|• Total||11,839,074 km2 (4,571,092 sq mi)|
|Population (2016)[note 2]|
|• Density||140/km2 (360/sq mi)|
|Languages and language families|
|Vietnamese alphabet||Đông Á|
East Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or pan-ethno-cultural terms. Geographically and geopolitically, it includes China (including Hong Kong and Macau), Mongolia, South Korea, North Korea, Japan and Taiwan; it covers about 12,000,000 km2 (4,600,000 sq mi), or about 28% of the Asian continent. GDP(PPP) of East Asia is 32.4 trillion while Nominal GDP is 19.1 trillion USD.
East Asians comprise around 1.6 billion people. About 38% of the population of Asia and 22%, or over one fifth, of world's population lives in East Asia. Although the coastal and riparian areas of the region form one of the world's most populated places, the population in Mongolia and Western China, both landlocked areas, is very sparsely distributed, with Mongolia having the lowest population density of a sovereign state. The overall population density of the region is 133 inhabitants per square kilometre (340/sq mi), about three times the world average of 45/km2 (120/sq mi).
Historically, societies in East Asia have been part of the Chinese cultural sphere, and East Asian vocabulary and scripts are often derived from Classical Chinese and Chinese script. Major religions include Buddhism (mostly Mahayana), Confucianism or Neo-Confucianism, Taoism, Chinese folk religion in China and Taiwan, Shinto in Japan, Korean shamanism in Korea. Shamanism is also prevalent among Mongolians and other indigenous populations of northern East Asia such as the Manchus and Ewenki. Islam is popular in Northwest China and Kazaks in Mongolia.The Chinese calendar is the root from which many other East Asian calendars are derived.
- 1 History
- 2 United Nations Statistics Division
- 3 Economy
- 4 Territorial and regional data
- 5 Culture
- 6 Collaboration
- 7 Major cities and towns
- 8 See also
- 9 Notes
- 10 References
- 11 External links
The Chinese Dynasties dominated this region culturally and militarily for a lengthy period of time. Cultural and religious exchange between the Chinese and other regional East Asian Dynasties and Kingdoms occurred.
As connections with the Western world strengthened, China's power began to diminish. Around the same time, Japan solidified itself as a nation state. During World War II, Korea, Taiwan, much of eastern China, Hong Kong, and Vietnam all fell under Japanese control. Following Japan's defeat in the war, the Korean peninsula became independent but then it was divided into two rival states, while Taiwan became the main territory of de facto state Republic of China after the latter lost mainland China to the People's Republic of China in the Chinese Civil War.
United Nations Statistics Division
The UNSD definition of East Asia is based on statistical convenience, but also other common definitions of East Asia contain the entirety of China (including Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau) Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea, Japan and Taiwan.
There are mixed debates around the world whether these countries or regions should be considered in East Asia or not.
- Vietnam (officially part of Southeast Asia geographically, although culturally it is a part of the East Asian cultural sphere, politically, it is related to both Southeast Asia and East Asia)
- Siberia in Russia (often described as North Asia due to its location, although this part of Russia is often seen as more closely related to its East Asian neighbours)
- Sovereignty issues exist over some territories in the South China Sea.
In business and economics, "East Asia" is sometimes used to refer to a wide geographical area covering ten Southeast Asian countries in ASEAN, People's Republic of China, Taiwan, Japan and South Korea. However, in this context, the term "Far East" is often more appropriate which covers ASEAN countries and the countries in East Asia. However, being a Eurocentric term, Far East describes the region's geographical position in relation to Europe rather than its location within Asia. Alternatively, the term "Asia Pacific Region" is often used in describing East Asia, Southeast Asia as well as Oceania.
Observers preferring a broader definition of "East Asia" often use the term Northeast Asia to refer to the greater China area, Taiwan, the Korean Peninsula, and Japan, with Southeast Asia covering the ten ASEAN countries. This usage, which is seen in economic and diplomatic discussions, is at odds with the historical meanings of both "East Asia" and "Northeast Asia". The Council on Foreign Relations defines Northeast Asia as Japan and Korea.
billions of USD (2017)
|GDP nominal per capita
|GDP PPP (2017)
billions of USD (2017)
|GDP PPP per capita
Territorial and regional data
|Flag||Common Name||Official Name|
|China||中国||People's Republic of China||中华人民共和国|
|Hong Kong||香港||Hong Kong Special Administrative Region
of the People's Republic of China
|Macau||澳門||Macao Special Administrative Region
of the People's Republic of China
|Japan||日本||State of Japan||日本国|
|Mongolia||Монгол Улс||Mongolia||Монгол Улс（ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠤᠯ
|North Korea||조선||Democratic People's Republic of Korea||조선민주주의인민공화국 (朝鮮民主主義人民共和國)|
|South Korea||한국||Republic of Korea||대한민국 (大韓民國)|
|Taiwan||臺灣 / 台灣||Republic of China||中華民國|
|Hong Kong||1,104||7,302,843||6,390||0.912||Hong Kong|
Major ethnic groups
|Ethnicity||Native name||Population||Language(s)||Writing system(s)||Major states/territories*||Appearance|
|Han/Han people||漢人 or 汉人, 漢族 or 汉族||1,220,000,000||Mandarin, Cantonese, Shanghainese, Hokkien, Hakka, Gan, Hsiang, etc.||Simplified Han characters, Traditional Han characters||()|
|125,117,000||Japanese||Han characters (Kanji), Katakana, Hiragana|
|79,432,225||Korean||Hangul, Han characters (Hanja)|
|8,942,528||Mongolian||Mongol script, Cyrillic script|
|Zhuang||壮族/Bouxcuengh||18,000,000||Zhuang, Cantonese, Southwestern Mandarin, etc.||Simplified Han characters, Latin script|
|Manchus||满族/ᠮᠠᠨᠵᡠ||10,422,873||Northeastern Mandarin, Manchurian (endangered), etc.||Simplified Han characters, Mongol script|
|Hui||回族/回回||10,586,087||Northwestern Mandarin, other Chinese Dialects, Huihui language, etc.||Simplified Han characters|
|Uyghurs||ئۇيغۇر||10,069,346||Uyghur||Arabic script，Latin script(auxiliary)|||
|Hmong/Miao||Ghaob Xongb/Hmub/Mongb||9,426,007||Hmong, Southwestern Mandarin||Latin script, Simplified Han characters|
|Tibetans||བོད་པ་||6,500,000||Tibetan, Rgyal Rong, Rgu, etc.||Tibetan script|
|Bai||白族||1,858,063||Bai, Southwestern Mandarin||Latin script, Simplified Han characters|
|Yi||ꆈꌠ/彝族||8,714,393||Various Loloish, Southwestern Mandarin||Yi script, Simplified Han characters|
|Tujia||土家族||8,353,912||Northern Tujia, Southern Tujia||Simplified Han characters|
|Kam||Gaeml||2,879,974||Gaeml||Simplified Han characters, Latin script|
|Tu||土族/Monguor||289,565||Tu, Northwestern Mandarin||Simplified Han characters|
|Daur||达斡尔族/ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠷ||131,992||Daur, Northeastern Mandarin||Mongol script, Simplified Han characters|
|Russians||русские||15,393||Russian, Northwestern Mandarin||Cyrillic script, Simplified Han characters|
|Mountain Tajiks||تاجيک||3,556||Sarikoli, Wakhi||Arabic script|
|Taiwanese Aborigines||Pangcah, etc.||533,600||Austronesian languages (Amis, Yami), etc.||Latin script, Traditional Han characters|
*Note: The order of states/territories follows the population ranking of each ethnicity, within East Asia only.
The culture of East Asia has largely been influenced by China, as it was the civilization that had the most dominant influence in the region throughout the ages that ultimately laid the foundation for East Asian civilization. Evidence of this can be seen in the adoption of Confucian ethical philosophy, architectural style, diet, terminology, institutions, Chinese Buddhism, political and legal systems, and historically a common writing system reflected in the histories of Japan and Korea that is marked by Chinese influence. The Imperial Chinese tributary system was the bedrock of network of trade and foreign relations between China and its East Asian tributaries, which helped to shape much of East Asian affairs during the ancient and medieval eras. Through the tributary system, the various dynasties of Imperial China facilitated frequent economic and cultural exchange that influenced the cultures of Japan and Korea and drew them into a Chinese international order. The Imperial Chinese tributary system shaped much of East Asia's foreign policy and trade for over 2000 years due to Imperial China's economic and cultural dominance over the region, and thus played a huge role in the history of East Asia in particular. The relationship between China and it's cultural influence on East Asia has been compared to the historical influence of Greco-Roman civilization on Europe and the Western World.
|Religion||Native name||Denomination||Major book||Type||Est. Followers||Major ethnicities||Major states/territories|
|Chinese religion||none, various classifications including 民間信仰, 神教/神道, etc.||Taoism, Confucianism, folk salvationist sects, Wuism, Nuo||Chinese classics, Huangdi Sijing, precious scrolls, etc.||Pantheism/polytheism||~900,000,000||Han, Hmong, Qiang, Tujia (worship of the same ancestor-gods)||( )|
|Taoism||道教||Zhengyi, Quanzhen||Tao Te Ching||Pantheism/polytheism||~20,000,000||Han, Zhuang, Hmong, Yao, Qiang, Tujia||( )|
|Confucianism||儒教||Cheng-Zhu, Lu-Wang||Four Books and Five Classics||Immanent transcendence/pantheism||N/A||Han, Joseon, Yamato etc.||( )|
|East Asian Buddhism||漢傳佛教 or 汉传佛教||Mahayana||Diamond Sutra||Non-God||~300,000,000||Han, Joseon, Yamato, Manchus etc.||( )|
|Tibetan Buddhism||བོད་བརྒྱུད་ནང་བསྟན།||Mahayana||Anuttarayoga Tantra||Non-God||~10,000,000||Tibetans, Manchus, Mongols, Han etc.|
|Shamanism and Bon, etc||Бөө мөргөл , བོན||N/A||N/A||Polytheism/pantheism||N/A||Tibetans, Manchus, Mongols, Oroqen, Han etc.|
|Shinto||神道||Shinto sects||Kojiki, Nihon Shoki||Polytheism/pantheism||N/A||Yamato|
|Sindo/Muism||신도 or 무교||Sindo sects||N/A||Polytheism/pantheism||N/A||Joseon|
|Islam||إسلام||Sunni, Shia||Quran||Monotheism||~25,000,000||Hui, Tajik, Uyghurs, Kazakh, Dongxiang etc.|
|Festival||Native Name||Other name||Calendar||Date||Gregorian date||Activity||Religious practices||Food||Major ethnicities||Major states/territories|
|Chinese New Year||春節 or 春节||Spring Festival||Chinese||Month 1 Day 1||21 Jan–20 Feb||Family Reunion, Ancestors Worship, Tomb Sweeping, Fireworks||Worship the King of Gods||Jiaozi||Han, Joseon, Manchus etc.||()|
|New Year||元旦||Yuan Dan||Gregorian||1 Jan||1 Jan||Fireworks||N/A||N/A||N/A||()|
|Losar or Tsagaan Sar||ལོ་གསར་ or Цагаан сар||White Moon||Tibetan, Mongolian||Month 1 Day 1||25 Jan–2 Mar||Family Reunion, Ancestors Worship, Tomb Sweeping, Fireworks||N/A||Chhaang or Buuz||Tibetans, Mongols, Tu etc.|
|Lantern Festival||元宵節 or 元宵节||Upper Yuan Festival (上元节)||Chinese||Month 1 Day 15||4 Feb–6 Mar||Lanterns Expo, Ancestors Worship, Tomb Sweeping||Birthdate of the God of Sky-officer||Yuanxiao||Han, Joseon, Yamato||() *|
|Qingming Festival||清明節 or 清明节||Tomb Sweeping Day||Solar||15th day since March equinox||4 Apr–6 April||Ancestors Worship, Tomb Sweeping||Burning Hell money||Cold Food||Han, Joseon, Mongols||()|
|Dragon Boat Festival||端午節 or 端午节||Duanwu Festival||Chinese||Month 5 Day 5||Driving poisons & plague away, Dragon Boat Race, Wearing colored lines, Hanging felon herb on the front door.||Worship various Gods||Zongzi||Han, Joseon, Yamato||() *|
|Ghost Festival||中元節 or 中元节||Mid Yuan Festival||Chinese||Month 7 Day 15||Ancestors Worship, Tomb Sweeping||Birthdate of the God of Earth-officer||Han, Joseon, Yamato||() *|
|Mid-Autumn Festival||中秋節 or 中秋节||中秋祭||Chinese||Month 8 Day 15||Family Reunion, Enjoying Moon view||Worship the Moon Goddess||Mooncake||Han, Joseon, Yamato||() *|
|Double Ninth Festival||重陽節 or 重阳节||Double Positive Festival||Chinese||Month 9 Day 09||Climbing Mountain, Taking care of elderly, Wearing Cornus.||Worship various Gods||Han, Joseon, Yamato||() *|
|Lower Yuan Festival||下元節 or 下元节||N/A||Chinese||Month 10 Day 15||Ancestors Worship, Tomb Sweeping||Birthdate of the God of Water-officer||Ciba||Han||()|
|Small New Year||小年||Jizao (祭灶)||Chinese||Month 12 Day 23||Cleaning Houses||Worship the God of Hearth||tanggua||Han, Mongols||()|
|International Labor Day||N/A||N/A||Gregorian||1 May||1 May||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||()|
|International Women's Day||N/A||N/A||Gregorian||8 Mar||8 Mar||Taking care of women||N/A||N/A||N/A||()|
*Japan switched the date to the Gregorian calendar after the Meiji Restoration.
*Not always on that Gregorian date, sometimes April 4.
East Asian Youth Games
Formerly the East Asian Games is a multi-sport event organised by the East Asian Games Association (EAGA) and held every four years since 2019 among athletes from East Asian countries and territories of the Olympic Council of Asia (OCA), as well as the Pacific island of Guam, which is a member of the Oceania National Olympic Committees.
The East Asian Games is 1 of 5 Regional Games of the OCA. The others are the East Asian Games, the Central Asian Games, the South Asian Games, the Southeast Asian Games (SEA Games), and the West Asian Games. All nigh East Asian States/Territories join this Game.
Free trade agreements
|Name of agreement||Parties||Leaders at the time||Negotiation begins||Signing date||Starting time||Current status|
|China–South Korea FTA||Xi Jinping, Park Geun-hye||May, 2012||Jun 01, 2015||Dec 30, 2015||Enforced|
|China–Japan–South Korea FTA||Xi Jinping, Shinzō Abe, Park Geun-hye||Mar 26, 2013||N/A||N/A||10 round negotiation|
|Japan-Mongolia EPA||Shinzō Abe, Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj||-||Feb 10, 2015||-||Enforced|
|China-Mongolia FTA||Xi Jinping, Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj||N/A||N/A||N/A||Officially proposed|
|Mainland-HK CEPA||Jiang Zemin, Tung Chee-hwa||-||Jun 29, 2003||-||Enforced|
|Mainland-Macau CEPA||Jiang Zemin, Edmund Ho Hau-wah||-||Oct 18, 2003||-||Enforced|
|Hong Kong-Macau CEPA||Carrie Lam, Fernando Chui||Oct 09, 2015||N/A||N/A||Negotiating|
|ECFA||Hu Jintao, Ma Ying-jeou||Jan 26, 2010||Jun 29, 2010||Aug 17, 2010||Enforced|
|CSSTA (Based on ECFA)||Xi Jinping, Ma Ying-jeou||Mar, 2011||Jun 21, 2013||N/A||Abolished|
|CSGTA (Based on ECFA)||Hu Jintao, Ma Ying-jeou||Feb 22, 2011||N/A||N/A||Suspended|
|Name||Abbr.||Parties within the region|
|Shanghai Cooperation Organisation||SCO||()|
|General Security of Military Information Agreement||GSOMIA|
|Sino-North Korean Mutual Aid and Cooperation Friendship Treaty||-||()|
|Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security between the United States and Japan||-||()|
|Mutual Defense Treaty Between the United States and the Republic of Korea||-||()|
|Taiwan Relations Act (Sino-American Mutual Defense Treaty before 1980)||TRA (SAMDT)||()|
|Major non-NATO ally (Global Partners of NATO)||-||()|
Major cities and towns
Seoul is the capital of South Korea, one of the largest cities in the world and a leading global technology hub.
- East Asia Summit
- East Asian Community
- East Asian languages
- East Asian studies
- Economy of East Asia
- Four Asian Tigers
- China–Japan–South Korea trilateral summit
- Chinese calligraphy
- Japanese calligraphy
- Korean calligraphy
- Mongolian calligraphy
- The area figure is based on the combined areas of China (including Hong Kong and Macau), Mongolia, North Korea & South Korea, Taiwan and Japan as listed at List of countries and outlying territories by total area.
- The population figure is the combined populations of China (including Hong Kong and Macau), Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea, Japan and Republic of China (Taiwan) as listed at the 2017 revision of the World Population Prospects
- Officially known as the Republic of China made in 7 the B.C
- Non-United Nations member state
- "East Asia". Encarta. Microsoft. Archived from the original on 2009-10-31. Retrieved 2008-01-12.
the countries and regions of China (Hong Kong, Macau), Mongolia, South Korea, North Korea, Japan and Taiwan.
- Columbia University – "East Asian cultural sphere" Archived 2008-02-27 at the Wayback Machine. "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilisation of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system."
- include Tibetan Buddhism
- Chongho Kim, "Korean Shamanism", 2003 Ashgate Publishing
- Andreas Anangguru Yewangoe, "Theologia crucis in Asia", 1987 Rodopi
- "United Nations Statistics Division – Standard Country and Area Codes Classifications (M49)". United Nations Statistics Division. 6 May 2015. Retrieved 2010-07-24.
- "Composition of macro geographical (continental) regions, geographical sub-regions, and selected economic and other groupings". United Nations Statistics Division. 11 February 2013. Retrieved 28 May 2013.
- R. Keith Schopper's East Asia: Identities and Change in the Modern World
- Joshua A. Fogel (UC Santa Barbara/University of Indiana) Nationalism, the Rise of the Vernacular, and the Conceptualization of Modernization in East Asian Comparative Perspective
- United Nations Environment Programme (mentions sinosphere countries) Approaches to Solution of Eutrophication 
- Christopher M. Dent (2008). East Asian regionalism. London: Routledge. pp. 1–8.
- Charles Harvie, Fukunari Kimura, and Hyun-Hoon Lee (2005), New East Asian regionalism. Cheltenham and Northamton: Edward Elgar, pp. 3–6.
- Peter J. Katzenstein and Takashi Shiraishi (2006), Beyond Japan: the dynamics of East Asian regionalism. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, pp. 1–33
- "Northeast Asia." Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved on August 10, 2009.
- "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2017". IMF.
- From 1949 to 1971, the ROC was referred as "China" or "Nationalist China".
- "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision". ESA.UN.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 10 September 2017.
- Include all area which under PRC's government control(exclude "South Tibet" and disputed islands).
- Seoul was the de jure capital of the DPRK from 1948 to 1972.
- Taipei is the ROC's seat of government by regulation. Constitutionally, there is no official capital appointed for the ROC.
- "Han Chinese proportion in China's population drops: census data (2011-04-28)". Xinhua News (English). Retrieved 1 September 2015.
- "人口推計 – 平成 28年 12月 報" (PDF).
- "한민족". 위키백과, 우리 모두의 백과사전 (in Korean). 2017-03-29.
- "壮族". 维基百科，自由的百科全书 (in Chinese). 2017-03-25.
- "满族". 维基百科，自由的百科全书 (in Chinese). 2017-02-23.
- "Hui people". Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. 2016-02-18.
- "维吾尔族". 维基百科，自由的百科全书 (in Chinese). 2017-03-29.
- Uyghur Latin alphabet
- Khotons in
- "苗族". 维基百科，自由的百科全书 (in Chinese). 2017-02-19.
- Lim, SK. Asia Civilizations: Ancient to 1800 AD. ASIAPAC. p. 56. ISBN 978-9812295941.
- Walker, Hugh Dyson (2012). East Asia: A New History. AuthorHouse. p. 2.
- Lewis, Mark Edward (2012). China's Cosmopolitan Empire: The Tang Dynasty. Belknap Press (published April 9, 2012). p. 156. ISBN 978-0674064010.
- Edwin O. Reischauer, "The Sinic World in Perspective," Foreign Affairs 52.2 (January 1974): 341—348. JSTOR
- Lim, SK. Asia Civilizations: Ancient to 1800 AD. ASIAPAC. p. 89. ISBN 978-9812295941.
- Vohra 1999, p. 22
- Warren I. Cohen. East Asia at the Center : Four Thousand Years of Engagement with the World. (New York: Columbia University Press, 2000. ISBN 0231101082
- Walker, Hugh Dyson (2012). East Asia: A New History. AuthorHouse. p. 2.
- Wenzel-Teuber, Katharina (2012). "People's Republic of China: Religions and Churches Statistical Overview 2011" (PDF). Religions & Christianity in Today's China. II (3). pp. 29–54. ISSN 2192-9289. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 April 2017.
- Wenzel-Teuber, Katharina (2017). "Statistics on Religions and Churches in the People's Republic of China – Update for the Year 2016" (PDF). Religions & Christianity in Today's China. VII (2). pp. 26–53. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 July 2017.
- almost Manchu, Mongolian
- Shirley Kan (December 2009). Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990. DIANE Publishing. p. 52. ISBN 978-1-4379-2041-3.
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