Hadith of the pond of Khumm

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Hadith of the pond of Khumm
Arabic حدیث غدیر خم
Romanization Hadeeth Ghadeer Khumm
Literal meaning Narration of Khumm pond
Muhammad and Ali in pond of Khumm

The Hadith of the pond of Khumm (Arabic: غدير خم‎) is an account of a speech given by Muhammad on 18th of Dhu al-Hijjah of 10 AH in the Islamic calendar (March 16, 632 AD)[1] at Ghadir Khumm, which is located near the city of al-Juhfah, in present day Saudi Arabia.[2] It has been interpreted variously by the two main sects of Islam, where Shia generally maintain that in this hadith the Islamic prophet Muhammad appointed Ali (Ali ibn Abi Talib) as his heir and successor. The Sunnis, on the other hand, do not deny Muhammad's declaration about Ali at Ghadir Khumm, but they argue that he was simply urging the audience to hold his cousin and son-in-law in high esteem and affection.[1] Among Sunnis it is primarily used by Sufis to demonstrate the transmission of spiritual authority to Ali. The sermon also illustrates some of the fundamental tenets of Islamic Monotheism.

Most of the Sunni and Shia sources maintain that 70,000 people were present at this occasion, some scholars such as Tha'labi in his Tafsir, Sibt Ibn Jauzi in his Tadhkirat'u-Khasa'isi'l-Umma fi Ma'rifati'l-A'imma give the figure 120,000.[3]

For the great significance of Muhammad’s words at Ghadir Khumm in their eyes, Shiites solemnly celebrate the anniversary on 18 Dhu al-Hijjah.[1]

The verse of announcement[edit]

The Investiture of Ali at Ghadir Khumm (MS Arab 161, fol. 162r, AD 1309/8 Ilkhanid manuscript illustration)
Mosque at Johfa

A few months before his death, Muhammad went on pilgrimage from his home in Medina to Mecca in a trip referred to as The Farewell Pilgrimage. On the way back from this journey, the following Quranic verse was revealed:

يَا أَيُّهَا الرَّسُولُ بَلِّغْ مَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ مِن رَّبِّكَ وَإِن لَّمْ تَفْعَلْ فَمَا بَلَّغْتَ رِسَالَتَهُ وَاللَّـهُ يَعْصِمُكَ مِنَ النَّاسِ إِنَّ اللَّـهَ لَا يَهْدِي[4]
O Messenger! proclaim the (message) which hath been sent to thee from thy Lord. If thou didst not, thou wouldst not have fulfilled and proclaimed His mission. And Allah will defend thee from men (who mean mischief). For Allah guideth not those who reject Faith. (5:67).[5]

Following this revelation, Muhammad stopped at the pond of Khumm and delivered a sermon. Shia narrators of traditions therefore consider this verse to relate to the succession of Ali at Ghadir Khumm[6][7][8]

The hadith[edit]

On the way back to Medina from Mecca, Muhammad ordered his companions to stop at Ghadir Khum and delivered the following sermon (in brief)

O people, Allah the Most Kind the Omniscient has told me that no apostle lives to more than half the age of him who had preceded him. I think I am about to be called (to die) and thus I must respond. I am responsible and you are responsible, then what do you say?' They said, 'We witness that you have informed, advised and striven. May Allah bless you.' He said, 'Do you not bear witness that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is His servant and Apostle, and that His Heaven is true, His Hell is true, death is true, the Resurrection after death is true, that there is no doubt that the Day of Judgment will come, and that Allah will resurrect the dead from their graves?' They said, 'Yes, we bear witness.' He said, 'O Allah, bear witness.' Then he said, 'O people, Allah is my Lord and I am the lord of the believers. I am worthier of believers than themselves. Of whomsoever I had been Master (Mawla), Ali here is to be his Master.[a] O Allah, be a supporter of whoever supports him (Ali) and an enemy of whoever opposes him and divert the Truth to Ali.'

O people, I will go ahead of you and you will arrive at my Pond (in Heaven) which is wider than the distance between Basra and San'a. It has receptacles as numerous as the stars, and two cups of gold and two of silver. I will ask you about the two weighty things that I have left for you when you come to me to see how you dealt with them. The greater weighty thing is Allah's book—the Holy Qur'an. One end is in Allah's hand and the other is in your hands. Keep it and you will not deviate. That other weighty thing is my family (Ahl al-Bayt) and my descendents. The Most Kind the Omniscient had told me that both of them, would not separate until they come to my Pond.

Another similar narration of part of the hadith goes as follows,

O people! Reflect on the Quran and comprehend its verses. Look into its clear verses and do not follow its ambiguous parts, for by Allah, none shall be able to explain to you its warnings and its mysteries, nor shall anyone clarify its interpretation, other than the one that I have grasped his hand, brought up beside myself,(and lifted his arm), the one about whom I inform you that whomever I am his master, this Ali is his master (Mawla); and he is Ali Ibn Abi Talib, my brother, the executor of my will (Wasiyyi), whose appointment as your guardian and leader has been sent down to me from Allah, the mighty and the majestic.[9]

There are other versions of this hadith that say,

I have left two matters with you. As long as you hold to them, you will not go the wrong way. They are the Book of Allah and the Sunna of His Prophet."

—Malik ibn Anas, Muwatta Imam Malik[10]

I leave for you the Quran alone you shall uphold it.

Sahih Muslim 15/19, nu 1218; Sunan ibn Majah 25/84, Sunan Abu Dawood 11/56

Interpretation[edit]

The word mawla is significant in the first narration of this hadith, and can refer to a client, patron, friend, partner, ally or numerous other similar relationships.[11] Number of 27 different meanings are given for the word mawla and hence the exact meaning should be derived from their syntactical and situational contexts.[12]

Analysis[edit]

The current knowledge of the Prophet’s life is mainly based on sources such as Ibn Hisham , al-Ṭabarī, Ibn Saʿd, etc. that are silent over Muhammad’s stop at Ghadir Khumm. Even when the writers mentioned the event, they said nothing about his speech (evidently due to the fear of provoking the hostility of Sunni rulers by providing material for polemic of Shiites who used the Prophet’s words in support of their belief in Ali’s right to Caliphate). Similarly, western biographers of Muhammad make no mention of what happened at Ghadir Khumm as their works are based on these same sources. Yet there’s no doubt that Muhammad did deliver a speech there which included the famous sentence, for the account of the event has been recorded not only by al-Yakubi who is famous for his sympathy for Shiite cause, but also in canonical collections as in the Musnad of Ibn Hanbal. And considering the sheer number of the hadiths and their different isnads it is impossible to reject them. In fact, the Sunnis on the other hand, do not deny Muhammad’s declaration about Ali at Ghadir Khumm, but they argue that he was simply urging the audience to hold his cousin and son-in-law in high esteem and affection.[1]

The prophet ceased the caravan while the weather was very hot and there was no water on the Ghadir, it must be an important matter for the guidance of the community that the caravan is ceased in this situation.

The prophet begun his speech with Tawhid, prophecy and afterlife; these imply the importance of the matter that the prophet was to express. Before the prophet's message about Ali, he spoke about his position of being mawla of the muslims: "God is my Mawla and I am the mawla of the believers, and I am closer to them than they are to their own selves." This means that the word mawla that is used for Ali is derived from the same root that the prophet has used for himself.

After declaring the message, the prophet asked that the presents deliver the message to the absents.[13]

Oath of allegiance by Umar and Gabriel's advice to him[edit]

On the completion of Muhammad's sermon, Umar (Umar al-Khattab) said, "Congratulations to you, Ali! This morning has brought you a great blessing. Today you have become the master of all believing men and women." At a later occasion when Umar was asked about his special treatment to Ali as compared to other companions, his reply was, "He is my master."[14][15][16][17] Shi'a Believe that, With Muhammad's approbation he recited verses in honour of Ali. The verse are recorded in Ibn Shahrashoub and affirms that ʿAlī was named as the successor of the Prophet on the day of Ghadir Khum.[1]

Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadani, a Shafi'i scholar, writes in his book, Mawaddat al-Qurba in Mawadda 5, that many companions quoted Umar in different places as having said that Muhammad made Ali the chief and leader of the nation and that Muhammad announced publicly that Ali was their master. Umar was also quoted saying that on the day of that announcement, a handsome youth was sitting besides him and that the youth said to him, "Surely, the Prophet has bound a covenant which none but a hypocrite would break. So Umar! Avoid breaking it." When Umar told Muhammad about the incident, Muhammad said that the youth was not of Adam's (Adem) progeny but was Gabriel (Jibril) and was stressing the point about Ali.

Muawiyah is reminded about Ghadir[edit]

When Muawiyah arrived (in Mecca) during one of his pilgrimages, accordingly, Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas came to see him, and they happened to mention Ali. Muawiyah disparaged Ali. As a result, Sa`d became angry and said: "You are speaking of this man! I have heard the Messenger of Allah—peace and salutation of Allah be upon him—declare (On the day of Ghadir): 'Of whomsoever I am the master, then Ali is his master.' I have (also) heard him say: 'You Ali are to me in position that Harun was to Musa, except that there is no prophet after me (See Hadith of position).' And I have heard him announce: 'Today I am indeed going to hand over the banner to a person who loves Allah and his Messenger.'"[18]

Sufi explanation from Sunni texts[edit]

The point of view taken up by some Sufi groups is the announcement of "Spiritual Authority" of Ali by Muhammad. Muhammad Tahir-ul-Qadri, a Sufi scholar, cites 51 different hadith about the incident of Ghadir from various Sunni sources. He states in his book, The Ghadir Declaration that, "This (Ghadir declaration) was the declaration of 'Alī's spiritual sovereignty and its unconditional acceptance is binding on the believers till the Day of Judgment. It clearly proves that anyone who denies 'Alī's spiritual leadership in fact denies the Prophet's leadership."[citation needed]

See also[edit]

Citations[edit]

The above hadith have been cited in various Sunni sources including:

  • Abd Al Husayn Amini, Iranian Shia scholar also has gathered narrations of more than 110 companions (Sahaba) of Muhammad, as well as 40 followers of Muhammad about this event in his book named Al Ghadir.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ man kuntu mawlāhu fa-ʿAlī mawlāh[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Veccia Vaglieri, Laura (2012). "G̲h̲adīr K̲h̲umm". Encyclopedia of Islam. Brill Online. 
  2. ^ Hadith of Ghadir Khumm—A Sunni Perspective
  3. ^ Musawi ash-Shirazi, Sayyid Muhammad (1996). Peshawar Nights. Hamid Quinlan, Charles Ali Campbell. New York: Pak Books. 
  4. ^ "The verse 67 of Al-Ma'ida chapter". 
  5. ^ "Yusuf Ali Translation". 
  6. ^ Al-Suyuti from Dur al-Manthur based on the authority of Ibn Asakir, Ibn Mardawayh and Ibn Abi Hatim who narrate from Abu Sa`id al-Khudri
  7. ^ Al-Shahrastani (1984). Kitab al–Milal wa al-Nihal. London: Kegan Paul. pp. 139–140. 
  8. ^ Tafsir ibn Abi Hatim Vol. 4 Pg. 1172 Hadith no. 6609
  9. ^ The Last Sermon of Muhammad by Shia Accounts
  10. ^ Al-Muwatta, 46 1.3
  11. ^ Bernards, Monique; Nawas, John Abdallah (2005). Patronate And Patronage in Early And Classical Islam. BRILL. ISBN 90-04-14480-3. 
  12. ^ Mutahari, Murtada (2001). Wilayah, the Station of the Master (PDF) (Fourth ed.). Tehran: WOFIS. 
  13. ^ Sobhani, Ja'afar; Shah-Kazemi, Reza (2001). Doctrines of Shiʻi Islam : a compendium of Imami beliefs and practices ([Online-Ausg.] ed.). London: I.B. Tauris [u.a.] pp. 106–107. ISBN 978-1-86064-780-2. 
  14. ^ Al-Bidaya wa'l-Nihaya, by Ibn Kathir, vol. 7, p. 349, Cairo: Matba`at al-Sa`adah (14 vols)
  15. ^ Fayd al-Qadir Sharh al-Jami` al-Saghir by Muhammad al-Munawi, vol. 6, pp. 217–8
  16. ^ Al-Milal wa al-Nihal by Al-Shahrastani, pp. 139–140, 1984, London: Kegan Paul, Muslim Sects and Divisions
  17. ^ Manaqib by Ibn al-Maghazili, pp. 18–19, Beirut: Dar al-Adwa, 1983
  18. ^ Ibn Majah, Sunan, Volume 1 Page 45, Cairo, 1952 CE,
  19. ^ Musnad, narrated by Zathan, from thirteen persons, vol. 1 p. 84
  20. ^ Musnad, narrated by Ziyad bin Abu Ziyad, from twelve persons, who had fought in the battle of Badr. vol. 1 p. 88
  21. ^ Musnad, narrated by Sa'id bin Wahhab, from five or six persons, vol. 5 p. 366
  22. ^ Musnad, narrated by Sa'id bin Wahhab and Zayd bin Yathigh, from twelve persons vol. 1 p. 118
  23. ^ Musnad, narrated by Zayd bin Arqam, from sixteen persons, vol. 5 p. 370
  24. ^ Musnad, narrated by Abut-Tufayl, from many persons, vol. 4 p. 370
  25. ^ Musnad, narrated by Abut-Tufayl, from thirty persons, vol. 4 p. 370
  26. ^ Musnad, narrated by Abdur-Rahman bin Abu Leyla, to twelve people, vol. 1 p. 118
  27. ^ Musnad, narrated by Riyah bin al-Harith, from some of the Ansar, vol. 5 p. 419
  28. ^ Musnad, narrated by Riyah bin al-Harith, from some people, vol. 5 p. 419
  29. ^ Musnad, narrated by Sa'id bin Ubayda, from ibn Burayda, from his father, vol. 5 p. 358
  30. ^ Musnad, narrated by Sa'id bin Ubayda from another direction vol. 5 p. 358
  31. ^ Musnad, narrated by Umar bin Maymun, from Ibn Abbas, vol. 1 p. 331
  32. ^ Musnad, narrated by Abu Ubayd, from Ibn Maymun, from Zayd bin Arqam, vol. 4 p. 372
  33. ^ Musnad, narrated by Abdul-Malik, from Zayd bin Arqam, vol. 4 p. 370
  34. ^ Musnad, narrated by To Atiya, vol. 4 p. 370
  35. ^ Musnad, narrated by Al-Bara' bin Aazib from another chain of narrators, vol. 4 p. 281
  36. ^ Musnad, narrated by Al-Bara' bin Aazib from another chain of narrators, vol. 4 p. 282
  37. ^ Musnad, narrated by Abu Maryam and one of Imam Ali's Companions, vol. 1, p. 152
  38. ^ Musnad, narrated by Ibn Abbas, vol. 1 p. 331
  39. ^ Al-Khasa'is, Sa'id bin Wahhab, from five or six persons p. 21
  40. ^ Al-Khasa'is, narrated by Sa'id bin Wahhab, from six persons – p. 26 and 40
  41. ^ Al-Khasa'is, narrated by Zayd bin Yathigh, from six persons—p. 26
  42. ^ Al-Khasa'is, narrated by Amr bin Sa'd, from six persons, Al-Khasa'is, p. 21
  43. ^ Al-Khasa'is, narrated by Amr Dhi Mur, to some persons p. 40
  44. ^ Al-Khasa'is, narrated by Ibn Abbas bin Burayda, p. 21
  45. ^ Al-Khasa'is, From another direction to Ibn Abbas from Burayda, p. 21
  46. ^ Al-Khasa'is, narrated by Sa'id bin Umayr, from ibn Burayda, from his father, p. 21
  47. ^ Al-Khasa'is, narrated by Aamir bin Wathila, p. 24
  48. ^ Al-Khasa'is, narrated by Auf, from Ibn Maymun, from Zayd bin Arqam, p. 22.
  49. ^ Al-Khasa'is, narrated by Abu at-Tufayl, from Zayd bin Arqam-Al Khasa'is, p. 21
  50. ^ Al-Khasa'is, narrated by Ayman, from Sa'd bin Abu Waqqas, p. 4
  51. ^ Al-Khasa'is, narrated by 'Aa'isha bint Sa'd, from Sa'd bin Abu Waqqas, 24–25
  52. ^ The History of Damascus, narrated by Sa'id bin Wahhab, from six persons vol. 2 p. 28
  53. ^ The History of Damascus, narrated by Amr Dhi Mur, Sa'id bin Wahhab and Zayd bin Yathigh, from thirteen persons, vol. 2 p. 18
  54. ^ The History of Damascus, narrated by Amr Dhi Mur and Sa'id bin Wahhab, from six or seven persons—vol. 2 p. 19
  55. ^ The History of Damascus, narrated by Sa'id bin Wahhab and Abd Khayr, from some persons, vol. 2 p. 20
  56. ^ The History of Damascus, narrated by Abdur-Rahman bin Abu Leyla vol. 2 p. 9
  57. ^ The History of Damascus, narrated by Also Abdur-Rahman bin Abu Leyla, vol. 2 p. 9
  58. ^ The History of Damascus, narrated by Salama from Hudhayfa bin Usayd vol. 2 p. 45
  59. ^ The History of Damascus, narrated by Sa'd bin Abu Waqqas, vol. 2 p. 53
  60. ^ The History of Damascus, narrated by Umar bin al-Khattab, vol. 2 p. 80
  61. ^ The History of Damascus, narrated by Malik bin al-Huwayrith, vol. 2 p. 80
  62. ^ The History of Damascus, narrated by Ibrahim bin al-Husayn, from Abu Hurayra, vol. 2 p. 72
  63. ^ The History of Damascus, narrated by Abu 'Ishaq al-Khitabi, from Abu Hurayra, vol. 2 p. 74
  64. ^ The History of Damascus, narrated by Mansur bin abul-Aswad, from Abu Hurayra, vol. 2 p. 74
  65. ^ The History of Damascus, narrated by Abu Ya'la, from Abu Hurayra, vol. 2p. 74
  66. ^ The History of Damascus, narrated by Abdullah bin Adiy, from Abu Hurayra vol. 2 p. 75
  67. ^ The History of Damascus, narrated by Habshun, from Abu Hurayra, vol. 2 p. 75
  68. ^ The History of Damascus, narrated by Ali bin Shu'eib, from Abu Hurayra, vol. 2 p. 76
  69. ^ The History of Damascus, narrated by Ad-Daqqaq, from Abu Hurayra, vol. 2 p. 77
  70. ^ The History of Damascus, narrated by Samra bin Jundub, vol. 2 p. 71
  71. ^ The History of Damascus, narrated by Shuriet bin Anas, vol. 2 p. 72
  72. ^ The History of Damascus, narrated by Qubaysa, from Jabir bin Abdullah, vol. 2 p. 65
  73. ^ The History of Damascus, narrated by Qubaysa, from someone else, vol. 2 p. 63
  74. ^ The History of Damascus, narrated by Muhammad bin al-Munkadir, from Jabir bin Abdullah, vol. 2 p. 65
  75. ^ The History of Damascus, narrated by Abdullah bin Muhammad bin Aqil, from someone else, vol. 2 p. 62
  76. ^ The History of Damascus, narrated by Abdur-Rahman bin Bahman, vol. 2 p. 63
  77. ^ The History of Damascus, narrated by Abu Bastam, Usama's freed slave, vol. 2 p. 86
  78. ^ The History of Damascus, narrated by Ali bin Khadim, from Abu Sa'id, vol. 2 p. 69
  79. ^ The History of Damascus, narrated From another chain of narrators to Shu'ba, from Zayd bin Arqam, vol. 2 p. 42
  80. ^ The History of Damascus, narrated by Atiya al-Aufi, from Zayd bin Arqam, vol. 2 p. 39
  81. ^ The History of Damascus, narrated by Abu Surayha or Zayd bin Arqam, vol. 2 p. 36
  82. ^ The History of Damascus, narrated by Abu Abdullah ash-Shami, from Zayd bin Arqam, vol. 2 p. 38
  83. ^ The History of Damascus, narrated by Habibu l-Iskafi, from Zayd bin Arqam, vol. 2 p. 41
  84. ^ The History of Damascus, narrated by Abu 'Ishaq, from Zayd bin Arqam, vol. 2 p. 41
  85. ^ The History of Damascus, narrated by Al-Bara' bin Aazib from a tenth chain of narrators, vol. 2 p. 48
  86. ^ The History of Damascus, narrated by Al-Bara' bin Aazib from an eleventh chain of narrators, vol. 2 p. 50
  87. ^ The History of Damascus, narrated by Al-Bara' bin Aazib, from another chain of narrators, vol. 2 p. 50
  88. ^ The History of Damascus, narrated by Abu 'Ishaq, from al-Bara' bin Aazib and Zayd bin Arqam vol. 2 p. 52
  89. ^ The History of Damascus, narrated by Amr Dhi Mur, vol. 2 p. 30
  90. ^ The History of Damascus, narrated by Al-Husayn bin Ali, from Imam Ali, vol. 2, p. 26
  91. ^ The History of Damascus, narrated by Umar bin Ali, from Imam Ali, vol. 2 p. 28
  92. ^ The History of Damascus, narrated by Abu at-Tufayl, from Imam Ali, vol. 2, p. 20
  93. ^ The History of Damascus, narrated by Zayd bin Arqam, from Imam Ali, vol. 2, p. 20
  94. ^ The History of Damascus, narrated by Ibn Umar, vol. 2 p. 83
  95. ^ Usud al-Ghabah, narrated by Habba bin Juwayn al-Urani, vol. 1 p. 376
  96. ^ Usud al-Ghabah, narrated by Jundu' bin Amr bin Mazin, vol. 1 p. 308
  97. ^ Usud al-Ghabah, narrated by Ya'la bin Murra, vol. 3 p. 233
  98. ^ Usud al-Ghabah, narrated by Abu Ayyub, vol. 5 p. 6
  99. ^ Usud al-Ghabah, narrated by Abu at-Tufeil, from Abu Qudama, vol. 5 p. 276
  100. ^ Usud al-Ghabah, narrated by Ya'la, from Aamir bin Leyla, vol. 3 p. 93
  101. ^ Usud al-Ghabah, narrated by Ya'la bin Murra, from Yazid or Zayd bin Shuraheel, vol. 2 p. 233
  102. ^ Usud al-Ghabah, narrated by Hudhayfa bin Usayd and Aamir bin Leyla bin Zamra, vol. 3 p. 92
  103. ^ Usud al-Ghabah, narrated by Aamir bin Leyla from another chain of narrators, vol. 3 p. 93
  104. ^ Usud al-Ghabah, narrated by Abu Amra, from Amr bin Mahz, vol. 3 p. 307
  105. ^ Usud al-Ghabah, narrated by Abu Zaynab, vol. 3 p. 307
  106. ^ Usud al-Ghabah, narrated by Sahl bin Hunayf, vol. 3 p. 307
  107. ^ Usud al-Ghabah, narrated by Khuzayma bin Thabit, vol. 3 p. 307
  108. ^ Usud al-Ghabah, narrated by Abdullah bin Thabit al-Ansari, vol. 3 p. 307
  109. ^ Usud al-Ghabah, narrated by Habashi bin Junada, vol. 3 p. 307
  110. ^ Usud al-Ghabah, narrated by Ubayd bin Aazib, vol. 3 p. 307
  111. ^ Usud al-Ghabah, narrated by Nu'Man bin Ajlan, vol. 3 p. 307
  112. ^ Usud al-Ghabah, narrated by Thabit bin Wadi'a, vol. 3 p. 307
  113. ^ Usud al-Ghabah, narrated by Abu Fuzala al-Ansari, vol. 3 p. 307
  114. ^ Usud al-Ghabah, narrated by Najiya bin Amr al-Khuza'i, vol. 5 p. 6
  115. ^ Usud al-Ghabah, narrated by Miqdad bin Amr, vol. 5 p. 6
  116. ^ Usud al-Ghabah, narrated by Al-Asbagh, from Ubayd bin Aazib al-Ansari, vol. 3 p. 307 and vol. 5 p. 205
  117. ^ Usud al-Ghabah, narrated by Habib bin Badil bin Warqa', vol. 1 p. 368
  118. ^ Usud al-Ghabah, narrated by Qays bin Thabit bin Shamaas, vol. 1 p. 367
  119. ^ Usud al-Ghabah, narrated by Hashim bin Utba, vol. 1 p. 368
  120. ^ Ibnul-Maghazili's Manaqib, narrated by Abd Khayr, Amr Dhi Mur and Habbatul-Urani, from twelve people, p. 20
  121. ^ Ibnul-Maghazili's Manaqib, narrated by Hamid at-Tawil, from Anas
  122. ^ Ibnul-Maghazili's Manaqib, narrated by Abu Salama, from Muhammad bin al-Munkadir, p. 25
  123. ^ Ibnul-Maghazili's Manaqib, narrated by Al-Hakam bin Abu Sulayman, from Zayd bin Arqam, p. 23
  124. ^ Ibnul-Maghazili's Manaqib, narrated by Abuz-Zuha, from Zayd bin Arqam, p. 20
  125. ^ Ibnul-Maghazili's Manaqib, narrated by Zayd's wife, from Zayd bin Arqam, p. 16
  126. ^ Ibnul-Maghazili's Manaqib, narrated by Abdullah bin Mas'ud, p. 23
  127. ^ Ibnul-Maghazili's Manaqib, narrated by Atiyah, from ibn Abu Awfa, p. 24
  128. ^ Ibnul-Maghazili's Manaqib, narrated by Umayra bin Sa'd, p. 26
  129. ^ Sunan ibn Majah, narrated by Al-Bara' bin Aazib, vol. 1 p. 55
  130. ^ Sunan ibn Majah, narrated by Abdur-Rahman bin Saabit, from Sa'd bin Abu Waqqas, vol. 1, p. 58
  131. ^ Majma al-Zawa'id, narrated by Sa'id bin Wahhab, from thirteen persons vol. 9
  132. ^ Majma al-Zawa'id, narrated by Abu Hurayra, Anas and Abu Sa'id, from nine persons and others, vol. 9 p. 708
  133. ^ Majma al-Zawa'id, narrated by Hamid bin Imara, vol. 9p. 107
  134. ^ Kifayat at-Talib, narrated by Sa'id bin Wahhab and Zayd bin Yathigh, from some persons p. 18
  135. ^ Kifayat at-Talib, narrated by Abdullah bin Muhammad bin Aqil, from Muhammad bin al-Munkadir, p. 14
  136. ^ Kifayat at-Talib, narrated by From another direction to Abu at-Tufayl, from Zayd bin Arqam, p. 13–14
  137. ^ Al-Isaba, narrated by Abut-Tufayl, from seventeen persons, vol. 4 p. 156
  138. ^ Al-Isaba, narrated by Al-Asbagh bin Nabata, from some persons, vol. 4 p. 80
  139. ^ Al-Isaba, narrated by Abdullah bin Bamil, vol. 2 p. 374
  140. ^ Sharh Nahjul Balagha, narrated by Abu Zumayla, from some persons
  141. ^ Hilyat al-awliya, narrated by Umayra bin Sa'd, from twelve persons, vol. 5 p. 26
  142. ^ Hilyat al-awliya, narrated by Umar bin Abdul-Aziz, from some persons, vol. 5 p. 364
  143. ^ Hilyat al-awliya, narrated To Tawus, from Burayda, vol. 4 p. 23
  144. ^ Tarikh Baghdad, narrated by Umayra, from eighteen persons, vol. 2 p. 13
  145. ^ Tarikh Baghdad, narrated by Umayra, from other eight sources, vol. 2 p. 13
  146. ^ Tarikh Baghdad, narrated by Musa bin Ayyub, from Abu Hurayra, vol. 8 p. 290
  147. ^ Tarikh Baghdad, narrated by Al-Mansur, from his father, from his grandfather, from Ibn Abbas, vol. 12 p. 343
  148. ^ Tarikh Baghdad, narrated by Abdur-Rahman bin Abu Leyla, vol. 14 p. 236
  149. ^ Al-Kuna wa al-Asma, narrated by Abu Qulaba, from more than ten people, vol. 2 p. 61
  150. ^ Al-Kuna wa al-Asma, narrated by Abu 'Ishaq as-Subay'i, from al-Bara' bin Aazib, vol. 1 p. 160
  151. ^ Mushkil ul-Athar, narrated by Abu 'Ishaq as-Subay'i, from more than ten people, vol. 2 p. 307
  152. ^ Jami` at-Tirmidhi, narrated by Salama from Hudhayfa bin Usayd, vol. 13 p. 165
  153. ^ Muwazihul-Awham, narrated by As'ad bin Zurara, from his father, vol. 1 p. 91
  154. ^ Al-Kafi ash-Shafi, narrated by Isa bin Talha, from Talha bin Abdullah, p. 95
  155. ^ Talha, p. 95
  156. ^ Tafsir ibn Kathir, narrated by Abdur-Rahman bin Abu Leyla from another direction, vol 2 p. 14
  157. ^ Tafsir ibn Kathir, narrated by Abdur-Rahman bin abu Leyla, vol. 2 p. 14
  158. ^ Tafsir ibn Kathir, narrated by To Abu at-Tufayl, from Zayd bin Arqam, vol. 2 p. 14
  159. ^ Tafsir ibn Kathir, narrated by Zayd bin Wahhab and Abd Khayr, from Imam Ali, vol. 2, p. 14
  160. ^ Al-Mu'jam al-Kabeer, narrated by Habashi bin Junada, p. 127
  161. ^ Al-Mu'jam al-Kabeer, narrated by Bishr bin Harb, from Jarir, p. 127
  162. ^ Al-Mu'jam al-Kabeer, narrated by Abu Ayyub, p. 157
  163. ^ Al-Mu'jam al-Kabeer, narrated to Abu at-Tufayl, from Zayd bin Arqam, p. 127 (Manuscript)
  164. ^ Al-Mu'jam al-Kabeer, narrated by Hudhayfa bin Usayd or Zayd bin Arqam, p. 157 (Manuscript)
  165. ^ Al-Bidaya wa'l-Nihaya, narrated by Amr Dhi Mur, vol. 5 p. 210
  166. ^ Al-Bidaya wa'l-Nihaya, narrated by Bint Ka'b (Ka'b's daughter) from Abu Sa'id, vol. 5 p. 208
  167. ^ Al-Bidaya wa'l-Nihaya, narrated by Abu Maryam or Zayd bin Arqam, vol. 7 p. 348
  168. ^ Al-Bidaya wa'l-Nihaya, narrated by Yazid bin Talha, vol. 5 p. 108
  169. ^ a b Al-Bidaya wa'l-Nihaya, narrated by Al-Bara' bin Aazib, vol. 5 p. 208
  170. ^ Al-Bidaya wa'l-Nihaya, narrated by Al Bara' bin Aazib, vol. 5 p. 208
  171. ^ Al-Bidaya wa'l-Nihaya, narrated by Umar bin Ali, from Imam Ali, vol. 5, p. 221
  172. ^ Al-Bidaya wa'l-Nihaya, narrated From another direction to 'Aa'isha bint Sa'd from Sa'd bin abu Waqqas, vol. 5 p. 208
  173. ^ Al-Mustadrak alaa al-Sahihain, narrated by Sa'd bin Malik, vol. 3 p. 116
  174. ^ Al-Mustadrak alaa al-Sahihain, narrated by Ibn Wathila, from Zayd bin Arqam, vol. 3 p. 109
  175. ^ Talkhis al-Mustadrak, narrated by Aamir bin Wathila, vol. 3 p. 109
  176. ^ Arjah ul-Matalib, narrated by Abul-Hamra', p. 581
  177. ^ Arjah ul-Matalib, narrated by Fatima binte Muhammad p. 448 and 571
  178. ^ Al-Khawarizmi's Manaqib, narrated by Al-Bazzar, from Abu Hurayra, p. 94
  179. ^ Al-Khawarizmi's Manaqib, narrated by Al-Abdi, from Abu Sa'id
  180. ^ Al-Khawarizmi's Manaqib, narrated by Abd bin Thabit, from al-Bara' bin Aazib, p. 93
  181. ^ Al-Khawarizmi's Manaqib, narrated by Aamir bin Wathila, from Imam Ali, vol. 1, p. 41
  182. ^ Al-Khawarizmi's Manaqib, narrated by Salman, from Imam Ali, vol. 1 p. 41
  183. ^ Al-Khawarizmi's Manaqib, narrated by Amr bin al-Aas, p. 125
  184. ^ Al-Khawarizmi's Manaqib, narrated by Amr bin al-Aas-Khawarizmi's Manaqib, p. 126
  185. ^ Al-Mu'jam As-Saghir, narrated by Tawus, from Burayda, vol. 1 p. 71
  186. ^ Al-Jarh wa at-Ta'dil, narrated by Abu Leyla bin Sa'id, from his father, vol. 4 p. 431
  187. ^ The History of Islam, narrated by Shu'ba, from Ibn Maymun, from Zayd bin Arqam, vol. 2 p. 196
  188. ^ The History of Islam, narrated by Aamir bin Sa'd, from Sa'd bin Abu Waqqas, vol. 2
  189. ^ Fara'id al-Simtayn, narrated by Al-Bara' bin Aazib, vol. 1 p. 64
  190. ^ Fara'id al-Simtayn, narrated by Al-Bara' bin Aazib from another direction, vol. 1 p. 65
  191. ^ Fara'id al-Simtayn, narrated by Ammar bin Yasir, vol. 1 p. 195
  192. ^ Fara'id al-Simtayn, narrated by Amr Dhi Mur, from Imam Ali, vol. 1, p. 67
  193. ^ Fara'id al-Simtayn, narrated by Sulaym bin Qays, from some persons, one of them was Abu Dharr, vol. 1 p. 315
  194. ^ Fara'id al-Simtayn, narrated by Hasan bin Thabit, vol. 1 p. 73
  195. ^ Du'atul-Hudat, from Hudhayfa bin al-Yaman
  196. ^ Al-Imama wa al-Siyasa, from Amr bin al-Aas p. 93
  197. ^ Salama, abu at-Tufeil from Hudhayfa bin Useid al-Ghifari
  198. ^ Tawus, from his father, Ahmad bin Hanbal's Manaqib, (Manuscript)
  199. ^ Mizanul-I'tidal, Amr Dhi Mur, from Imam Ali, vol. 2 p. 303.

Further reading[edit]

Coordinates: 22°49′30″N 39°04′30″E / 22.82500°N 39.07500°E / 22.82500; 39.07500