Kaufman at the Sarajevo Film Festival, August 2008
|Born||Charles Stuart Kaufman
November 19, 1958
New York City, New York
|Alma mater||New York University|
|Occupation||Screenwriter, producer, director, lyricist|
Charles Stuart "Charlie" Kaufman (born November 19, 1958) is an American screenwriter, producer, director, and lyricist. He wrote the films Being John Malkovich (1999), Adaptation (2002), and Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind (2004). He made his directorial debut with Synecdoche, New York (2008), which was also well-received; film critic Roger Ebert named it "the best movie of the decade" in 2009. It was followed by Anomalisa (2015).
Throughout his career, Kaufman has been lauded by critics[who?] for his creativity and originality: Being John Malkovich features John Malkovich as a fictional version of himself finding that his own mind is accessible by others; Human Nature touches on themes of behaviorism and is told mostly in flashbacks; Adaptation follows Nicolas Cage as Kaufman himself, trying to write the film itself and to understand the book from which it is adapted, with the help of his twin brother Donald Kaufman (credited as a co-writer despite being a fictional character); Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind takes place mainly in the mind of the main character as his memory is erased; Synecdoche, New York is a postmodern film with many complex and surrealist elements; and Anomalisa follows the life of a self-help guru who experiences everyone, save the titular Lisa, as having the same voice and face.
Often regarded as one of the finest screenwriters of the 21st century, Kaufman has been nominated for four Academy Awards: twice for Best Original Screenplay for Being John Malkovich and Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind (winning for the latter), Best Adapted Screenplay (with his fictional brother) for Adaptation, and Best Animated Feature for Anomalisa. He also won two BAFTA Award for Best Original Screenplays and one BAFTA Award for Best Adapted Screenplay. Three of Kaufman's scripts appear in the Writers Guild of America's list of the 101 greatest movie screenplays ever written.
Kaufman was born in New York City to a Jewish family on November 19, 1958, the son of Helen and Myron Kaufman. He grew up in Massapequa, New York before moving to West Hartford, Connecticut where he graduated high school. While attending High School, Kaufman was part of the school's Drama Club, performing in numerous productions before landing the lead role in a production of Play It Again, Sam during his senior year.
After high school graduation, Kaufman attended Boston University before transferring to New York University where he studied film. While attending New York University, Kaufman met Paul Proch, with whom he would write many unproduced scripts and plays.
Between 1983 and 1984, Kaufman and Proch wrote comedic articles and spoofs on spec for National Lampoon. His work included parodies of Kurt Vonnegut and the X-Men. Kaufman and Proch tried to get their screenplays produced, sending them to many people in film industry. The only response the two ever received for their work was a supportive letter from Alan Arkin in regards to their screenplay titled Purely Coincidental. In hope of finding talent agents the two began to write spec scripts for television series such as Married... With Children and Newhart. In 1991, Kaufman moved from Minneapolis to Los Angeles in search of more job prospects. Kaufman got his start in television by writing two episodes for Chris Elliott's Get a Life during the 1991–1992 season. During the 1993–1994 season, Kaufman worked on Fox's sketch comedy show The Edge. Kaufman wrote some pilot scripts while working as a television writer, but none of them were produced. He later worked as a writer for Ned and Stacey and The Dana Carvey Show.
He first came to mainstream notice as the writer of Being John Malkovich, directed by Spike Jonze, earning an Academy Award nomination for his effort and winning a BAFTA. He wrote the script on spec in 1994, sending it to many companies and studios, all turning it down. The script eventually reached Francis Ford Coppola, who passed it on to his then-son-in-law Jonze, who agreed to direct the film
Kaufman and Jonze reunited yet again as the director screenwriter respectively for Adaptation, which earned him another Academy Award nomination and his second BAFTA. Adaptation featured a fictionalized version of Kaufman and his fictional brother, Donald, who is credited as writer of the film along with Kaufman. The idea came to Kaufman while attempting to adapt Susan Orlean's novel The Orchid Thief into film. Struggling with writer's block, Kaufman turned the script into an exaggerated account of his struggles with adapting the screenplay.
Kaufman wrote the screenplay for Confessions of a Dangerous Mind, a biopic based on the "unauthorized autobiography" of Chuck Barris, the creator of such popular game shows as The Dating Game and host of The Gong Show. The film focuses on Barris's claim to have been a CIA hit man. It was George Clooney's directorial debut. Kaufman criticized Clooney for making drastic alterations to the script without consulting him (instead, Clooney consulted Barris). Kaufman said in an interview with William Arnold: "The usual thing for a writer is to deliver a script and then disappear. That's not for me. I want to be involved from beginning to end. And these directors [Gondry and Jonze] know that, and respect it."
Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind, released in 2004, was Kaufman's second pairing with director Michel Gondry. Kaufman won his first Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay and third BAFTA for the film together with Gondry and French artist Pierre Bismuth. The trio also received the prestigious PEN American Center 2005 prize for screenplay for the film. David Edelstein described the film in Slate as "The Awful Truth turned inside-out by Philip K. Dick, with nods to Samuel Beckett, Chris Marker, John Guare—the greatest dramatists of our modern fractured consciousness. But the weave is pure Kaufman."
After agreeing to participate in Carter Burwell's Theater of the New Ear, a double bill "sound play", Kaufman wrote and directed the audio play Hope Leaves the Theater, while the other play in the production, titled Sawbones, was written and directed by the Coen Brothers Theater of the New Ear debuted in April 2005 at St. Ann's Warehouse in Brooklyn, New York. Due to scheduling conflicts, later productions of Theater of the New Ear did not feature the Coen's play, replacing it with Anomalisa which was written by Kaufman under the pseudonym "'Francis Fregoli".
Kaufman made his directorial film debut with the postmodern film Synecdoche, New York. It premiered at the Cannes Film Festival in 2008. The idea for the film came when Kaufman and Spike Jonze were approached to direct a horror film. Rather than make a conventional horror film, the two agreed to have the film deal with things they found frightening in real life, rather than typical horror film tropes. Kaufman decided to direct the film after Jonze left the project as the director to direct Where the Wild Things Are instead.
Kaufman was slated to write and direct a film with the working title Frank or Francis. Few details have been confirmed about the plot except that it is a musical comedy about internet anger culture. In July 2012, Jack Black, who was to star in the film, revealed in an interview that funding for the project had fallen through, as the studio was unsure about its chances for success after the financial failure of Kaufman's last directorial effort. Although the future of the project is not certain, Kaufman says "It could still happen. It would have to be reinvented, though. We had a whole cast and we were headed into pre-production. So, I’d have to get people back and who knows if they would be interested anymore. But, at this point, we don’t have any money, so that’s a secondary concern."
Dino Stamatopoulos, a former colleague of Kaufman's from The Dana Carvey Show, became interested in adapting Kaufman's Anomalisa play script into a stop motion animated film. With Kaufman's permission, Stamatopoulos turned to the crowdfunding website Kickstarter in order to fund the film. The Kickstarter page for the film was set up in August 2012 and by the time funding had ended $406,237 was pledged. It had its world premiere at the Telluride Film Festival on September 4, 2015, receiving universal acclaim from critics.
Trying to make a return to television, Kaufman directed and wrote a pilot for FX titled How and Why in 2014. The plot was described as being about a "man who can explain how and why a nuclear reactor works but is clueless about life". FX decided to not pick up the pilot, but it has been shopped to other outlets.
Themes and influences
Kaufman's works explore such universal themes as identity crisis, mortality, and the meaning of life through a metaphysical or parapsychological framework. While his work resists labels, it is sometimes described as surrealist. He sometimes includes fictionalized "facts" about his life in his work, notably Adaptation and Hope Leaves the Theater.
Apes recur in Kaufman's work: in Being John Malkovich Lotte has a pet chimp named Elijah, in Human Nature Puff was raised as an ape, in Confessions of a Dangerous Mind Penny dreams about an ape, and in Adaptation the original deus ex machina was a swamp ape.
Miscommunication between people is also a major recurring theme. In Being John Malkovich various characters are misheard or cannot comprehend what others are saying; one character even claims to have a speech impediment despite speaking perfectly clearly. In Adaptation the Charlie fails to speak his mind, with his internal monologue often worrying about what he should be saying. In Synecdoche, New York Sammy follows Caden for twenty years and eventually gains a seemingly omniscient knowledge of Caden's thoughts, which he voices to Hazel during his audition to play Caden in a play.
Among Kaufman's favorite writers/directors and influences are Franz Kafka, Samuel Beckett, Stanisław Lem, Flannery O'Connor, Shirley Jackson, Italo Svevo, David Lynch, Lars von Trier, and Patricia Highsmith.
|1991–1992||Get a Life||Writer||2 episodes|
|1992–1993||The Edge||Writer||20 episodes|
|1993||The Trouble with Larry||Story editor||7 episodes|
|1995||Misery Loves Company||Co-producer||6 episodes|
|1996||The Dana Carvey Show||Writer||8 episodes|
|1996–1997||Ned and Stacey||Writer and producer||22 episodes|
|2014||How and Why||Director, writer, and executive producer||Pilot|
|2005||Hope Leaves the Theater||Director and writer|
|2005||Anomalisa||Writer||Under the pseudonym Francis Fregoli|
- Ebert, Roger. (2009-12-13) The best films of the decade – Roger Ebert's Journal. Blogs.suntimes.com. Retrieved on 2010-12-19.
- Ebert, Roger (November 5, 2008). "Synecdoche, New York Movie Review (2008)". Retrieved October 16, 2015. "Charlie Kaufman is one of the few truly important writers to make screenplays his medium."
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- "Synecdoche, New York: A Great Film About the Upcoming Zombie Apocalypse? | Blog | WorldMaker.net". Blog.worldmaker.net. May 18, 2009. Retrieved November 27, 2012.
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- Jagernauth, Kevin (November 12, 2015). Indiewire.com http://blogs.indiewire.com/theplaylist/charlie-kaufman-explains-why-star-studded-frank-or-francis-fell-apart-says-it-could-still-happen-20151112. Retrieved December 9, 2015. Missing or empty
- Charlie Kaufman's Anomalisa
- Kohn, Eric (September 5, 2015). "Telluride Review: Charlie Kaufman's Marvelously Strange 'Anomalisa' is An Animated Identity Crisis". Indiewire.com. Retrieved December 9, 2015.
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- Indie Wire interview. Archived September 24, 2005 at the Wayback Machine
- Adaptation (Draft 2) Archived March 28, 2009 at the Wayback Machine
- Andreeva, Nellie (January 14, 2014). "John Hawkes & Michael Cera To Star In Charlie Kaufman’s FX Comedy Pilot". Deadline.com. Retrieved 2014-01-14.
- Charlie Kaufman on National Public Radio
- Charlie Kaufman at the Internet Movie Database
- Charlie Kaufman lecture on screenwriting, BAFTA Lecture Series, 30 September 2011. (1:10:08 hours)