Proto-Philippine language

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The Proto-Philippine language is a proto-language, hypothesized to have been the common linguistic ancestor of the Philippine languages, which includes Old Tagalog (and later Modern Tagalog), the Visayan languages, and some of the languages in Mindanao.

Proto-Philippine is not directly attested to in any written work, but linguistic reconstruction by the comparative method has found regular similarities among languages that cannot be explained by coincidence or word-borrowing. Ancient forms of roots and words have been extrapolated from the similarities.[1]

Proto-Philippine originated from Proto-Malayo-Polynesian, which has some words and phrases that are similar in Old Malay and in other Austronesian languages.

Phonology[edit]

Consonant Phonemes of Proto-Philippine
Labial Dental/
Alveolar
Postalveolar/
Palatal
Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ
Stop p b t d k ɡ ʔ
Fricative s ʃ h
Tap ɾ
Approximant l j w
Vowel Phonemes of Proto-Philippine/Austronesian
Height Front Central Back
Close i /i/ u /u/
Mid ə /ə/
Open a /a/

The diphthongs, which are diachronic sources of individual vowels, are ay, aw, uy, iw, and oy.

Sample words[edit]

Here are some words from Proto-Philippine:

Proto-Philippine IPA/Pronunciation Equivalent in Old Tagalog Translation in Modern Tagalog
ᜀᜐᜓ *aʃu (ashu) asu aso (dog)
ᜊᜎ *ba̯Lãj (balai) - vahay (house/structure/building)
ᜊᜊᜓ *babə̃j (babəI) babui baboy (pig)
ᜊᜌᜓ *bɐRĩỹə̯ (bariyə) bagyu / unus bagyo/unos (storm)
ᜊᜌᜒ *bãjɜ̯ (Bayi) - babae (woman/girl/lady]])
ᜇᜒᜃᜒ *dəkət (dəkət) - dilit (adhesive/stick)
ᜇᜓᜇᜓ *zuRuʔ (zuru') dugu dugo (blood)
ᜑᜌᜓ *hajək (hayək) - halik (kiss)
ᜃᜌᜂ *kajɐ̃õ (kayau) pangangayau pangangaso (to hunt)
ᜅᜌᜓ *ŋajan (ngayan) ngaran pangalan (name)
ᜆᜓᜊᜒ *tubiR (tubir)/*danum (danum) tubig tubig (water)
ᜎᜌᜓ *lãɳũj(lanyui) langui langoy (to swim)
ᜆᜏᜓ *ʈãœ̃ (tawu) tau tao (human)

- indicates unchanged words.

Sentences[edit]

Proto-Philippine Translation Equivalent in Modern Tagalog Translation in English
ᜈᜊᜓᜃᜈᜊ Nabuká na ba? Nagbukas na ba? Is it open now?
ᜀᜃᜓᜋᜎᜌᜓ Aku mar-lanyui. Ako ay lalangoy. I am going to swim.
ᜉᜑᜐᜀᜋᜒᜈᜊᜎ Panhik sa amin na balai. Pasok ka sa aming bahay. Come into our house.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

[2] [3] [4]

  1. ^ Charles, Mathew (1 January 1974). "Problems in the Reconstruction of Proto-Philippine Phonology and the Subgrouping of the Philippine Languages". Oceanic Linguistics. 13 (1/2): 457–509. doi:10.2307/3622751. JSTOR 3622751. 
  2. ^ Llamzon, Teodoro A. Proto-Philippine Phonology
  3. ^ Paz, Consuelo J. The Application of the Comparative Method to Philippine Languages
  4. ^ Liao, Hsiu-chuan. On the Development of Comitative Verbs in Philippine Languages, Language and Linguistics, 2011.