Stoneman Douglas High School shooting

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Douglas High School shooting)
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Stoneman Douglas High School shooting
Part of school shootings in the United States
MarjoryStonemanDouglasHS 22Jun2008 (cropped).jpg
Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School in 2008
Parkland is located in Florida
Parkland
Parkland
Parkland (Florida)
Parkland is located in the US
Parkland
Parkland
Parkland (the US)
LocationMarjory Stoneman Douglas High School
5901 Pine Island Road
Parkland, Florida, U.S.
Coordinates26°18′19″N 80°16′06″W / 26.3053°N 80.2683°W / 26.3053; -80.2683 (Shooting)Coordinates: 26°18′19″N 80°16′06″W / 26.3053°N 80.2683°W / 26.3053; -80.2683 (Shooting) (shooting)
26°17′23″N 80°17′14″W / 26.2897°N 80.2871°W / 26.2897; -80.2871 (Arrest) (arrest)[note 1]
DateFebruary 14, 2018
2:21 – 2:27 p.m. (EST, UTC−5)
Attack type
School shooting, mass shooting
WeaponsAR-15 style semi-automatic rifle (Smith & Wesson M&P15 Sport 2)
Deaths17
Non-fatal injuries
17
PerpetratorNikolas Cruz
Charges17 counts of capital murder
17 counts of attempted first-degree murder

On February 14, 2018, a gunman opened fire at Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School in Parkland, Florida, killing seventeen students and staff members and injuring seventeen others.[2][3][4] Witnesses identified nineteen-year-old former student Nikolas Cruz as the assailant, and he was arrested in Coral Springs by the Broward County Sheriff's Office shortly after he escaped the scene; Cruz had purchased food at Walmart and McDonald's restaurants after leaving the scene of the shooting.[5] Cruz confessed to being the perpetrator,[6] and he was charged with 17 counts of premeditated murder and 17 counts of attempted murder. Police and prosecutors have not yet offered a motive and are investigating "a pattern of disciplinary issues and unnerving behavior".[7]

It is the deadliest shooting at a high school in United States history, surpassing the Columbine High School massacre which took place on April 20, 1999. The shooting was the deadliest mass shooting of 2018 and came at a period of heightened public support for gun control following the attacks in Las Vegas, Nevada and Sutherland Springs, Texas respectively in October and November 2017.

The sheriff's office received a number of tips in 2016 and 2017 about Cruz's threats to carry out a school shooting. The FBI learned that a YouTube user with the username "nikolas cruz" posted a message in September 2017 about becoming a school shooter, but the agency could not identify the user. In January 2018, someone contacted the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) tip line with a direct complaint that Cruz had made a death threat, but the complaint was not forwarded to the local FBI office.

Following the massacre, public anger and frustration towards the inaction of the Republican-dominated legislature on the wider issue of mass shootings and gun violence led to the founding of Never Again MSD, an organization formed by survivors and students of the shooting to demand legislative action on gun violence. On March 9, Governor Rick Scott signed a bill that raised the minimum age for buying rifles in Florida from 18 to 21. The legislation also established waiting periods and background checks for gun buyers. The law also allowed for the arming of teachers who were properly trained and the hiring of school police. So-called "bump stocks" would now be banned and some potentially violent or mentally unstable persons would be prohibited from possessing guns.[8][9] The National Rifle Association (NRA) immediately filed a lawsuit that challenged the federal constitutionality of the age requirement clause.[10]

Shooting[edit]

A BCSO deputy outside during the shooting

The shooting took place during the afternoon of February 14, 2018, at Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School in Parkland, Florida, an affluent suburb about 30 miles (48 km) northwest of Fort Lauderdale.[11][12] The shooter, former student Nikolas Cruz, was dropped off at the school by an Uber driver[13] at 2:19 p.m.,[6] shortly before dismissal time.[14] Carrying a duffel bag and a backpack,[15] he was spotted and recognized by a staff member who radioed a colleague that he was walking "purposefully" toward Building 12, according to a police report.[16][17] The first staff member claimed his training called for only reporting threats; his colleague hid in a closet.[18][19]

Cruz entered Building 12,[note 2] a three-story structure containing 30 classrooms typically occupied by about 900 students and 30 teachers.[20] Armed with an AR-15 style semi-automatic rifle[note 3] and multiple magazines,[23] he activated a fire alarm and began firing indiscriminately at students and teachers.[21][24][25] The fire alarm caused confusion because there had been a fire drill earlier in the day.[26]

Cruz during his arrest

At about 2:21 p.m. the same staff member heard gunfire and activated a code red lockdown.[16][27] An armed school resource officer of the Broward County Sheriff's Office was on campus when the shooting broke out and took a position between Building 12 and the adjacent Building 7.[28]

The shooting lasted six minutes,[29] after which Cruz dropped his rifle on the 3rd floor of the building and left the scene by blending in with fleeing students. He walked to a mall where he purchased a soda. He then walked to a fast-food and lingered before leaving on foot at 3:01 p.m.[6] At about 3:40 p.m., he was stopped by police in the Wyndham Lakes neighborhood of Coral Springs, 2 miles (3.2 km) from the school, and arrested without incident.[30][28][1][31] He was taken to a hospital emergency room with "labored breathing".[note 4] After 40 minutes, he was released back into police custody and booked into the Broward County Jail.[6][32]

School surveillance camera video revealed Cruz as the perpetrator,[33][34] and he was also recognized by eyewitnesses.[16] While SWAT paramedics were inside the building, additional paramedics from the local Fire-Rescue department repeatedly requested to enter the building. These requests were denied by the Broward Sheriff's Office, even after the suspect was arrested.[35][36][37]

Victims[edit]

Banner created by an Independent Baptist church to offer support for the survivors. Such banners offering love and support were requested by school officials[38] and were hung all over the campus.

Seventeen people were killed and seventeen people were wounded but survived their gunshot wounds.[4][39][40][41][42][43] Three remained in critical condition the day after the shooting[44] and one remained by the second day.[45]

Twelve victims died inside the building, three died just outside the building on school premises, and two died in the hospital.

The fourteen students and three staff members killed were:[46]

  • Alyssa Alhadeff, age 14
  • Scott Beigel, 35
  • Martin Duque, 14
  • Nicholas Dworet, 17
  • Aaron Feis, 37
  • Jaime Guttenberg, 14
  • Chris Hixon, 49
  • Luke Hoyer, 15
  • Cara Loughran, 14
  • Gina Montalto, 14
  • Joaquin Oliver, 17
  • Alaina Petty, 14
  • Meadow Pollack, 18
  • Helena Ramsay, 17
  • Alex Schachter, 14
  • Carmen Schentrup, 16
  • Peter Wang, 15

Geography teacher Scott Beigel was killed after he unlocked a classroom for students to enter and hide from the gunman.[47][48] Aaron Feis, an assistant football coach and security guard, was killed as he shielded two students.[49] Chris Hixon, the school's athletic director, was killed as he ran toward the sound of the gunfire and tried to help fleeing students.[50]

Student Peter Wang was last seen in his Junior Reserve Officers' Training Corps (JROTC) uniform, holding doors open so others could get out more quickly; Wang was unable to flee with the students when Cruz appeared and fatally shot him. Commentators commended his actions and described him as a hero. A White House petition was circulated, calling for him to be buried with full military honors.[51][52] At their respective funerals, Wang, Alaina Petty, and Martin Duque were all posthumously honored by the U.S. Army with the ROTC Medal for Heroism, and Wang was buried in his JROTC Blues uniform. On February 20, he was given a rare posthumous admission to the United States Military Academy.[53]

Sheriff Israel visits victim Anthony Borges[54]

Victim Alyssa Alhadeff was the captain of a local soccer team in Parkland. On March 7, 2018—nearly three weeks after the shooting— she was honored by the United States women's national soccer team prior to a game in Orlando. Her teammates and family were invited to the game and presented with official jerseys that featured Alhadeff's name.[55]

Meadow Pollack was a senior who was shot four times during the shooting. As Cruz shot into other classrooms, she crawled to a classroom door but was unable to get inside. Cara Loughran was alongside Pollack, and Pollack covered Loughran in an attempt to shield her from the bullets. Cruz returned to the classroom and located Pollack and Loughran. He discharged his weapon five more times, killing Pollack and Loughran.[56]

The last victim to remain hospitalized, 15-year-old Anthony Borges, from Venezuela, was released on April 4. Dubbed "the real Iron Man", Borges was shot five times after he used his body to barricade the door of a classroom where twenty students were inside.[57][58] Upon his release, Borges issued a statement that criticized the actions of Broward Sheriff's deputies, Sheriff Scott Israel and School Superintendent Robert Runcie. His family has filed notice of its intent to sue the school district for personal injury to cover costs related to his recovery.[59][60][61]

Suspect[edit]

Broward County Sheriff's Office mugshot of Cruz

Nikolas Jacob Cruz (born September 24, 1998 in Margate, Florida)[62][63][64] was adopted at birth by Lynda and Roger Cruz.[65] Roger died at age 67 in 2004.[66] Lynda died at age 68 in November 2017, three months before the shooting.[67] He had been living with relatives and friends since her death.[68] At the time of the shooting, he was enrolled in a GED program and employed at a local dollar store.[69][70]

Cruz was a member of the Junior Reserve Officers' Training Corps (JROTC) and had received multiple awards "including academic achievement for maintaining an A grade in JROTC and Bs in other subjects", according to CNN.[71] He was also a member of his school's varsity air rifle team.[71][72]

Cruz had behavioral issues[63] since middle school, but a Washington Post writer said he was "entrenched in the process for getting students help rather than referring them to law enforcement"[73] and he was transferred between schools six times in three years to deal with these problems. In 2014, he was transferred to a school for children with emotional or learning disabilities. There were reports that he made threats against other students.[74] He returned to Stoneman Douglas High School two years later, only to be expelled from the school in 2017 for disciplinary reasons.[63] An email from the school administration had circulated among teachers, warning that he had made threats against other students. This led the school to ban him from wearing a backpack on campus.[64][75][76]

Psychiatrists recommended an involuntary admission of Cruz to a residential treatment facility starting in 2013.[77] The Florida Department of Children and Families investigated him in September 2016 for Snapchat posts in which he cut both his arms and said he planned to buy a gun. At this time, a school resource officer suggested[78] to have him undergo an involuntary psychiatric examination under the provisions of the Baker Act. Two guidance counselors agreed, but a mental institution did not.[79] State investigators reported he had depression, autism, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In their assessment, they concluded he "was at low risk of harming himself or others".[80] He had previously received mental health treatment, but had not received treatment in the year leading up to the shooting.[71]

Broward County Sheriff Scott Israel described Cruz's online profiles and accounts as "very, very disturbing".[71] They contained pictures and posts of him with a variety of weapons, including long knives, a shotgun, a pistol, and a BB gun. Police said that he held "extremist" views; social media accounts that were thought to be linked to him contained anti-black and anti-Muslim slurs.[71] YouTube comments linked to him include "I wanna die Fighting[sic] killing shit ton[sic] of people", threats against police officers and Antifa, and intent to mimic the University of Texas tower shooting.[71][81][82] In February 2017, he legally purchased an AR-15 style semi-automatic rifle from a Coral Springs gun store. As in most states, in Florida, persons 18 or older can buy rifles from federally licensed dealers. Cruz passed a background check. A year later, he used this weapon to commit the mass shooting at his former school.[83][21]

Items recovered by police at the scene included gun magazines with swastikas carved in them. One student reported that Cruz had drawn a swastika and the words "I hate niggers" on his backpack.[84] CNN reported that Cruz was in a private Instagram group chat where he expressed racist, homophobic, antisemitic, and anti-immigrant (xenophobic) views. He said he wanted to kill gay people and Mexicans, and talked about keeping black people in chains. He said he hated black people "simply because they were black," and Jewish people because he believed "they wanted to destroy the world". He also referred to white women who engaged in interracial relationships as traitors.[85]

A former classmate said Cruz had anger management issues and often joked about guns and gun violence, which included threats of shooting up establishments.[11] The brother of a 2016 graduate described him as "super stressed out all the time and talked about guns a lot and tried to hide his face". A student who was enrolled at the school at the time of the shooting said, "I think everyone had in their minds if anybody was going to do it, it was going to be him".[86] A classmate who was assigned to work with him in sophomore year said, "He told me how he got kicked out of two private schools. He was held back twice. He had aspirations to join the military. He enjoyed hunting."[71] A student's mother said that he also bragged about killing animals. A neighbor said his mother would call the police over to the house to try to talk some sense into him.[87]

Warnings to law enforcement[edit]

Sheriff Scott Israel said that his office received 23 calls about Cruz during the previous decade, but this figure is in dispute. CNN used a public records request to obtain a sheriff's office log, which showed that from 2008 to 2017, at least 45 calls were made in reference to Cruz, his brother, or the family home.[88][89] The calls included an anonymous tip on February 5, 2016, that Cruz had threatened to shoot up the school, and a tip on November 30, 2017, that he might be a "school shooter in the making" and that he collected knives and guns. On September 23, 2016, a peer counselor notified the school resource officer of his suicide attempt and intent to buy a gun; the school indicated it would do a "threat assessment".[90][91][92]

In September 2016, three people—a sheriff's deputy who worked as a resource officer at Stoneman Douglas, and two of the school's counselors—stated that Cruz should be committed for mental evaluation.[93][94]

On September 24, 2017, a person with the username "nikolas cruz" posted a comment to a YouTube video which read, "Im[sic] going to be a professional school shooter". The person who uploaded the video to YouTube reported the comment to the FBI. According to agent Robert Lasky, the agency conducted database reviews but was unable to track down the individual who made the threatening comment.[95][96]

On January 5, 2018, the FBI's Public Access Line received a tip from a person who was close to Cruz, more than a month before the shooting occurred. On February 16, two days after the shooting, the agency released a statement that detailed this information. According to the statement, "The caller provided information about Cruz's gun ownership, desire to kill people, erratic behavior, and disturbing social media posts, as well as the potential of him conducting a school shooting." After conducting an investigation, the FBI said the tip line did not follow protocol when the information was not forwarded to the Miami Field Office, where investigative steps would have been taken.[97][98] The FBI opened a probe into the tip line's operations.[99]

The lack of response by Israel and other members of the Broward Country sheriff's department to the numerous red flags and warnings about Cruz has been the subject of much scrutiny.[100] In the days following the shooting, calls for Israel's resignation intensified as more information that alluded to the department's inaction was revealed.[101] Since the shooting, Israel has declined to resign and refused to take responsibility for his role in failing to stop Cruz before the mass shooting took place.[102] In an interview with CNN, Israel described his leadership at the department as "amazing", a claim that was widely mocked and criticized.[103][104][105][106]

Seeking help[edit]

According to a new report released and reviewed by The New York Times and The Daily Beast, a year before the shooting, Cruz sought help from education specialists and it was determined that he might be able to be transferred out of Stoneman Douglas to another facility, Cross Creek.[107][108][109]

At first, Cruz stayed at Stoneman Douglas, but as his grades started to decline, he requested to be transferred to Cross Creek, but this request was never followed up by school officials.[110][111]

Legal proceedings[edit]

Cruz's initial arraignment (3:02)

At his initial arraignment the day after the shootings, Cruz was charged with 17 counts of premeditated murder and held without bond.[112][113] If convicted of first degree murder, he faces either the death penalty or life without parole.[114] According to an affidavit by the sheriff's office, Cruz confessed to the shooting. He also told officers that he brought additional loaded magazines hidden in a backpack.[6][115]

The chief public defender said it is not yet known if Cruz's court-appointed attorneys will seek an insanity defense.[116]

Cruz was placed on suicide watch in an isolation cell (solitary confinement) after the arraignment.[117]

Lead defense counsel Gordon Weekes asked Judge Elizabeth Scherer to recuse herself, claiming that her previous comments and rulings showed favoritism toward the prosecution, which would prevent Cruz from receiving a fair trial. She disagreed and declined the request on February 26.[118]

On March 7, a grand jury indicted Cruz on 34 charges: 17 counts of first-degree murder and 17 counts of attempted first-degree murder.[119] He was arraigned on March 13, and the prosecution filed notice of their intent to seek the death penalty.[120] They said they can prove five of the aggravating factors that qualify a murder for the death penalty in Florida. Cruz declined to enter a plea, so Judge Scherer entered "not guilty" on his behalf. The defense had earlier offered a guilty plea if the death penalty was taken off the table, and reiterated it immediately before it was refused.[121]

During the week of April 8–12, 2018, Broward Circuit Judge Elizabeth Scherer included a three-page letter from a Minnesotan into the court record of the case. The letter was addressed to the judge and claimed that research into Cruz's past led the writer to believe that Cruz suffered from a developmental disability and that he was "...fearful of other people and was threatened by bullies." The letter ended by claiming that Cruz appeared to be consumed by sadness and depression.[122] This is part of a string of letters that have been sent to the judge, asking for her to show mercy or for God to forgive his actions against his victims.[citation needed]

The same week, a hearing was held to determine if taxpayers will pay for Cruz's defense. Information[clarification needed] was revealed that Cruz's inheritance from his late mother's estate could be worth hundreds of thousands of dollars. His attorney, court-appointed public defender Howard Finkelstein, pleaded with the court to wait until the probate case involving Cruz's late mother's estate was concluded and his net worth could be determined.[123] There are also lawsuits and claims against his mother's estate. These liens can complicate the proceedings, although Cruz has reportedly stated he wants the leftover money from his defense to be donated to a cause that promotes healing and education in the community.[123]

On July 26, Judge Scherer ruled that Cruz's confession, with certain details redacted, would be released to the public.[124] The confession was released on August 6.[125]

On August 3, Judge Scherer ruled that the Broward school district's report on Cruz would be released to the public. Some portions of the report were redacted to protect Cruz's privacy rights.[126]

On August 8, a video of Cruz's confession filmed by the Broward County Sheriff's Office was released by TMZ. Cruz can be heard crying near the end of the video, and saying "kill me" to the camera.[127]

Aftermath[edit]

President Trump and his wife Melania visit a victim at Broward Health North Medical Center, two days after the shooting

The school district provided grief counseling to students and their families. Attorney General Pam Bondi said that the fees of funerals and counseling would be paid for by the state.[128]

On February 15, police presence was increased at schools in at least two counties in Florida in response to the shooting.[129][130] The building where the shooting took place will be demolished.[131]

On February 28, two weeks after the shooting, Stoneman Douglas reopened to students amid a heavy police presence.[132] School principal Ty Thompson emphasized that the first week back would be focused on healing, with classes ending at 11:40 a.m. through March 2. He tweeted "... Remember our focus is on emotional readiness and comfort not curriculum: so there is no need for backpacks. Come ready to start the healing process and #RECLAIMTHENEST".[132][133] Extra counseling and emotional support dogs were provided to students upon return.[132]

In early April, the school implemented several new safety rules and regulations. The changes included fewer entrances, law enforcement officers at each entrance, identification badges for students and staff, and the requirement that all book bags must be clear plastic. The use of metal detectors is under consideration. Several students criticized the new safety measures as ineffective and intrusive.[134]

On May 30, 2018, prosecutors released three videos from Cruz's cellphone that were made before the shooting. Cruz describes his personal feelings, his enthusiasm and plan for the shooting, and how it will make him notorious.[135]

On November 30, 2018, the Sun-Sentinel reported Broward County Public Schools, which runs Marjorie Stoneman Douglas High School, had spent about $185,000 attempting to obscure its role in not preventing the massacre. The district also spent an undisclosed sum on legal opposition to the records related to the school's treatment of Nikolas Cruz while he was a student, and the school security procedures. A company named CEN received a $60,000 payment to review Cruz's school records and to investigate if the Broward County Public Schools followed the law in its handling of Cruz as a troubled student. The final report omitted various details about the instability of Cruz.[136]

Officer response[edit]

A school resource officer (SRO)—a sheriff's deputy—remained outside Building 12 during the shooting; he was suspended without pay the following day but he immediately retired. Sheriff Israel said "[the deputy] was absolutely on campus for this entire event" and that he should have "[gone] in, addressed the killer, [and] killed the killer".[89][137][138] A statement released by the officer's lawyer said he believed the shooting was happening outside the building, which he said he told the first Coral Springs police officer who arrived on scene. It also pointed to radio transmissions that indicated a gunshot victim near the football field.[139] However, the Miami Herald transcribed radio dispatches that the SRO at 2:23 said, "possible shots fired — 1200 building". At 2:25, he radioed that "We also heard it's by, inside the 1200". At 2:27, at Building 12, he radioed, "Stay at least 500 feet away at this point."[140] On March 15 in compliance with a court order, the sheriff's office released video footage, captured by school surveillance cameras, showing some of the SRO's movements during the shooting.[141]

Unnamed sources told CNN that Coral Springs police arrived at the scene and saw three Broward deputies behind their vehicles with pistols drawn.[138] The commanding sheriff's office captain ordered deputies to form a perimeter instead of immediately confronting the shooter; this tactic was contrary to BSO training regarding active shooters. Based on timestamps of the police logs, the order was given some time after the shooting had stopped.[142] The BSO captain was widely criticized for her actions and, nine months after the shooting, resigned for "personal reasons".[143]

Sheriff Israel said that Coral Springs officers were the first to enter the building, about four minutes after Cruz had left the school.[142] Due to a tape delay in viewing surveillance footage, officers believed that Cruz was still in the building.[144] As of early March, there were three investigations into the timeline of police response.[145][138]

President Donald Trump criticized the officers who failed to enter the building during the shooting. On February 26, he said that he believed he would have entered "even if I didn't have a weapon, and I think most of the people in this room would have done that, too",[146] a claim and reaction that was mocked by the media, and considered shameful by survivors. David Hogg criticized the claim as Trump bragging and talking about himself amid tragedy that did not concern him.[147][148][149][150]

Political reaction[edit]

President Trump offered his prayers and condolences to the victims' families, writing, "no child, teacher or anyone else should ever feel unsafe in an American school".[151][152] In a televised address, he mentioned school safety and mental health issues.[153] Florida Governor Rick Scott ordered that flags at state buildings be flown at half-staff,[154] and Trump later ordered flags be flown at half-staff for the entire country.[155] Two days after the shooting, Trump and his wife Melania visited Broward Health North, a hospital where eight of the shooting victims were admitted. They met with two victims and Trump praised doctors and law enforcement officials for their responses to the attack.[156]

On February 22 at the White House, Trump met with students and others for a "listening session". He suggested arming up to 20% of the teachers to stop "maniacs" from attacking students. The following day, he called a "gun free" school a "magnet" for criminals and tweeted, "Highly trained, gun adept, teachers/coaches would solve the problem instantly, before police arrive."[157][158]

BBC News characterized Republican politicians' reactions as focusing on mental health issues while dodging debate on gun control, with the reasoning that it was either "too political or too soon".[159] Republican House Speaker Paul Ryan said that this was the time to "step back and count our blessings" instead of "taking sides and fighting each other politically".[160] Republican Florida Senator Marco Rubio said that "most" proposals on stricter gun laws "would not have prevented" this shooting nor "any of those in recent history" and that lawmakers should take action with "focus on the violence part" alongside guns.[161] Republican Kentucky Governor Matt Bevin declared that the country should re-evaluate "the things being put in the hands of our young people",[162] specifically "quote-unquote video games" that "have desensitized people to the value of human life".[163] Republican Senator Pat Roberts of Kansas said he supported age restrictions on the ownership of AR-15 style rifles, saying "Certainly nobody under 21 should have an AR-15."[164][165][166][167] Republican Senator from Oklahoma James Lankford said on NBC News' Meet the Press he was open to requiring more comprehensive background checks for firearm purchases, saying "The problem is not owning an AR-15, it’s the person who owns it.”[168][169][170] Republican governor of Ohio John Kasich called for restrictions on the sales of AR-15 style rifles, saying on CNN "if all of a sudden, you couldn't buy an AR-15, what would you lose? Would you feel as though your Second Amendment rights would be eroded because you couldn't buy a God-darn AR-15?"[168][171][172] Republican Representative Brian Mast from Florida, a former resident of Parkland and an Army veteran, wrote in an op ed in The New York Times that he supported a ban on the sale of civilian versions of military rifles, writing:

Most nights in Afghanistan, I wielded an M4 carbine...My rifle was very similar to the AR-15-style semiautomatic weapon used to kill students, teachers and a coach I knew at Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School in Parkland, Fla., where I once lived...I cannot support the primary weapon I used to defend our people being used to kill children I swore to defend...The AR-15 is an excellent platform for recreational shooters to learn to be outstanding marksmen. Unfortunately, it is also an excellent platform for those who wish to kill the innocent.[173][174][175][165]

Democratic Senator from Florida Bill Nelson said "I have hunted all my life...but an AR-15 is not for hunting. It’s for killing.”[176][177][178][179][180][181][182]

Al Hoffman Jr., a Republican donor in Florida, pledged that he would no longer fund legislative groups or candidates who were not actively working to ban sales of military-style assault weapons to civilians. He said, "For how many years now have we been doing this – having these experiences of terrorism, mass killings – and how many years has it been that nothing's been done?"[183]

Sheriff Israel called on lawmakers to amend the Baker Act to allow police to detain and hospitalize people who make disturbing posts—not just clear threats—on social media. "I'm talking about being around bombs, possibly talking about 'I want to be a serial killer', talking about taking people's lives", he said. "Just taking a picture with a gun or a knife or a weapon – that in and of itself is clearly not even remotely something that we're concerned about."[184]

Gun control debate[edit]

Students protest gun violence outside the White House in Washington, D.C., February 18

Many student survivors criticized the response from politicians and asked them not to offer condolences but to take action to prevent more students from being killed in school shootings. These students have demanded stricter gun control measures.[185][186] Survivor Emma González was noted for her speech that rebuked thoughts and prayers from politicians.[187][188] She later helped lead a protest movement against gun violence in the United States.[189] Broward County Schools Superintendent Rob Runcie said, "now is the time to have a real conversation about gun control legislation".[115][190] Lori Alhadeff, whose daughter was killed in the shooting, implored President Trump to do something to improve school safety.[191]

In the aftermath of the shooting, some of the student survivors organized a group called Never Again MSD. The group was created on social media with the hashtag #NeverAgain,[192][193] activism inspired in part by the ground broken by the #MeToo movement and the 2018 Women's March.[194] The group demanded legislative action to prevent similar shootings, and has condemned lawmakers who received political contributions from the National Rifle Association.[195][196] The group held a rally on February 17 in Fort Lauderdale that was attended by hundreds of supporters.[197][198]

Since the shooting, several more rallies have been planned to take place with the focus on legislative action. The Women's March Network organized a 17-minute school walkout that took place on March 14.[199][200] A series of demonstrations called "March for Our Lives" on March 24 included a march in Washington, D.C.[201][202][203] On April 20, the anniversary of the Columbine High School massacre, all-day walkouts were planned for teacher groups by educators Diane Ravitch and David Berliner,[204] as well as student groups.[205][206]

On February 20, dozens of Stoneman Douglas High School students went to the state Capitol in Tallahassee and watched as the Florida House of Representatives rejected a bill that would have banned assault weapons. Students strongly criticized the vote. The bill's sponsor, Carlos Guillermo Smith, noted the peculiarity of the timing of the rejection both because of the tragedy at Stoneman Douglas High School and because the Florida House of Representatives had just recently passed a bill declaring that pornography is a public health risk.[207]

In mid-March, Lori Alhadeff announced her own nonprofit organization Make Schools Safe, which will be mostly focusing on school campus security.[208][209]

In May 2018, Cameron Kasky's father registered a super PAC, Families vs Assault Rifles PAC (FAMSVARPAC), with intentions of going "up against NRA candidates in every meaningful race in the country".[210][211][212]

Florida law[edit]

In March, the Florida Legislature passed a bill titled the Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School Public Safety Act. It raised the minimum age for buying rifles to 21, established waiting periods and background checks, provided a program for the arming of some school employees and hiring of school police, banned bump stocks, and barred some potentially violent or mentally unhealthy people arrested under certain laws from possessing guns. In all, it allocated around $400 million.[8] Rick Scott signed the bill into law on March 9.[9] That same day, the NRA challenged the law by filing a lawsuit alleging that the ban on gun sales to people under 21 is unconstitutional because it violates the rights that the Second and Fourteenth Amendments confer to 18- to 21-year-olds, who are classified as adults.[10]

Federal law[edit]

On February 20, 2018, Trump directed the Department of Justice to issue regulations to ban bump stocks.[213][214]

On March 23, the STOP School Violence Act was signed into law as part of the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2018, which increases funding for metal detectors, security training, and similar safety measures.[215] Lawmakers made it clear it was in response to the shooting and the public outcry.[216] However students from the Stoneman Douglas High School who were active in calling for stricter gun control (not just safety measures) felt this was passed because lawmakers "pass something very easy and simple that everyone can get behind. But that's because it doesn't do anything."[217][non-primary source needed][who?]

Boycott of NRA[edit]

Following the shooting, a boycott emerged against the U.S. gun rights advocacy group National Rifle Association (NRA) and its business affiliates. Calls for companies to sever their ties to the NRA were heeded when several companies terminated their business relationships with the NRA.[218][219][220][221] Public pressure resulted in major gun sellers like Dick's, Walmart, and Fred Meyer to voluntarily bump the age requirement on gun purchases from 18 to 21.

Victims' funds[edit]

In the aftermath of the shooting, over $7.5 million was raised for the victims as of April 2018. Two other funds, Florida's Crime Victims Compensation Fund, which pays for medical and funeral expenses, and the National Compassion Fund which pays for pain and suffering, are also available to help the victims of the Parkland shooting.[222]

Conspiracy theories, disinformation, and harassment[edit]

Student David Hogg was subjected to widespread false allegations of being a crisis actor.

Right-wing conspiracy theories circulated in the wake of the shooting. The speculation included false claims that the shooting did not happen or was staged by "crisis actors".[223][224][225] In one of the claims, Benjamin A. Kelly, a district secretary for Republican State Representative Shawn Harrison, sent an email to the Tampa Bay Times stating that the children in the picture were not students at the school.[223] The children who were interviewed by CNN were actually students at Stoneman Douglas High School. As a result of the backlash, Kelly was fired hours later.[223] Former Republican congressman and CNN contributor Jack Kingston suggested student demonstrators were paid by billionaire George Soros or were supported by members of Antifa.[223] A video with a description espousing a conspiracy theory that student David Hogg was a "crisis actor" reached the top of YouTube's trending page before it was removed by the company.[226]

The Alliance for Securing Democracy showed that Russia-linked accounts on Twitter and other platforms used the shooting's aftermath to inflame tensions and divide Americans by posting loaded comments that oppose gun control.[227][228] Other Russia-linked accounts labeled the shooting a false flag operation that the U.S. government would exploit to seize guns from citizens.[229] Hundreds of Russian bots are also suspected of coming to the defense of Laura Ingraham on Twitter following the boycott of her show, The Ingraham Angle that resulted from her public ridicule of Hogg.[230][231] The conspiracy theories about survivors like Hogg and González were named PolitiFact's 2018 Lie of the Year. [232]

Some of the survivors of the massacre and their relatives were targeted by online harassment that included death threats.[233][234] Cameron Kasky wrote on Twitter that he was quitting Facebook for the time being, because the death threats from "NRA cultists" were slightly more graphic on a service without a character limit.[235]

Lawsuit[edit]

On May 23, 2018, the parents of victims Jaime Guttenberg and Alex Schachter sued firearm manufacturer American Outdoor Brands Corporation, formerly known as Smith & Wesson, the manufacturer of the rifle used by Cruz, and distributor Sunrise Tactical Supply, the retailer who sold Cruz the rifle, claiming damages due to the defendents' "complicity in the entirely foreseeable, deadly use of the assault-style weapons that they place on the market."[236]

Graduation ceremony[edit]

On June 3, 2018, the school held its graduation ceremony with diploma presentations to the families of Nicholas Dworet, Joaquin Oliver, Meadow Pollack, and Carmen Schentrup.[237] The school's principal Ty Thompson began by dedicating the ceremony to "those not with us".[238] Many graduates wore sashes that were emblazoned with #MSDStrong, or decorated their caps with references to the Never Again movement, while some dedicated their caps to their classmates. Families of the victims also made statements, with the mother of Joaquin Oliver accepting his diploma wearing a shirt saying "This should be my son".[239] Talk show host Jimmy Fallon made a surprise appearance and gave a commencement speech to the graduating class, thanking them for their courage and bravery.[240]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ 4700 block of Wyndham Lakes Drive, Coral Springs.[1]
  2. ^ Also known as the "freshman building" because it was originally built for use only by freshmen, it later became used for other grades as well.[20]
  3. ^ Smith & Wesson M&P15.[21][22]
  4. ^ Called in as a gunshot wound, according to an emergency room doctor.[32]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Blaskey, Sarah (February 16, 2018). "He turned school into slaughterhouse, then stopped at McDonald's". Miami Herald. MSN.
  2. ^ Laughland, Oliver; Luscombe, Richard; Yuhas, Alan (February 15, 2018). "Florida school shooting: at least 17 people dead on 'horrific, horrific day'". The Guardian. Archived from the original on February 15, 2018. Retrieved February 15, 2018.
  3. ^ Earl, Jennifer (February 14, 2018). "Florida school shooting among 10 deadliest in modern US history". Fox News. Archived from the original on February 15, 2018. Retrieved February 15, 2018.
  4. ^ a b Fleshler, David; Hobbs, Stephen; Huriash, Lisa J.; Trischitta, Linda (March 2, 2018). "Captain in Parkland school shooting was brought onto force by Sheriff Israel". Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved March 6, 2018.
  5. ^ "Gunman went to Walmart and McDonald's after school shooting: Sheriff". CBS12 News. 15 February 2018.
  6. ^ a b c d e "Florida school shooting suspect hid among students after massacre". CBS News. Associated Press. February 15, 2018. Archived from the original on February 15, 2018. Retrieved February 15, 2018.
  7. ^ Rozsa, Lori; Berman, Mark; Barrett, Devlin (February 15, 2018). "'A day of mourning': Florida school shooting suspect denied bond, charged with 17 counts of premeditated murder". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on February 15, 2018. Retrieved February 15, 2018.
  8. ^ a b Sweeney, Dan (March 7, 2018). "Florida House sends Stoneman Douglas gun and school bill to Gov. Scott". Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved March 8, 2018.
  9. ^ a b Sanchez, Ray; Yan, Holly (March 9, 2018). "Florida Gov. Rick Scott signs gun bill". CNN. Retrieved March 10, 2018.
  10. ^ a b Schweers, Jeffrey (March 9, 2018). "NRA sues Florida over gun bill same day Gov. Scott signed it into law". Tallahassee Democrat. Tallahassee, Florida. Retrieved March 10, 2018.
  11. ^ a b Hayes, Christal; Bohatch, Emily (February 14, 2018). "'I'm sick to my stomach': 17 dead in Florida high school shooting; former student in custody". USA Today. Archived from the original on February 15, 2018. Retrieved February 15, 2018.
  12. ^ Burch, Audra D. S.; Mazzei, Patricia (February 14, 2018). "Death Toll Is at 17 and Could Rise in Shooting". The New York Times. Retrieved March 3, 2018.
  13. ^ Neal, David J. (February 28, 2018). "Uber driver says Nikolas Cruz told her: 'I am going to my music class'". Miami Herald. Retrieved February 28, 2018.
  14. ^ Johnson, Alex (February 15, 2018). "As officers searched Florida school, shooting suspect was shopping, authorities say". NBC News. Archived from the original on February 16, 2018. Retrieved February 16, 2018.
  15. ^ "Teacher told students to run after encountering Florida school shooting suspect". CBS News. February 16, 2018. Retrieved March 14, 2018.
  16. ^ a b c Fahrenthold, David A.; Sullivan, Kevin; Schmidt, Samantha (February 15, 2018). "What happened in the 82 minutes between Nikolas Cruz's arrival and arrest during Florida shooting". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on February 16, 2018. Retrieved February 16, 2018.
  17. ^ Chavez, Nicole; Almasy, Steve (March 8, 2018). "What happened, moment by moment, in the Florida school massacre". CNN. Retrieved March 14, 2018.
  18. ^ Tonya Alanez; Paula McMahon; Anne Geggis (1 June 2018). ""That's crazy boy." School watchman recognized but didn't stop shooter before Parkland massacre". Sun Sentinel. Retrieved 29 June 2018. “Do what we’ve been taught. Report it.”
  19. ^ Scott Travis (14 June 2018). "Stoneman Douglas coach kept his job after district found he sexually harassed students". Sun Sentinel. Retrieved 29 June 2018. Medina, who was not armed, told investigators shortly after the shooting that he didn’t confront Nikolas Cruz or lock down the school. Instead, Medina said he radioed ahead to warn fellow monitor David Taylor that a suspicious kid was headed his way, and Taylor hid in a closet.
  20. ^ a b Almukhtar, Sarah; Lai, K. K. Rebecca; Singvhi, Anjali; Yourish, Karen (February 15, 2018). "What Happened Inside the Florida School Shooting". The New York Times. Retrieved February 19, 2018.
  21. ^ a b c Swisher, Skyler; McMahon, Paula. "Nikolas Cruz passed background check, including mental health questions, to get AR-15 rifle". Sun-Sentinel. Archived from the original on February 16, 2018. Retrieved February 17, 2018. Cruz purchased the Smith & Wesson M&P 15 rifle in February 2017 from Sunrise Tactical Supply in Coral Springs, officials said. Cruz passed a background check, which looks at criminal history and whether someone has been found to be “mentally defective” by a court, said Peter Forcelli, the special agent in charge of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives in South Florida...As is the case in most states, Floridians can buy assault-style weapons from federally licensed dealers once they reach age 18.
  22. ^ Frankel, Todd C. (March 22, 2018). "A city that makes guns confronts its role in the Parkland mass shooting". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 31, 2018. The gun was a Smith & Wesson M&P15, a version of the controversial AR-15 military-style rifle.
  23. ^ Nehamas, Nicholas; Smiley, David (February 27, 2018). "Florida school shooter's AR-15 may have jammed, saving lives, report says". Miami Herald. Retrieved March 2, 2018.
  24. ^ Zwirz, Elizabeth (February 14, 2018). "Parkland high school shooting: At least 17 killed, suspect in custody, Florida sheriff says". Fox News. Archived from the original on February 14, 2018. Retrieved February 14, 2018.
  25. ^ "Suspect, Nikolas Cruz, in custody in Parkland school shooting in Florida". CBS News. February 14, 2018. Retrieved February 14, 2018.
  26. ^ Johnson, Alex (February 15, 2018). "Florida school shooting: Teachers describe chaos as students fled gunman". NBC News. Retrieved February 24, 2018.
  27. ^ Fleshler, David; Chokey, Aric; Huriash, Lisa J.; Trischitta, Linda (February 14, 2018). "Florida school shooting leaves 17 dead as gunman stalked halls". Sun-Sentinel. Archived from the original on February 14, 2018. Retrieved February 14, 2018.
  28. ^ a b "Stoneman Douglas shooting timeline of events". Broward County Sheriff's Office. February 15, 2018. Retrieved February 19, 2018.
  29. ^ Fausset, Richard; Kovaleski, Serge F.; Mazzei, Patricia (February 16, 2018). "On a Day Like Any Other at a Florida School, 6 Minutes of Death and Chaos". The New York Times. Archived from the original on February 17, 2018. Retrieved February 17, 2018.
  30. ^ Karimi, Faith (February 17, 2018). "Police calls reveal frantic search to find Florida gunman". CNN. Retrieved February 24, 2018.
  31. ^ Torres, Andrea (February 15, 2018). "Timeline of shooting at Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School". Miami, Florida: WPLG. Retrieved February 19, 2018.
  32. ^ a b Fink, Sheri (February 20, 2018). "Treating the Victims, and the Teenager Accused of Gunning Them Down". The New York Times. Retrieved February 21, 2018.
  33. ^ Slayton, Ashley M. (February 14, 2018). "Doctor: Hospitals treating 16 shooting victims; 17 fatalities also confirmed". Tyler, Texas: KLTV. Archived from the original on February 15, 2018. Retrieved February 14, 2018.
  34. ^ Keneally, Meghan (February 15, 2018). "What the school, police did right in Florida school shooting". ABC News. Retrieved February 17, 2018.
  35. ^ NICHOLAS NEHAMAS (May 31, 2018). "Paramedics wanted to enter Parkland school where kids were dying. BSO said no". Miami Herald. Retrieved June 1, 2018. every time McNally asked to deploy the two Rescue Task Force teams — each made up of three paramedics and three to four law enforcement officers — the Broward Sheriff's Office captain in charge of the scene, Jan Jordan, said no.
  36. ^ Megan O'Matz; Lisa J. Huriash (May 31, 2018). "More medics kept asking to go in and rescue wounded at Stoneman Douglas. They kept being told no". Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved June 1, 2018. Inside Marjory Stoneman Douglas High children lay dying. Outside, the Coral Springs deputy fire chief repeatedly asked a Broward sheriff's commander for permission to send his medics inside the school but was rebuffed. "The incident commander advised me: 'She would have to check,'"
  37. ^ Matt Finn (February 27, 2018). "Florida emergency medical teams frustrated over 'delay' in Parkland school shooting response". Fox News. Retrieved June 1, 2018. Two separate sources told Fox News some of the EMS teams who requested to enter the school were told they could not. One source said it was the Broward County Sheriff's Office – which was the commanding office – that ordered some of the EMS crews not to go into the school when they requested to enter.
  38. ^ "MSDStrong". Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School. Archived from the original on February 18, 2018. Retrieved February 18, 2018.
  39. ^ Fleshler, David; Valys, Phillip (March 7, 2018). "Named for the first time: All 17 who survived Nikolas Cruz's bullets". Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved March 7, 2018.
  40. ^ @browardsheriff (February 24, 2018). "our focus is on the 33 victims (17 murdered and 16 survivors) and their families" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  41. ^ Burke, Peter; Batchelor, Amanda; Suarez, Carlos; Mohan, Neki; Seiden, Michael (February 14, 2018). "17 killed in shooting at Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School". Miami, Florida: WPLG. Archived from the original on February 15, 2018. Retrieved February 14, 2018.
  42. ^ Grinberg, Emanuella; Levenson, Eric (February 14, 2018). "At least 17 dead in Florida school shooting, law enforcement says". CNN. Archived from the original on February 14, 2018. Retrieved February 14, 2018.
  43. ^ Herrera, Chabeli; Blaskey, Sarah (February 15, 2018). "At Broward hospitals, 7 shooting victims still being treated. One remains critical". Miami Herald. Retrieved February 19, 2018.
  44. ^ Micklethwaite, Jamie (February 15, 2018). "Florida school shooter who killed 17 and injured 50 named as ex-pupil Nikolas Cruz". Daily Star. UK.
  45. ^ Chokey, Aric (February 16, 2018). "Two more people wounded in Florida school shooting released from hospital". Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved February 20, 2018.
  46. ^ "The 17 lives lost at Douglas High". Miami Herald. February 21, 2018. Retrieved March 1, 2018.
  47. ^ "Student Describes Hearing Her Teacher Being Fatally Shot in Florida School Shooting: 'It Haunts Me'". Los Angeles, California: KTLA. Archived from the original on February 16, 2018. Retrieved February 17, 2018.
  48. ^ Dusenbury, Wells; Diaz, Johnny. "Scott Beigel, Florida school shooting victim: A hero teacher who saved students was among 17 deaths in Parkland". Sun-Sentinel. Archived from the original on February 16, 2018. Retrieved February 17, 2018.
  49. ^ Chuck, Elizabeth. "Parkland school shooting: Football coach Aaron Feis died shielding students". NBC News. Archived from the original on February 17, 2018. Retrieved February 17, 2018.
  50. ^ Harris, Chris. "Wife of Florida School Shooting Hero Knew Husband Would Run Toward Gunfire: 'I'm Beyond Proud'". People. Archived from the original on February 17, 2018. Retrieved February 17, 2018.
  51. ^ Hussain, Selima (February 18, 2018). "Petition: JROTC Cadet Killed In Stoneman Shooting Deserves Full Honors Military Burial". Miami, Florida: WTVJ.
  52. ^ Swift, Tim (February 18, 2018). "Friends petition for military funeral for Stoneman Douglas student hailed as hero". Miami, Florida: WPLG.
  53. ^ Tavss, Jeff (February 20, 2018). "Parkland cadet victims to receive JROTC heroism medals". Miami, Florida: WPLG. Retrieved February 20, 2018.
  54. ^ Bacon, John (February 19, 2018). "Teen shot 5 times closing the door during Florida shooting gets visit from Broward sheriff". USA Today. Retrieved March 1, 2018.
  55. ^ Hays, Graham (March 8, 2018). "For grieving family and friends of Alyssa Alhadeff, U.S. women's soccer provides joyous interlude". Orlando, Florida: ESPN. Retrieved March 8, 2018.
  56. ^ "Parkland shooting: Hair Club founder helps a father's passionate pitch". The Palm Beach Post. Retrieved May 2, 2018.
  57. ^ Levenson, Eric; Henderson, Jennifer (April 4, 2018). "Final Parkland shooting survivor released from the hospital". CNN.
  58. ^ Lubben, Alex (April 4, 2018). "Parkland "hero" who took 5 bullets for his friends is finally out of the hospital". Vice News.
  59. ^ Fleshler, David (April 6, 2018). "Parkland shooting victim Anthony Borges criticizes Sheriff's Office and School District". Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved April 7, 2018.
  60. ^ "'Both Of You Failed Us': Florida School Shooting Hero Blames Sheriff, Superintendent". Miami, Florida: WFOR-TV. April 6, 2018. Retrieved April 7, 2018.
  61. ^ "Anthony Borges, Stoneman Douglas Shooting Hero, Calls Out Broward Sheriff". WTVJ. Miami, Florida. April 6, 2018. Retrieved April 7, 2018.
  62. ^ Wallman, Brittany; McMahon, Paula; O'Matz, Megan; Bryan, Susannah. "School shooter Nikolas Cruz: A lost and lonely killer". Sun-Sentinel.
  63. ^ a b c Miller, Carol Marbin; Gurney, Kyra (February 20, 2018). "Parkland shooter always in trouble, never expelled. Could school system have done more?". Miami Herald. Retrieved March 1, 2018. Contrary to early reports, Cruz was never expelled from Broward schools. Legally, he couldn't be. Under federal law, Nikolas Cruz had a right to a 'free and appropriate' education at a public school near him.
  64. ^ a b Teproff, Carli; Herrera, Chabeli; Smiley, David (February 14, 2018). "17 dead, 15 wounded after expelled student shoots up Stoneman Douglas High in Broward". Miami Herald. Archived from the original on February 14, 2018. Retrieved February 15, 2018.
  65. ^ Wallman, Brittany; McMahon, Paula; O'Matz, Megan; Bryan, Susannah (February 24, 2018). "School shooter Nikolas Cruz: An unending saga of disturbed behavior and red flags". Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved February 26, 2018.
  66. ^ Hutchinson, Bill; Hill, James (February 21, 2018). "School shooting suspect could lose public defender after reports of $800K inheritance". ABC News. Retrieved February 26, 2018.
  67. ^ Jaeger, Max (February 15, 2018). "Mom's flu death may have sent Florida massacre suspect over the edge". New York Post. Archived from the original on February 16, 2018.
  68. ^ Hobbs, Stephen; McMahon, Paula; Geggis, Anne; Travis, Scott. "Nikolas Cruz: Troubled suspect had been expelled from Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School". Sun-Sentinel. Archived from the original on February 15, 2018.
  69. ^ Griffin, Drew; Glover, Scott; Pagliery, Jose; Lah, Kyung (February 16, 2018). "From 'broken child' to mass killer". CNN. Retrieved April 3, 2018.
  70. ^ Wan, William; Sullivan, Kevin; Weingrad, David; Berman, Mark (February 15, 2018). "Florida shooting suspect Nikolas Cruz: Guns, depression and a life in trouble". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 3, 2018.
  71. ^ a b c d e f g McLaughlin, Eliott C.; Park, Madison (February 14, 2018). "Social media paints picture of racist 'professional school shooter'". CNN. Archived from the original on February 16, 2018.
  72. ^ Wright, Mike (February 17, 2018). "Florida shooting suspect Nikolas Cruz was member of school's rifle team and described as a 'very good shot'". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved February 18, 2018.
  73. ^ Craig, Tim; Brown, Emma; Larimer, Sarah; Balingit, Moriah (February 18, 2018). "Teachers say Florida suspect's problems started in middle school, and the system tried to help him". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 1, 2018. interviews with teachers, administrators and those who knew Cruz – along with other records and accounts – show that he was well-known to school and mental health authorities and was entrenched in the process for getting students help rather than referring them to law enforcement.
  74. ^ Zezima, Katie (March 24, 2018). "'People need to listen to us': Demonstrators gather around the U.S. to protest gun violence". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 25, 2018.
  75. ^ Kelli, Kennedy (February 14, 2018). "Here's what we know about Nikolas Cruz, the Florida school shooting suspect". The Boston Globe. Associated Press. Archived from the original on February 15, 2018. Retrieved February 15, 2018.
  76. ^ De Moraes, Lisa (February 14, 2018). "Police: At Least 17 Dead In Florida High School Shooting; Ex-Student In Custody, ID'd – Update". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on February 15, 2018. Retrieved February 14, 2018.
  77. ^ Olmeda, Rafael (March 16, 2018). "School officials worried about Nikolas Cruz and guns 18 months before mass shooting". Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved March 20, 2018.
  78. ^ Eli Saslow (4 June 2018). "'It was my job, and I didn't find him': Stoneman Douglas resource officer remains haunted by massacre". The Washington Post. Retrieved 5 June 2018. He had even suggested that counselors use Florida's Baker Act to have Cruz involuntarily committed, but a health expert wrote that Cruz "did not meet criteria for further assessment."
  79. ^ "Stoneman Douglas' resource officer recommended committing Nikolas Cruz for mental health issues". WPMT. York, Pennsylvania. CNN Wire. March 19, 2018. Retrieved March 20, 2018. [a] school resource officer [...] wanted to use the Baker Act on September 28, 2016, after the then-student allegedly made threats against himself and others. Although two guidance counselors initially agreed with [the officer], two mental health professionals from Henderson Behavioral Health said Cruz didn't meet the criteria
  80. ^ Burch, Audra D. S.; Robles, Frances; Mazzei, Patricia (February 17, 2018). "Florida Agency Investigated Nikolas Cruz After Violent Social Media Posts". The New York Times. Retrieved February 18, 2018.
  81. ^ Chen, Joyce (February 15, 2018). "What We Know About the Alleged Florida School Shooter". Rolling Stone. Retrieved February 22, 2018.
  82. ^ "Alleged Shooter Nikolas Cruz Threatened Mass Campus Shooting 9 Months Ago". TMZ. Retrieved February 17, 2018.
  83. ^ Herrera, Chabeli (February 15, 2018). "Gun shop owners distraught over firearm sold to teen now held in school massacre". Miami Herald. Archived from the original on February 17, 2018.
  84. ^ Fisher, Janon (February 27, 2018). "Florida school gunman carved swastikas into rifle magazines, had 180 rounds remaining". New York Daily News. Retrieved March 22, 2018.
  85. ^ Murphy, Paul. "Exclusive: Group chat messages show school shooter obsessed with race, violence and guns". CNN. Archived from the original on February 17, 2018. Retrieved February 17, 2018.
  86. ^ Darrah, Nicole (February 14, 2018). "Nikolas Cruz was living with Florida high school student in months leading up to shooting, attorney says". Fox News.
  87. ^ Haag, Matthew; Kovaleski, Serge F. (February 14, 2018). "Nikolas Cruz, Florida Shooting Suspect, Described as a 'Troubled Kid'". The New York Times. Retrieved February 25, 2018.
  88. ^ Devine, Curt; Pagliery, Jose (February 27, 2018). "Sheriff says he got 23 calls about shooter's family, but records show more". CNN.
  89. ^ a b Blinder, Alan; Mazzei, Patricia (February 22, 2018). "As Gunman Rampaged Through Florida School, Armed Deputy 'Never Went In'". The New York Times. Retrieved February 23, 2018.
  90. ^ Nehamas, Nicholas (February 22, 2018). "'School shooter in the making': All the times authorities were warned about Nikolas Cruz". Miami Herald.
  91. ^ Hobbs, Stephen; Travis, Scott; Huriash, Lisa J. (February 23, 2018). "Stoneman Douglas cop resigns; sheriff says he should have 'killed the killer'". Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved February 23, 2018. deputies were under review for how they handled two calls, including the one from November where the caller also said Cruz "was collecting guns and knives," according to documents released by the sheriff's office. A deputy followed up with the caller but did not create a report documenting it. A separate incident, from February 2016, was also under review. The sheriff's office said a deputy responded to a tip that Cruz planned to shoot up a school and that the information was forwarded to Peterson, the school resource officer.
  92. ^ Murphy, Brett; Perez, Maria (February 23, 2018). "Florida school shooting: Sheriff got 18 calls about Nikolas Cruz's violence, threats, guns". USA Today.
  93. ^ Anderson, Curt (March 18, 2018). "Some officials wanted Florida school shooting suspect forcibly committed in 2016". Orlando Sentinel. Associated Press.
  94. ^ "Officials Warned to Institutionalize Alleged Parkland Shooter". WTVJ. Miami, Florida. Associated Press. March 18, 2018.
  95. ^ Goldman, Adam; Mazzei, Patricia (February 15, 2018). "YouTube Comment Seen as Early Warning in Shooting Left Little for F.B.I. to Investigate". The New York Times. Archived from the original on February 16, 2018. Retrieved February 16, 2018.
  96. ^ Sacks, Brianna (February 15, 2018). "The FBI Was Warned About A School Shooting Threat From A YouTube User Named Nikolas Cruz in September". BuzzFeed. Archived from the original on February 15, 2018. Retrieved February 15, 2018.
  97. ^ Benner, Katie; Mazzei, Patricia; Goldman, Adam (February 16, 2018). "F.B.I. Was Warned of Florida Suspect's Desire to Kill but Did Not Act". The New York Times. Retrieved February 18, 2018.
  98. ^ "FBI Statement on the Shooting in Parkland, Florida". Federal Bureau of Investigation. February 16, 2018. Archived from the original on February 17, 2018.
  99. ^ Wilber, Del Quentin; Viswanatha, Aruna (February 20, 2018). "FBI Probes Tip-Line Operations After Missed Florida-Shooting Warning". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved February 22, 2018.(subscription required)
  100. ^ Wamsley, Laurel (February 26, 2018). "Broward Sheriff Under Scrutiny For Handling Of Parkland Shooting". NPR.
  101. ^ Scherer, Michael; Davis, Aaron C.; Berman, Mark (February 26, 2018). "Florida sheriff faces intensifying political scrutiny, calls to resign in wake of school shooting". The Washington Post.
  102. ^ Watkins, Eli (February 25, 2018). "Broward sheriff grilled on red flags during lengthy CNN interview". CNN.
  103. ^ Mazzei, Patricia (February 25, 2018). "Under Pressure, Florida Sheriff Defends 'Amazing Leadership'". The New York Times.
  104. ^ Hart, Benjamin (February 25, 2018). "Broward County Sheriff Brags About 'Amazing Leadership' in Wake of School-Shooting Failures". New York.
  105. ^ Boss, Jeff (March 7, 2018). "This Is What 'Amazing Leadership' Doesn't Look Like". Forbes.
  106. ^ Smiley, David; Nehamas, Nicholas; Rabin, Charles (February 28, 2018). "As Broward sheriff touts 'amazing leadership,' a low grumble builds in the ranks". Miami Herald.
  107. ^ Mazzei, Patricia (August 4, 2018). "Parkland Shooting Suspect Lost Special-Needs Help at School When He Needed It Most". The New York Times.
  108. ^ Wallman, Brittany; McMahon, Paula. "Here's what Broward schools knew about Parkland shooter — details revealed by mistake". Sun-Sentinel.
  109. ^ "Florida school failed Parkland shooter, report says". Los Angeles Times.
  110. ^ Quinn, Allison (August 4, 2018). "Parkland Shooter Asked for Help, but Was Denied Before Shooting". The Daily Beast.
  111. ^ Torres, Andrea; Weinsier, Jeff (August 4, 2018). "School district mishandled Parkland shooter's access to special education, report says". Miami, Florida: WPLG.
  112. ^ Kosnar, Michael; Arkin, Daniel (February 16, 2018). "Florida shooting: FBI was alerted about threat on YouTube". NBC News. Archived from the original on February 16, 2018. Retrieved February 16, 2018.
  113. ^ Lockie, Alex. "Suspect in Florida shooting could face death penalty for 17 counts of premeditated murder". Business Insider. Archived from the original on February 15, 2018. Retrieved February 15, 2018.
  114. ^ Turkewitz, Julie; Mazzei, Patricia; Burch, Audra D. S. (February 15, 2018). "Florida Shooting: Nikolas Cruz Is Charged With 17 Counts of Murder". The New York Times. Archived from the original on February 15, 2018. Retrieved February 15, 2018.
  115. ^ a b "Florida high school shooting suspect confesses to 17 counts of murder". Tallahassee, Florida: WTXL-TV. Associated Press. Retrieved February 16, 2018.
  116. ^ Fausset, Richard; Kovaleski, Serge F. (February 15, 2018). "Nikolas Cruz, Florida Shooting Suspect, Showed 'Every Red Flag'". The New York Times. Archived from the original on February 16, 2018. Retrieved February 17, 2018.
  117. ^ Buncombe, Andrew (February 15, 2018). "Nikolas Cruz placed on suicide watch after first court appearance for Florida shooting". The Independent. Archived from the original on February 16, 2018.
  118. ^ Kennedy, Kelli; Farrington, Brendan; Anderson, Curt (February 27, 2018). "Judge refuses to step aside in Florida school shooting case". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved February 27, 2018.
  119. ^ McMahon, Paula; Alanez, Tonya (March 7, 2018). "Nikolas Cruz indicted on 17 counts of murder and 17 counts of attempted murder". Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved March 7, 2018.
  120. ^ McLaughlin, Eliott C. (March 13, 2018). "Prosecutors will seek death penalty in Parkland school massacre". CNN.
  121. ^ Batchelor, Amanda (March 14, 2018). "Judge enters not guilty plea for Nikolas Cruz during arraignment hearing". WPLG. Miami, Florida. Retrieved March 14, 2018.
  122. ^ Sanchez, Ray; Flores, Rosa. "Letter asks judge to show mercy on Parkland shooter". CNN. Retrieved April 16, 2018.
  123. ^ a b McLaughlin, Eliott C.; Flores, Rosa. "Nikolas Cruz, brother might have $1 million in bank, attorney says". CNN. Retrieved April 16, 2018.
  124. ^ Olmeda, Rafael. "Parkland shooter's confession must be released to public, judge rules". Sun-Sentinel.
  125. ^ McMahon, Paula; Alanez, Tonya; Huriash, Lisa J. "Parkland shooter Nikolas Cruz during confession: 'Kill me'". Sun-Sentinel]].
  126. ^ McMahon, Paula; Wallman, Brittany. "Parkland school shooting report must be released to public, judge rules". Sun-Sentinel.
  127. ^ "Stoneman Douglas Shooter Nikolas Cruz Confession Tapes Released, He Says 'Kill Me'". TMZ. 8 August 2018.
  128. ^ Gonzales, Richard (February 14, 2018). "Sheriff's Office Reports 17 People Dead in South Florida High School Shooting". NPR. Archived from the original on February 15, 2018. Retrieved February 15, 2018.
  129. ^ Marino, Amanda (February 14, 2018). "Collier County sheriff, superintendent announce increased security". Cape Coral, Florida: WFTX-TV. Archived from the original on February 16, 2018. Retrieved February 15, 2018.
  130. ^ Nealeigh, Sara (February 15, 2018). "After mass shooting, more security at Manatee County schools". The Bradenton Herald. Bradenton, Florida. Archived from the original on February 16, 2018. Retrieved February 15, 2018.
  131. ^ Mark, Michelle. "Florida high school building to be torn down after mass shooting". Business Insider. Archived from the original on February 17, 2018.
  132. ^ a b c Healy, Jack (February 28, 2018). "Scared but Resilient, Stoneman Douglas Students Return to Class". The New York Times. Retrieved March 2, 2018.
  133. ^ Thompson, Ty [@PrincipalMSD] (February 27, 2018). "Looking forward to tomorrow Eagles! Remember our focus is on emotional readiness and comfort not curriculum: so there is no need for backpacks. Come ready to start the healing process and #RECLAIMTHENEST" (Tweet). Retrieved March 2, 2018 – via Twitter.
  134. ^ Diao, Alexis (April 3, 2018). "Parkland Students Return To School Skeptical Of Clear Backpacks". NPR. Retrieved April 4, 2018.
  135. ^ Olmeda, Rafael (May 30, 2018). "Parkland shooter Nikolas Cruz brags on cellphone videos, 'I'm going to be the next school shooter'". Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved May 31, 2018.
  136. ^ Wallman, Brittany; O'Matz, Megan; McMahon, Paula (2018-11-30). "Hide, deny, spin, threaten: How the school district tried to mask failures that led to Parkland shooting". Sun-Sentinel. Archived from the original on 2018-12-03. Retrieved 2018-12-03.
  137. ^ Owen, Tess (February 22, 2018). "The armed school resource officer at Stoneman Douglas waited outside during the shooting". Vice News. Retrieved February 23, 2018.
  138. ^ a b c Tapper, Jake (February 23, 2018). "Sources: Coral Springs police upset at some Broward deputies for not entering school". CNN. Retrieved February 24, 2018.
  139. ^ Ovalle, David (February 26, 2018). "I'm no coward, says deputy who didn't go inside Parkland school during massacre". Miami Herald. Retrieved February 26, 2018.
  140. ^ Ovalle, David; Rabin, Charles; Smiley, David; Teproff, Carli. "Disgraced Parkland deputy heard shots inside school building, told cops to stay away". Miami Herald. Retrieved March 19, 2018.
  141. ^ Berman, Mark (March 15, 2018). "Broward Sheriff's Office releases video showing deputy standing outside Parkland school during massacre". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 15, 2018.
  142. ^ a b Demarzo, Wanda J.; Nehamas, Nicholas (March 1, 2018). "BSO captain told deputies to set up 'perimeter' around shooting. That's not the training". Miami Herald. Retrieved March 2, 2018.
  143. ^ Nehamas, Nicholas (November 20, 2018). "After criticism, BSO captain in charge of Parkland shooting response resigns". Miami Herald. Retrieved November 30, 2018.
  144. ^ Huriash, Lisa J.; Hobbs, Stephen; O'Matz, Megan (February 22, 2018). "Video delays misled cops at Stoneman Douglas shooting". Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved March 3, 2018.
  145. ^ Finn, Matt (March 6, 2018). "Broward sheriff's captain who gave initial order to 'stage' not enter Stoneman Douglas is ID'd". Fox News. Retrieved March 7, 2018. The policy did not appear to indicate a priority for staging or a perimeter. The Broward County Sheriff's office is performing its own investigation into the timeline of the day of the shooting. The Florida Department of Law Enforcement is also investigating BSO and the Florida Senate subpoenaed the Broward County Public Schools and responding law enforcement agencies for all records and information related to the shooting.
  146. ^ Shear, Michael D. (February 26, 2018). "Trump Says He Would Have Rushed in Unarmed to Stop School Shooting". The New York Times. Retrieved February 27, 2018.
  147. ^ Nevins, Jake (February 23, 2018). "Stephen Colbert mocks Trump for 'cheat sheet' on how to react to shooting survivors". The Guardian. Retrieved February 23, 2018.
  148. ^ Greenwood, Max (February 27, 2018). "Colbert mocks Trump's school shooting claim: 'We already know how you react to combat situations'". The Hill. Retrieved February 27, 2018.
  149. ^ Ovenden, Olivia (February 27, 2018). "Twitter Mocks Draft-Dodging Trump's Claims He'd Have Been A Florida Shooting Hero". Esquire. Retrieved February 27, 2018.
  150. ^ Andrews, Travis (February 28, 2018). "US late night hosts mock Donald Trump's claims he'd run into a school during mass shooting". Stuff.co.nz. Retrieved February 28, 2018.
  151. ^ Schwartz, Rafi (February 14, 2018). "At Least One Dead, Dozens Injured in Florida High School Shooting (DEVELOPING)". Splinter News. Archived from the original on February 15, 2018. Retrieved February 14, 2018.
  152. ^ Trump, Donald J. [@realDonaldTrump] (February 14, 2018). "My prayers and condolences to the families of the victims of the terrible Florida shooting. No child, teacher or anyone else should ever feel unsafe in an American school" (Tweet). Archived from the original on February 15, 2018. Retrieved February 14, 2018 – via Twitter.[non-primary source needed]
  153. ^ Luce, Catherine (February 16, 2018). "President Trump Pledges to Address School Safety, Without Mentioning Gun Control". Time. Archived from the original on February 17, 2018.
  154. ^ Flesher, David; Chokey, Aric; Huriash, Lisa J.; Trischitta, Linda (February 14, 2018). "Seventeen killed in South Florida high school shooting". Sun-Sentinel. Broward County, Florida. Archived from the original on February 15, 2018. Retrieved February 15, 2018.
  155. ^ Steinbuch, Yaron (February 15, 2018). "Trump orders flags at half staff to honor Florida massacre victims". New York Post. Archived from the original on February 15, 2018. Retrieved February 16, 2018.
  156. ^ Rogers, Katie (February 16, 2018). "Trump Visits Florida Hospital That Treated School Shooting Victims". The New York Times. Retrieved March 20, 2018.
  157. ^ Beatty, Andrew. "'Gun free' schools are magnets for 'bad people': Trump". Yahoo! News. Agence France-Presse. Retrieved February 22, 2018.
  158. ^ Merica, Dan; Klein, Betsy (February 22, 2018). "Trump suggests arming teachers as a solution to increase school safety". CNN. Retrieved February 22, 2018.
  159. ^ Anthony Zurcher (15 February 2018). "Florida shooting: Two Americas speak in aftermath".
  160. ^ Spicuzza, Mary (February 15, 2018). "Paul Ryan on Florida shooting: 'This is not the time to jump to some conclusion'". Milwaukee Journal Sentinel. Retrieved February 17, 2018.
  161. ^ Vazquez, Maegan. "Rubio: Gun laws wouldn't have prevented Parkland". CNN. Archived from the original on February 16, 2018. Retrieved February 16, 2018.
  162. ^ Wartman, Scott. "School shootings: Kentucky Gov. Matt Bevin blames violent video games and shows, not guns". The Cincinnati Enquirer. Retrieved April 17, 2018.
  163. ^ Fogel, Stefanie. "Kentucky Governor Blames Video Games for Florida School Shooting". Rolling Stone. Retrieved April 17, 2018.
  164. ^ O'Keefe, Ed (February 22, 2018). "NRA-backed Sen. Pat Roberts: 'Nobody under 21 should have an AR-15'". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved July 18, 2018.
  165. ^ a b Gay Stolberg, Sheryl; Martin, Jonathan; Kaplan, Thomas (February 25, 2018). "Is This the Moment for Gun Control? A Gridlocked Congress Is Under Pressure". The New York Times. Retrieved July 18, 2018.
  166. ^ Tatum, Sophie (February 22, 2018). "Kansas Republican backs raising age to buy semiautomatic rifles". CNN. Retrieved July 18, 2018.
  167. ^ "The Latest: Ban Proposed on Young Buying Assault Rifles". U.S. News & World Report. Associated press. February 23, 2018. Retrieved July 18, 2018.
  168. ^ a b Koenig, Kailani (February 18, 2018). "GOP Sen. Lankford has 'no issue' with stronger gun background checks". Meet the Press. NBC News. Retrieved July 18, 2018.
  169. ^ Fox, Lauren (February 21, 2018). "Congress wonders if this time will be different for gun control". CNN. Retrieved July 18, 2018.
  170. ^ Schallhorn, Kaitlyn (February 19, 2018). "Florida shooting sparks reactions from Republican senators on gun control". Fox News. Retrieved July 18, 2018.
  171. ^ "Transcript". State of the Union. CNN. February 18, 2018. Retrieved July 20, 2018.
  172. ^ Turkewitz, Julie; Hartocollis, Anemona (February 20, 2018). "Highlights: Students Call for Action Across Nation; Florida Lawmakers Fail to Take Up Assault Rifle Bill". The New York Times. Retrieved July 20, 2018.
  173. ^ Mast, Brian (February 23, 2018). "I Appreciate Assault Weapons. And I Support a Ban". The New York Times. New York City. Retrieved July 18, 2018.
  174. ^ Leary, Alex (February 24, 2018). "Republican, veteran and gun rights supporter Brian Mast says assault weapons should be banned". Tampa Bay Times. Retrieved July 18, 2018. Congressman Brian Mast, R-Palm City, has as much authority on guns as anyone, having served in the Army and losing both legs in Afghanistan. He says assault weapons such as the AR-15 should be banned. "I cannot support the primary weapon I used to defend our people being used to kill children I swore to defend," Mast, who represents a swing district and faces a tough re-election, writes in an op/ed for the New York Times.
  175. ^ Chivers, C. J.; Buchanan, Larry; Lu, Denise; Yourish, Karen (February 28, 2018). "With AR-15s, Mass Shooters Attack With the Rifle Firepower Typically Used by Infantry Troops". The New York Times. Retrieved July 18, 2018. Representative Brian Mast of Florida, a Republican and an Army combat veteran, has called for a ban on the sale of AR-15-style rifles. “The exact definition of assault weapon will need to be determined,” Mr. Mast said. “But we should all be able to agree that the civilian version of the very deadly weapon that the Army issued to me should certainly qualify.”
  176. ^ Fisher, Marc (February 15, 2018). "The AR-15: 'America's rifle' or illegitimate killing machine?". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 18, 2018. “I have hunted all my life,” Sen. Bill Nelson (D-Fla.) said on the Senate floor Thursday. “But an AR-15 is not for hunting. It’s for killing.”
  177. ^ Jansen, Bart (February 15, 2018). "Florida shooting suspect bought gun legally, authorities say". USA Today. Retrieved July 18, 2018. "An AR-15 is not for hunting, it's for killing," Sen. Bill Nelson, D-Fla., said on the Senate floor Thursday.
  178. ^ "Florida Senators on Parkland School Shooting". C-SPAN. February 15, 2018. Retrieved July 18, 2018. THIS SENATOR GREW UP ON A RANCH. I HAVE HUNTED ALL MY LIFE. I HAVE HAD GUNS ALL MY LIFE. I STILL HUNT WITH MY SON. BUT AN AR-15 IS NOT FOR HUNTING. IT'S FOR KILLING.
  179. ^ "FL senator: 'AR-15 is not for hunting, it's for killing'". BBC. February 15, 2018. Retrieved July 18, 2018.
  180. ^ Breuninger, Kevin (February 15, 2018). "AR-15s are not the problem, manufacturers say after rifle-wielding teenage gunman kills 17 people at Florida school". CNBC. Retrieved July 18, 2018. An AR-15 is not for hunting, it's for killing," Democratic Florida Sen. Bill Nelson in an interview on Thursday morning on Fox News Channel's "Fox & Friends.
  181. ^ "VERBATIM: 'An AR-15 is not for hunting, it's for killing'". Reuters. February 16, 2018. Retrieved July 18, 2018.
  182. ^ "'An AR-15 Is for Killing': Sen. Nelson Hopes FL Shooting Is the 'Turning Point' on Gun Control". Fox News. February 16, 2018. Retrieved July 18, 2018. "I have hunted all my life. I still hunt with my son. But an AR-15 is not for hunting. It's for killing," Nelson said during an appearance in Parkland Friday morning.
  183. ^ Burns, Alexander (February 17, 2018). "Prominent Republican Donor Issues Ultimatum on Assault Weapons". The New York Times. Retrieved February 17, 2018.
  184. ^ Silva, Daniella. "Sheriff in Florida shooting calls for power to detain over social media". NBC News. Archived from the original on February 16, 2018. Retrieved February 16, 2018.
  185. ^ Rossman, Sean. "'We're children. You guys are the adults': Shooting survivor, 17, calls out lawmakers". USA Today. Archived from the original on February 15, 2018. Retrieved February 16, 2018.
  186. ^ Ebbs, Stephanie. "Survivors of Florida high school shooting call for action on gun control". ABC News. Archived from the original on February 16, 2018. Retrieved February 16, 2018.
  187. ^ Bailey, Chelsea (February 17, 2018). "At rally, Parkland shooting survivors rail against gun laws, NRA and Trump". NBC News. Retrieved February 18, 2018.
  188. ^ Iasimone, Ashley (February 17, 2018). "Artists React to Florida School Shooting Survivor's Powerful Speech at Gun Control Rally". Billboard. Retrieved February 18, 2018.
  189. ^ Hayes, Christal (February 17, 2018). "Emma Gonzalez survived the Florida shooting. Now she's taking on Trump and the NRA". USA Today. Retrieved February 19, 2018. ...passionate speech at an anti-gun rally...
  190. ^ "Roosevelt grad Robert Runcie leads Florida district after shooting". Poughkeepsie Journal. Poughkeepsie, New York. February 15, 2018. Retrieved February 16, 2018.
  191. ^ Cassidy, John (February 16, 2018). "What Does Donald Trump Have to Say to the Parkland Parent Lori Alhadeff?". The New Yorker. Retrieved March 13, 2018. ...So far, the reaction to the shooting from the White House and congressional Republicans has been predictably pathetic...
  192. ^ Lowery, Wesley (February 17, 2018). "'No more guns!': Florida students rally to denounce political inaction after 17 killed in school shooting". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 18, 2018.
  193. ^ "Turning Anger into Activism: School Shooting Victims Say 'Never Again'". Miami, Florida: WFOR-TV. February 18, 2018. Retrieved February 18, 2018.
  194. ^ Hughes, Roland (February 25, 2018). "Florida school shooting: Where do US protests go from here?". BBC. Retrieved March 3, 2018.
  195. ^ "Students Who Survived Florida Shooting Want Politicians To Know They're Angry". All Things Considered. NPR. February 16, 2018. Retrieved February 18, 2018.
  196. ^ Burch, Audra D. S.; Mazzei, Patricia; Healy, Jack (February 16, 2018). "A 'Mass Shooting Generation' Cries Out for Change". The New York Times. Retrieved February 18, 2018.
  197. ^ Chavez, Nicole (February 18, 2018). "Florida school shooting survivors turn grief into action". CNN. Retrieved February 18, 2018.
  198. ^ Witt, Emily (February 19, 2018). "How the Survivors of Parkland Began the Never Again Movement". The New Yorker. Retrieved February 20, 2018.
  199. ^ Gomez, Isabella; Jackson, Amanda. "Women's March organizers are planning a national student walkout to protest gun violence". CNN. Retrieved February 19, 2018.
  200. ^ "ENOUGH: National School Walkout". The Action Network. Retrieved February 19, 2018.
  201. ^ Cooper, Kelly-Leigh (February 18, 2018). "In Florida aftermath, US students say 'Never Again'". BBC. Retrieved February 18, 2018.
  202. ^ "March for Our Lives". March for Our Lives. Retrieved February 18, 2018.
  203. ^ Lam, Katherine (February 18, 2018). "Florida school shooting survivors plan march demanding end to gun violence". Fox News. Retrieved February 18, 2018.
  204. ^ Lithwick, Dahlia. "A Nationwide Teacher Walkout Could Shake Us Out of Our Mass Shooting Stupor". Slate. Retrieved February 19, 2018.
  205. ^ Gray, Sarah (March 12, 2018). "Here Are the Student Protests Planned After the Florida School Shooting". Time. Retrieved March 12, 2018.
  206. ^ Lavoie, Denise (March 11, 2018). "Schools brace for massive student walkouts over gun violence". PBS NewsHour. Associated Press. Retrieved March 12, 2018.
  207. ^ Sanchez, Ray; Boyette, Chris; McLaughlin, Eliott C. (February 21, 2018). "Florida Legislature rejects weapons ban with massacre survivors en route to Capitol". CNN.
  208. ^ Lewak, Doree; Ridley, Jane (March 13, 2018). "Parkland survivors revisit tragedy — and fight to make schools safer". New York Post. Retrieved March 27, 2018.
  209. ^ Alhadeff, Lori (March 22, 2018). "My daughter died at Parkland. It's now my job to be her voice". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 27, 2018.
  210. ^ Smiley, David (May 30, 2018). "Parkland parents launch a Super PAC to go after politicians and the NRA". Miami Herald. Retrieved May 30, 2018.
  211. ^ Huriash, Lisa (May 30, 2018). "Parkland parents set up PAC to take on NRA". Sun Sentinel. Retrieved May 30, 2018.
  212. ^ "Families vs Assault Rifles PAC".
  213. ^ Liptak, Kevin; Shortell, David (February 21, 2018). "Trump moves to ban bump stocks". CNN. Retrieved July 12, 2018. President Donald Trump said on Tuesday that he has directed his attorney general to propose changes that would ban bump fire stocks, which make it easier to fire rounds more quickly.
  214. ^ Donnelly, Grace (February 21, 2018). "What You Need to Know About Bump Stock Gun Accessories". Fortune. Retrieved July 12, 2018. On Tuesday, President Trump ordered the Justice Department to issue regulations that would ban bump stocks, after pressure to do more to curtail access to deadly weapons following the Florida shooting.
  215. ^ "Highlights from the omnibus spending bill". KOLD-TV. Tucson, Arizona. March 23, 2018.
  216. ^ Man, Anthony (March 14, 2018). "U.S. House easily approves bill to reduce school violence". Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved April 1, 2018.
  217. ^ "Transcript: Parkland student activists on "Face the Nation," March 25, 2018". CBS News. March 25, 2018. Retrieved April 1, 2018.
  218. ^ Hsu, Tiffany (February 27, 2018). "Big and Small, N.R.A. Boycott Efforts Come Together in Gun Debate". The New York Times. Retrieved March 1, 2018.
  219. ^ Levin, Bess. "Corporate America Second-Guessing Association with Mass Murder". Vanity Fair. Retrieved February 24, 2018.
  220. ^ Meyer, David (February 23, 2018). "Companies Are Starting to Back Away From the Gun Industry and NRA". Fortune. Retrieved February 24, 2018.
  221. ^ Held, Amy (February 23, 2018). "One By One, Companies Cut Ties With The NRA". NPR. Retrieved February 25, 2018.
  222. ^ Allen, Greg (April 10, 2018). "Fund For Victims Of Parkland Shooting Reaches $7.5 Million". NPR. Retrieved April 11, 2018.
  223. ^ a b c d Wilson, Christopher (February 21, 2018). "The 'crisis actors' lie spreads in wake of Florida shooting". Yahoo! News. Retrieved February 21, 2018.
  224. ^ Andrews, Travis M.; Schmidt, Samantha (February 21, 2018). "'I am not a crisis actor': Florida teens fire back at right-wing conspiracy theorists". The Washington Post.
  225. ^ Grynbaum, Michael M. (February 20, 2018). "Right-Wing Media Uses Parkland Shooting as Conspiracy Fodder". The New York Times.
  226. ^ Strachan, Maxwell (February 21, 2018). "A Conspiracy Theory About A Stoneman Douglas Student Reaches No. 1 on YouTube". Yahoo! News. Retrieved February 21, 2018.
  227. ^ Papenfuss, Mary (February 16, 2018). "Russia-Linked Accounts Exploit Parkland Shooting on Twitter, Analysts Say". HuffPost. Archived from the original on February 16, 2018.
  228. ^ Griffith, Erin (February 15, 2018). "Pro-Gun Russian Bots Flood Twitter After Parkland Shooting". Wired. Archived from the original on February 16, 2018. Retrieved February 17, 2018.
  229. ^ Applebaum, Anne. "After the Parkland shooting, pro-Russian bots are pushing false-flag allegations again". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on February 17, 2018. Retrieved February 17, 2018.
  230. ^ Sit, Ryan (April 2, 2018). "Russian Bots Defend Fox News Pundit Laura Ingraham as Advertisers Leave Following David Hogg Tweet". Newsweek. Retrieved April 7, 2018.
  231. ^ Erickson, Amanda (April 2, 2018). "Russian bots are tweeting their support of embattled Fox News host Laura Ingraham". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 7, 2018.
  232. ^ Holan, Angie Drobnic; Sherman, Amy (December 11, 2018). "PolitiFact's Lie of the Year: Online smear machine tries to take down Parkland students". politifact.com. Retrieved December 12, 2018.
  233. ^ Wong, Herman (February 28, 2018). "His daughter was killed in Parkland. He's begging President Trump to protect those who survived". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 28, 2018.
  234. ^ Timberg, Craig; Dwoskin, Elizabeth; Ohlheiser, Abby; Tran, Andrew Ba (February 21, 2018). "How a survivor of the Florida school shooting became the victim of an online conspiracy". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 28, 2018.
  235. ^ Shamsian, Jacob (February 23, 2018). "Florida school shooting: Teenage survivor says he's quitting Facebook because of death threats from 'NRA cultists'". The Independent.
  236. ^ Shayanian, Sara (May 24, 2018). "Families of Parkland victims sue maker, seller of gun used in shooting". United Press International. Retrieved July 31, 2018.
  237. ^ "'Remember Those Not With Us.' A Somber Graduation at Parkland High School 4 Months After Shooting". Time. Retrieved June 4, 2018.
  238. ^ Winsor, Morgan; Nestel, M.L. (June 4, 2018). "Parkland high school honors 'those not with us' at first graduation since 17 killed". ABC News. Retrieved June 4, 2018.
  239. ^ Grinberg, Emanuella; Jackson, Amanda (June 4, 2018). "Silent forms of protest make bold statements at Parkland graduation". CNN. Retrieved June 4, 2018.
  240. ^ Andone, Dakin (June 4, 2018). "Jimmy Fallon makes surprise appearance at Marjory Stoneman Douglas graduation". CNN. Retrieved June 5, 2018.

External links[edit]

Map all coordinates using: OpenStreetMap 
Download coordinates as: KML · GPX