S. 2012. “The Central Luzon Group of Languages”. Oceanic Linguistics 51 (2). University of Hawai'i Press: 490–537.
  4. ^ Botolan Sambal
  5. ^ National Philippine Proverb in Various Philippine Languages

External links[edit]