Big Four tech companies

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from GAFAM)
Jump to navigation Jump to search

The Big Four is a name used to describe the four multinational technology companies Google, Amazon, Facebook, and Apple. The term was coined by Eric Schmidt,[1] Phil Simon, and Scott Galloway as driving a large amount of growth in technology.[2] The Big Four are sometimes referred to as GAFA, an acronym for Google, Amazon, Facebook, and Apple.[3] The term Big Five is sometimes used to include Microsoft, another major technology company.[4]


The term refers to companies driving large societal change,[how?] rather than just the largest tech companies. Schmidt, Simon, and Galloway consider some large companies such as IBM and Microsoft to be driving less change than the Big Four.[5][6]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Schonfeld, Erick (31 May 2011). "Eric Schmidt's Gang Of Four: Google, Apple, Amazon, And Facebook – TechCrunch".
  2. ^ Pisani, Bob (3 October 2017). "We are letting Amazon and Apple 'avoid taxes, invade privacy, and destroy jobs,' says NYU professor". CNBC.
  3. ^ "GAFA Approach to Digital Banking Transformation - Accenture".
  4. ^ Sen, Conor (15 November 2017). "The 'Big Five' Could Destroy the Tech Ecosystem". Bloomberg. Retrieved 2019-02-10.
  5. ^ Simon, Phil (22 October 2011). The Age of the Platform: How Amazon, Apple, Facebook, and Google Have Redefined Business (1 ed.). Motion Publishing. p. 312. ISBN 9780982930250.
  6. ^ Galloway, Scott (2017). The Four: The Hidden DNA of Amazon, Apple, Facebook, and Google. Random House. ISBN 9781473542105.