Charlie Kaufman

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Charlie Kaufman
Charlie Kaufman Fantastic Fest 2015-0257 (27441349145) (cropped).jpg
Kaufman at the 2015 Fantastic Fest
Born Charles Stuart Kaufman
(1958-11-19) November 19, 1958 (age 57)
New York City, New York, U.S.
Residence Pasadena, California
Alma mater New York University
Occupation Screenwriter, producer, director, lyricist
Years active 1983–present
Spouse(s) Denise Kaufman
Children 1

Charles Stuart "Charlie" Kaufman (born November 19, 1958) is an American screenwriter, producer, director, and lyricist. He wrote the films Being John Malkovich (1999), Adaptation (2002), and Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind (2004). He made his directorial debut with Synecdoche, New York (2008), which was also well-received; film critic Roger Ebert named it "the best movie of the decade" in 2009.[1] It was followed by Anomalisa (2015).

Often regarded as one of the finest screenwriters of the 21st century,[2][3][4] Kaufman has been nominated for four Academy Awards: twice for Best Original Screenplay for Being John Malkovich and Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind (winning for the latter), Best Adapted Screenplay (with his fictional brother) for Adaptation, and Best Animated Feature for Anomalisa. He also won two BAFTA Award for Best Original Screenplays and one BAFTA Award for Best Adapted Screenplay. Three of Kaufman's scripts appear in the Writers Guild of America's list of the 101 greatest movie screenplays ever written.[5]

Early life[edit]

Kaufman was born in New York City to a Jewish family[6] on November 19, 1958, the son of Helen and Myron Kaufman.[7] He grew up in Massapequa, New York before moving to West Hartford, Connecticut where he graduated high school.[8] While attending high school, Kaufman was part of the school's drama club, performing in numerous productions before landing the lead role in a production of Play It Again, Sam during his senior year.[8]

After high school graduation, Kaufman attended Boston University before transferring to New York University where he studied film. While attending New York University, Kaufman met Paul Proch, with whom he would write many unproduced scripts and plays.[8]

Career[edit]

Between 1983 and 1984, Kaufman and Proch wrote comedic articles and spoofs on spec for National Lampoon. His work included parodies of Kurt Vonnegut and the X-Men.[9] Kaufman and Proch tried to get their screenplays produced, sending them to many people in film industry. The only response the two ever received for their work was a supportive letter from Alan Arkin in regards to their screenplay titled Purely Coincidental.[10] In hope of finding talent agents the two began to write spec scripts for television series such as Married... With Children and Newhart. In 1991, Kaufman moved from Minneapolis to Los Angeles in search of more job prospects. Kaufman got his start in television by writing two episodes for Chris Elliott's Get a Life during the 1991–1992 season.[8] During the 1993–1994 season, Kaufman worked on Fox's sketch comedy show The Edge. Kaufman wrote some pilot scripts while working as a television writer, but none of them were produced.[8] He later worked as a writer for Ned and Stacey and The Dana Carvey Show.[11]

He first came to mainstream notice as the writer of Being John Malkovich, directed by Spike Jonze, earning an Academy Award nomination for his effort and winning a BAFTA. He wrote the script on spec in 1994, sending it to many companies and studios, all turning it down. The script eventually reached Francis Ford Coppola, who passed it on to his then-son-in-law Jonze, who agreed to direct the film[12]

After the success of Being John Malkovich, another one of Kaufman's screenplays was produced titled Human Nature, which was directed by Michel Gondry and produced by Kaufman and Jonze.

Kaufman and Jonze reunited yet again as the director screenwriter respectively for Adaptation, which earned him another Academy Award nomination and his second BAFTA. Adaptation featured a fictionalized version of Kaufman and his fictional brother, Donald, who is credited as writer of the film along with Kaufman. The idea came to Kaufman while attempting to adapt Susan Orlean's novel The Orchid Thief into film. Struggling with writer's block, Kaufman turned the script into an exaggerated account of his struggles with adapting the screenplay.[13]

Kaufman wrote the screenplay for Confessions of a Dangerous Mind, a biopic based on the "unauthorized autobiography" of Chuck Barris, the creator of such popular game shows as The Dating Game and host of The Gong Show. The film focuses on Barris's claim to have been a CIA hit man. It was George Clooney's directorial debut. Kaufman criticized Clooney for making drastic alterations to the script without consulting him (instead, Clooney consulted Barris). Kaufman said in an interview with William Arnold: "The usual thing for a writer is to deliver a script and then disappear. That's not for me. I want to be involved from beginning to end. And these directors [Gondry and Jonze] know that, and respect it."[14]

Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind, released in 2004, was Kaufman's second pairing with director Michel Gondry. Kaufman won his first Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay and third BAFTA for the film together with Gondry and French artist Pierre Bismuth. The trio also received the prestigious PEN American Center 2005 prize for screenplay for the film.[15] David Edelstein described the film in Slate as "The Awful Truth turned inside-out by Philip K. Dick, with nods to Samuel Beckett, Chris Marker, John Guare—the greatest dramatists of our modern fractured consciousness. But the weave is pure Kaufman."[16]

After agreeing to participate in Carter Burwell's Theater of the New Ear, a double bill "sound play", Kaufman wrote and directed the audio play Hope Leaves the Theater, while the other play in the production, titled Sawbones, was written and directed by the Coen Brothers[17] Theater of the New Ear debuted in April 2005 at St. Ann's Warehouse in Brooklyn, New York.[18] Due to scheduling conflicts, later productions of Theater of the New Ear did not feature the Coen's play, replacing it with Anomalisa which was written by Kaufman under the pseudonym "'Francis Fregoli".[19]

Kaufman made his directorial film debut with the postmodern film Synecdoche, New York.[20] It premiered at the Cannes Film Festival in 2008. The idea for the film came when Kaufman and Spike Jonze were approached to direct a horror film. Rather than make a conventional horror film, the two agreed to have the film deal with things they found frightening in real life, rather than typical horror film tropes.[21] Kaufman decided to direct the film after Jonze left the project as the director to direct Where the Wild Things Are instead.

Kaufman was slated to write and direct a film with the working title Frank or Francis. Few details have been confirmed about the plot except that it is a musical comedy about internet anger culture.[22] In July 2012, Jack Black, who was to star in the film, revealed in an interview that funding for the project had fallen through, as the studio was unsure about its chances for success after the financial failure of Kaufman's last directorial effort. Although the future of the project is not certain, Kaufman says "It could still happen. It would have to be reinvented, though. We had a whole cast and we were headed into pre-production. So, I’d have to get people back and who knows if they would be interested anymore. But, at this point, we don’t have any money, so that’s a secondary concern."[23]

Dino Stamatopoulos, a former colleague of Kaufman's from The Dana Carvey Show, became interested in adapting Kaufman's Anomalisa play script into a stop motion animated film. With Kaufman's permission, Stamatopoulos turned to the crowdfunding website Kickstarter in order to fund the film. The Kickstarter page for the film was set up in August 2012 and by the time funding had ended $406,237 was pledged.[24] It had its world premiere at the Telluride Film Festival on September 4, 2015,[25] receiving universal acclaim from critics.[26]

Trying to make a return to television, Kaufman directed and wrote a pilot for FX titled How and Why in 2014. The plot was described as being about a "man who can explain how and why a nuclear reactor works but is clueless about life". FX decided to not pick up the pilot, but it has been shopped to other outlets.[27]

Themes and influences[edit]

Kaufman's works explore such universal themes as identity crisis, mortality, and the meaning of life through a metaphysical or parapsychological framework. While his work resists labels, it is sometimes described as surrealist.[28] He sometimes includes fictionalized "facts" about his life in his work, notably Adaptation and Hope Leaves the Theater.

Apes recur in Kaufman's work: in Being John Malkovich Lotte has a pet chimp named Elijah, in Human Nature Puff was raised as an ape, in Confessions of a Dangerous Mind Penny dreams about an ape, and in Adaptation the original deus ex machina was a swamp ape.[29]

Among Kaufman's favorite writers/directors and influences are Franz Kafka, Samuel Beckett, Stanisław Lem, Flannery O'Connor, Shirley Jackson, Italo Svevo, David Lynch, Lars von Trier, and Patricia Highsmith.[citation needed]

Personal life[edit]

Kaufman lived and worked for a time during the late 1980s in Minneapolis, answering calls about missing newspapers at the Star Tribune, before moving to Los Angeles.[8]

He currently lives in Pasadena, California, with his wife Denise and their child.[11]

Work[edit]

Filmography[edit]

Year Title Director Writer Producer Executive producer Notes
1999 Being John Malkovich Yes Yes BAFTA Award for Best Original Screenplay
Boston Society of Film Critics Award for Best Screenplay
Chicago Film Critics Association Award for Best Screenplay
Independent Spirit Award for Best First Screenplay
Los Angeles Film Critics Association Award for Best Screenplay
National Society of Film Critics Award for Best Screenplay
San Diego Film Critics Society Award for Best Original Screenplay
Saturn Award for Best Writing
Toronto Film Critics Association Award for Best Screenplay
Nominated–Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay
Nominated–Golden Globe Award for Best Screenplay
Nominated–Writers Guild of America Award for Best Original Screenplay
2001 Human Nature Yes Yes National Board of Review Award for Best Screenplay
2002 Adaptation Yes Yes BAFTA Award for Best Adapted Screenplay
Boston Society of Film Critics Award for Best Screenplay
Critics' Choice Movie Award for Best Screenplay
Chicago Film Critics Association Award for Best Screenplay
Florida Film Critics Circle Award for Best Screenplay
National Board of Review Award for Best Screenplay
New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Screenplay
Online Film Critics Society Award for Best Adapted Screenplay
San Diego Film Critics Society Award for Best Adapted Screenplay
Satellite Award for Best Adapted Screenplay
Nominated–Academy Award for Best Adapted Screenplay
Nominated–Golden Globe Award for Best Screenplay
Nominated–Writers Guild of America Award for Best Adapted Screenplay
2002 Confessions of a Dangerous Mind Yes Critics' Choice Movie Award for Best Screenplay
National Board of Review Award for Best Screenplay
2004 Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind Yes Yes Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay
BAFTA Award for Best Original Screenplay
London Film Critics' Circle Award for Screenwriter of the Year
National Board of Review Award for Best Original Screenplay
Online Film Critics Society Award for Best Adapted Screenplay
Toronto Film Critics Association Award for Best Screenplay
Washington D.C. Area Film Critics Association Award for Best Original Screenplay
Writers Guild of America Award for Best Original Screenplay
Nominated–Boston Society of Film Critics Award for Best Screenplay
Nominated–Critics' Choice Movie Award for Best Screenplay
Nominated–Golden Globe Award for Best Screenplay
Nominated–Los Angeles Film Critics Association Award for Best Screenplay
Nominated–National Society of Film Critics Award for Best Screenplay
Nominated–Saturn Award for Best Writing
2008 Synecdoche, New York Yes Yes Yes Independent Spirit Award for Best First Feature
Robert Altman Award
Nominated–Independent Spirit Award for Best Screenplay
Nominated–Palme d'Or
Nominated–Caméra d'Or
Nominated–Chicago Film Critics Association Award for Best Original Screenplay
Nominated–Independent Spirit Award for Best Screenplay
Nominated–Los Angeles Film Critics Association Award for Best Screenplay
Nominated–National Society of Film Critics Award for Best Screenplay
Nominated–Online Film Critics Society Award for Best Original Screenplay
2015 Anomalisa Yes Yes Yes Co-directed by Duke Johnson
Grand Jury Prize at the Venice Film Festival
Vancouver Film Critics Circle Award for Best Screenplay
Nominated–Academy Award for Best Animated Feature
Nominated–Independent Spirit Award for Best Film
Nominated–Independent Spirit Award for Best Director
Nominated–Independent Spirit Award for Best Screenplay
Nominated–Golden Lion
Nominated–Chicago Film Critics Association Award for Best Original Screenplay
Nominated–Austin Film Critics Association Award for Best Adapted Screenplay
Nominated–National Society of Film Critics Award for Best Screenplay
Nominated–Producers Guild of America Award for Outstanding Producer of Animated Theatrical Motion Pictures
Nominated–Annie Award for Directing in a Feature Production

Television[edit]

Year Title Credit Notes
1991–1992 Get a Life Writer 2 episodes
1992–1993 The Edge Writer 20 episodes
1993 The Trouble with Larry Story editor 7 episodes
1995 Misery Loves Company Co-producer 6 episodes
1996 The Dana Carvey Show Writer 8 episodes
1996–1997 Ned and Stacey Writer and producer 22 episodes
2006 Moral Orel Story Uncredited
Episode: "Love"
2014 How and Why Director, writer, and executive producer Pilot[30]

Plays[edit]

Year Title Credit Notes
2005 Hope Leaves the Theater Director and writer
2005 Anomalisa Director and writer Under the pseudonym Francis Fregoli

Lyrics[edit]

Year Soundtrack Songs
2001 Human Nature "Hair Everywhere" and "Here with You"
2008 Synecdoche, New York "Synecdoche Song", "Gravity", "I'm Just a Little Person", and "Song for Caden"
2015 Anomalisa "None of Them are You"

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ebert, Roger. (2009-12-13) The best films of the decade – Roger Ebert's Journal. Blogs.suntimes.com. Retrieved on 2010-12-19.
  2. ^ Ebert, Roger (November 5, 2008). "Synecdoche, New York Movie Review (2008)". Retrieved October 16, 2015.  "Charlie Kaufman is one of the few truly important writers to make screenplays his medium."
  3. ^ "Charlie Kaufman: Screenwriters Lecture". British Academy of Film and Television Arts. Retrieved October 16, 2015.  "One of modern cinema's most celebrated writers"...
  4. ^ Ulin, David L. (May 14, 2006). "Why Charlie Kaufman Is Us". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 16, 2015.  "In exploring our inner selves, he's become one of the best writers of his generation, David L. Ulin argues."
  5. ^ "101 Greatest Screenplays List". Writers Guild of America, West. Retrieved September 13, 2015. 
  6. ^ The Jewish Chronicle: "It’s not easy being Charlie Kaufman" By Stephen Applebaum May 7, 2009
  7. ^ LaRocca, D. (2011). The Philosophy of Charlie Kaufman. University Press of Kentucky. p. 3. ISBN 9780813133928. Retrieved 2014-10-15. 
  8. ^ a b c d e f "Biography". BeingCharlieKaufman.com. Retrieved 2012-08-28. 
  9. ^ "Scans of said articles". Beingcharliekaufman.com. Retrieved 2012-08-28. 
  10. ^ "Journey Into Madness". Retrieved 2015-07-30. 
  11. ^ a b "Salon.com Interview by Michael Sragow.". Retrieved 2007-05-15. 
  12. ^ Kobel, Peter (October 24, 1999). "FILM; The Fun and Games of Living a Virtual Life". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 28, 2010. Retrieved November 4, 2010. 
  13. ^ Claude Brodesser (November 10, 1999). "Scribe revisiting reality". Variety. Retrieved April 5, 2008. 
  14. ^ "Kaufman interviewed by William Arnold.". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. 2004-03-18. Retrieved 2007-05-19. 
  15. ^ "PEN Center USA: 2005 Literary Awards Winners". Archived from the original on 2006-11-25. Retrieved 2007-01-12. 
  16. ^ David Edelstein. "Forget Me Not: The genius of Charlie Kaufman's Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind". Retrieved 2016-07-24. 
  17. ^ "Creative Screenwriting Magazine on Hope Leaves the Theater". Retrieved 2007-05-19. 
  18. ^ "The Body – Projects – Theater of the New Ear". Archived from the original on 2007-01-07. Retrieved 2007-01-12. 
  19. ^ "Theater of the New Ear". Retrieved 2015-07-30. 
  20. ^ "Kaufman's Directorial Debut Lands Williams, Hoffman". Retrieved 2007-01-12. 
  21. ^ "Synecdoche, New York: A Great Film About the Upcoming Zombie Apocalypse? | Blog | WorldMaker.net". Blog.worldmaker.net. May 18, 2009. Retrieved November 27, 2012. 
  22. ^ "Is this the plot of "Frank or Francis"?". BeingCharlieKaufman.com. 2011-07-30. Retrieved 2012-08-28. 
  23. ^ Jagernauth, Kevin (November 12, 2015). Indiewire.com http://blogs.indiewire.com/theplaylist/charlie-kaufman-explains-why-star-studded-frank-or-francis-fell-apart-says-it-could-still-happen-20151112. Retrieved December 9, 2015.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  24. ^ Charlie Kaufman's Anomalisa
  25. ^ Kohn, Eric (September 5, 2015). "Telluride Review: Charlie Kaufman's Marvelously Strange 'Anomalisa' is An Animated Identity Crisis". Indiewire.com. Retrieved December 9, 2015. 
  26. ^ "Anomalisa (2015)". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved December 9, 2015. 
  27. ^ "FX's Charlie Kaufman Pilot Not Going Forward". Deadline.com. 
  28. ^ Indie Wire interview. Archived September 24, 2005, at the Wayback Machine.
  29. ^ Adaptation (Draft 2) Archived March 28, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
  30. ^ Andreeva, Nellie (January 14, 2014). "John Hawkes & Michael Cera To Star In Charlie Kaufman's FX Comedy Pilot". Deadline.com. Retrieved 2014-01-14. 

External links[edit]