Coordinates: 34°42′39″N 137°43′39″E / 34.71083°N 137.72750°E / 34.71083; 137.72750
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Flag of Hamamatsu
Official seal of Hamamatsu
"City of Music"
Location of Hamamatsu in Shizuoka Prefecture
Location of Hamamatsu in Shizuoka Prefecture
Hamamatsu is located in Japan
Coordinates: 34°42′39″N 137°43′39″E / 34.71083°N 137.72750°E / 34.71083; 137.72750
RegionChūbu (Tōkai)
 • MayorYusuke Nakano
 • Total1,558.06 km2 (601.57 sq mi)
 (September 1, 2023)
 • Total780,128
 • Density500/km2 (1,300/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+9 (Japan Standard Time)
Phone number53-457-2111
Address103-2 Motoshiro-chō, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu-shi, Shizuoka-ken 430-8652
BirdJapanese bush warbler

Hamamatsu (浜松市, Hamamatsu-shi) is a city located in western Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan. In September 2023, the city had an estimated population of 780,128 in 340,591 households,[1] making it the prefecture's largest city, with a population density of 500/km2 (1,300/sq mi) over the total urban area of 1,558.06 km2 (601.57 sq mi).


Hamamatsu is a member of the World Health Organization's Alliance for Healthy Cities (AFHC).[2]



Lake Hamana
Ryugashido Cave
Lake Sanaru
View of Mt. Fuji from Hamamatsu
Tenryū River

Hamamatsu is 260 kilometres (160 mi) southwest of Tokyo.[3]

Hamamatsu consists of a flat plain and the Mikatahara Plateau in the south, and a mountainous area in the north. It is roughly bordered by Lake Hamana to the west, the Tenryū River to the east, and the Pacific Ocean to the south.


The climate in southern Hamamatsu has a humid subtropical climate with cool to mild winters with little snowfall; however, it is windy in winter because of the dry monsoon called Enshū no Karakaze, which is unique to the region. The climate in northern Hamamatsu is much harsher because of foehn winds. Summer is hot with the highest temperature often exceeds 35 degrees in the Tenryu-ku area, while it snows in winter.

Climate data for Hamamatsu (1991−2020 normals, extremes 1882−present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 20.7
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 10.6
Daily mean °C (°F) 6.3
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 2.4
Record low °C (°F) −6.0
Average precipitation mm (inches) 59.2
Average snowfall cm (inches) 0
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.5 mm) 5.9 6.5 9.8 10.4 10.8 13.1 11.9 8.4 11.9 10.9 7.5 6.3 113.4
Average relative humidity (%) 57 56 59 65 70 78 77 76 74 72 64 61 67
Mean monthly sunshine hours 206.6 187.8 201.9 199.7 205.1 148.1 176.3 211.4 166.7 162.6 171.8 200.1 2,237.9
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency[4]
Climate data for Sakuma, Hamamatsu (1991−2020 normals, extremes 1978−present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 17.8
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 9.7
Daily mean °C (°F) 3.1
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) −1.5
Record low °C (°F) −7.1
Average precipitation mm (inches) 71.0
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 6.5 6.7 9.9 10.2 10.7 13.0 13.6 11.0 11.7 10.6 7.2 6.8 117.9
Mean monthly sunshine hours 152.9 167.1 187.4 194.0 194.0 138.0 156.4 187.4 148.2 163.1 151.7 142.4 1,982.5
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency[5][6]


Per Japanese census data,[7] the population of Hamamatsu has been increasing over the past 70 years.

Historical population
1940 434,253—    
1950 494,296+13.8%
1960 568,214+15.0%
1970 631,284+11.1%
1980 698,982+10.7%
1990 751,509+7.5%
2000 786,306+4.6%
2010 800,912+1.9%
2020 790,718−1.3%

Foreign population[edit]

Super Mercado Takara, a Brazilian supermarket

Hamamatsu has a significant non-Japanese population. The population of Nikkei foreigners, especially Brazilians, increased after a 1990 change in Japanese immigration law allowed them to work in Japan. At one point, Hamamatsu had the largest Brazilian Nikkei population of any Japanese city.[8] Many foreigners work in the manufacturing sector, taking temporary jobs in Honda, Suzuki, and Yamaha plants.[3] As of 2008 the number of non-Japanese in Hamamatsu was 33,332,[9] and by 2010 the number exceeded 30,000. The city has a lot of Portuguese signage. It includes a Brazilian school, and many businesses catering to Brazilians display Brazilian flags.[8] However, Natsuko Fukue of The Japan Times wrote in 2010 that many foreign children have difficulty integrating to society in Hamamatsu because "Japanese and foreign communities live largely separate from one another."[3]

The foreign population dropped significantly in the aftermath of the global financial crisis in 2008, with the Hamamatsu city government offering aid for some foreign nationals to return to their home countries.[10] The foreign population was estimated as 25,084 as of August 1, 2019, per official city statistics.[11]

Neighboring municipalities[edit]

Shizuoka Prefecture Shizuoka Prefecture
Aichi Prefecture Aichi Prefecture
Nagano Prefecture Nagano Prefecture


Prehistoric Ages[edit]

The area now comprising Hamamatsu has been settled since prehistoric times, with numerous remains from the Jōmon period and Kofun period having been discovered within the present city limits, including the Shijimizuka site shell mound and the Akamonue Kofun ancient tomb.

Ancient Ages[edit]

In the Nara period, it became the capital of Tōtōmi Province.

Middle Ages[edit]

During the Sengoku period, Hamamatsu Castle was the home of future shōgun Tokugawa Ieyasu.

Early Modern Ages[edit]

Hamamatsu flourished during the Edo period under a succession of daimyō rulers as a castle town, and as a post town on the Tōkaidō highway connecting Edo with Kyoto.

Late Modern Ages[edit]

After the Meiji Restoration, Hamamatsu became a short-lived prefecture from 1871 to 1876, after which it was united with Shizuoka Prefecture. Hamamatsu Station opened on the Tōkaidō Main Line in 1889.

The same year, with the establishment of the modern municipalities system, Hamamatsu became a town.

Contemporary Ages[edit]

  • 1948: Hamamatsu Incident, ethnic rioting of Zainichi Korean residents.
  • 1951: The villages of Aratsu, Goto, and Kawarin merge with Hamamatsu
  • 1954: Eight villages in Hamana District merge with Hamamatsu
  • 1955: The village of Miyakoda merges with Hamamatsu
  • 1957: The village of Irino merges with Hamamatsu
  • 1960: The village of Seto merges with Hamamatsu
  • 1961: The village of Shinohara merges with Hamamatsu
  • 1965: The village of Shonai merges with Hamamatsu
  • May 1, 1990: Hamamatsu Arena opened
  • January 1, 1991: The village of Kami in Hamana District merges with Hamamatsu.
  • April 1, 1991: The first Hamamatsu International Piano Competition was held.
  • May 1, 1994: Act City Tower opened.
  • October 1, 1995: Hamamatsu Museum of Musical Instruments opened.
  • April 1, 1996: Hamamatsu is designated a core city by the central government.
  • June 1, 1996: Hamamatsu City Fruit Park opened.
  • April 1, 1997: Hamamatsu is designated as an Omnibus Town.
  • April 1, 1998: Act City Musical School opened.
  • April 3, 2000: Shizuoka University of Art and Culture opened.
  • July 1, 2001: The city's 90th anniversary is commemorated
  • August 1, 2002: Launched the conference on Pan-Hamanako Designated City Simulation.
  • April 1, 2003: Shizuoka New Kawafuji National High School Competition was held.
  • June 1, 2003: Launched Tenryūgawa-Hamanako Region Merger Conference.
  • April 8 – October 11, 2004: Pacific Flora 2004 (Shizuoka International Garden and Horticulture Exhibition) was held at Hamanako Garden Park.
  • July 1, 2005: Hamamatsu absorbed the cities of Hamakita and Tenryū; the town of Haruno (from Shūchi District), the towns of Hosoe, Inasa and Mikkabi (all from Inasa District), the towns of Misakubo and Sakuma, the village of Tatsuyama (all from Iwata District), and the towns of Maisaka and Yūtō (both from Hamana District) were merged into Hamamatsu.[12][13] Inasa District and Iwata District were both dissolved as a result of this merger. Therefore, there are no more villages left in Shizuoka Prefecture.
  • April 1, 2007: Hamamatsu became a city designated by government ordinance by the central government.


Downtown of Hamamatsu city (near city hall)

Hamamatsu has a mayor-council form of government with a directly elected mayor and a unicameral city legislature of 46 members. The city contributes 15 members to the Shizuoka Prefectural Assembly.


Hamamatsu is administratively divided into three wards:

Name Area (km2) Population (Oct 2023) Pop Density
Chūō-ku (中央区) 268.45 608,145
Hamana-ku (浜名区) 345.77 155,996
Tenryū-ku (天竜区) 943.84 24,515


On 1 January 2024, the number of wards will be reduced from seven to three as part of a municipal reorganization. Naka-ku, Higashi-ku, Nishi-ku, Minami-ku and Kita-ku will be merged into a new Chūō-ku, Hamakita-ku and Kita-ku will become Hamana-ku, while Tenryu-ku will remain unchanged. The reorganization was initially approved by a referendum held on April 7, 2019.[14]


A map showing Hamamatsu Metropolitan Employment Area.
Eel, for which Hamamatsu is famous
Entetsu Department Store

Hamamatsu has been famous as an industrial city, especially for musical instruments and motorcycles. It also has been known for fabric industry, but most of those companies and factories went out of business in the 1990s. As of 2010, Greater Hamamatsu, Hamamatsu Metropolitan Employment Area, has a GDP of US$54.3 billion.[15][16] 2014 Hamamatsu's GDP per capita(PPP) was US$41,470.[17]

Companies headquartered in Hamamatsu[edit]

Companies founded in Hamamatsu[edit]


Radio stations[edit]

  • FM Haro! (JOZZ6AB FM, 76.1 MHz)
  • K-MIX (JOKU FM, 78.4 MHz)
  • NHK FM (JOPK FM, 82.1 MHz)
  • SBS Radio (1404 kHz / 94.7 MHz)
  • (in Portuguese) Radio Phoenix (internet)[20]


Hamamatsu Air Base
Hamamatsu Station exterior
Shin-Hamamatsu Station
Enshu Railway Linemap
JR Hamamatsu workshop in 2008



There are no civilian airports in Hamamatsu. Shizuoka Airport (34°47′46″N 138°11′22″E / 34.796111°N 138.189444°E / 34.796111; 138.189444) is the closest, located 43 kilometres (27 mi) from Hamamatsu Station, between Makinohara and Shimada.

Chūbu Centrair International Airport in Aichi Prefecture, located about 87 kilometres (54 mi)[21] west of the city, is the second closest.


High-Speed Rail[edit]

Central Japan Railway Company

Conventional Lines[edit]

Central Japan Railway Company
Enshū Railway
Tenryū Hamanako Railroad





  • Hamamatsu Bypass
  • Hamana Bypass

Japan National Highways[edit]


Shizuoka University Hamamatsu Campus
Shizuoka University of Art and Culture
Hamamatsu Municipal Senior High School

Colleges and universities[edit]

Primary and secondary schools[edit]

Senior high schools operated by Shizuoka Prefecture:

There is one senior high school operated by the city government: Hamamatsu Municipal Senior High School

Elementary and junior high schools are operated by the city government. As of 2008, the city had 117 public elementary schools and 52 public junior high schools.[23]

Multicultural education[edit]

The city has the following Brazilian international schools:

It has one combined Peruvian school (ペルー学校) and Brazilian primary school, Mundo de Alegría.[24][25]

The city formerly hosted other Brazilian schools, Colégio Pitágoras Brasil and Escola Cantinho Feliz.[26]

As of May 1, 2009, the municipal elementary and junior high schools had 1,638 non-Japanese students.[27] As of 2008, there were 932 Brazilians enrolled in Hamamatsu's municipal elementary and junior high schools: 646 Brazilians were enrolled in 61 public elementary schools, and 286 Brazilians were enrolled in 38 public junior high schools.[23]

Within public schools Brazilian students have the same academic programs and take the same classes as Japanese nationals.[23] Special teachers and assistants work with foreign students at municipal elementary and junior high schools with significant numbers of non-Japanese enrolled.[28] In particular the schools use their part-time interpreters to assist Brazilian students. The interpreters are not formal teachers, yet Tsutsumi Angela Aparecida of Hamamatsu's Burajiru Fureai Kai wrote that "[t]heir assistance has become very useful".[23] Toshiko Sugino of the National Defense Academy of Japan wrote that the municipal and prefectural schools in Hamamatsu "follow traditional views of education and enforce rigid school rules" despite the reputation of open-mindedness in the residents of Hamamatsu, causing some foreigners to send their non-Japanese children to foreign private schools.[29]

As of 2008, many Brazilian parents have difficulty in deciding whether to send their children to Japanese schools or Brazilian schools, and it is common for Brazilian children attending Japanese schools to switch to a Brazilian school and vice versa.[23] By 2010, many Brazilian parents had lost their jobs due to an economic decline, and many were unable to afford the Brazilian school monthly tuitions of ¥30,000 to ¥40,000.[3]

As of 2010, about 50% of Brazilians of high school age in Hamamatsu do not attend high school. The inability to afford high school and difficulty with Japanese resulted in lower high school attendance rates. Hamamatsu NPO Network Center has made efforts to increase school attendance.[3]

In Hamamatsu volunteers and a non-profit organization have established Japanese-language classes and native language classes for foreign children.[28]

Local attractions[edit]

  • Act City Tower Observatory: Hamamatsu's only skyscraper, situated next to JR Hamamatsu Station, is a symbol of the city. It was designed to resemble a harmonica, a reminder that Hamamatsu is sometimes known as the "City of Music". The building houses shopping and a food court, the Okura Hotel, and an observatory on the 45th floor overlooking all of central Hamamatsu, even down to the sand dunes at the shore.
  • Chopin Monument This is a 1:1-scale replica of the famous Art Nouveau bronze statue of Chopin by the famed artist Wacław Szymanowski. The original is in Hamamatsu's sister city, Warsaw. 
  • Hamamatsu Castle: Hamamatsu Castle Park stretches from the modern city hall building to the north. The castle is located on a hill in the southeast corner of the park, near city hall. It was built by Tokugawa Ieyasu. His rule marks the beginning of the Edo period. Tokugawa Ieyasu lived here from 1571 to 1588. There is a small museum inside, which houses some armor and other relics of the period, as well as a miniature model of how the city might have looked 400 years ago. North of the castle is a large park with a Japanese garden, a koi pond, a ceremonial teahouse, and some commons areas.
  • Nakatajima Sand Dunes: one of the three largest sand dune areas in Japan
  • Hamamatsu Flower Park
  • Hamamatsu Fruit Park
  • Hamamatsu Municipal Zoo
  • Iinoya-gū shrine
  • Motoshirochō Tōshō-gū shrine
  • Gosha Suwa Shrine [ja; fr; simple] is a Beppyo shrine in the city. It was formed from a merger of two shrines that were too damaged by the Bombing of Hamamatsu in World War II to be independent.[30]


During Hamamatsu Festival


Akiha Fire Festival[edit]

Haruno, Tenryu-ku: December

Long ago, Mount Akiha was believed to have supernatural powers to prevent fires. Bow and arrow, sword, and fire dances are performed at the Akiha Shrine. At the Akiha Temple, a firewalking ceremony is performed where both believers and spectators celebrate the festival.

Enshū Dainenbutsu[edit]

Saigagake Museum, Hamamatsu City: July 15

When a family commemorates the first Obon holidays after the death of a loved one, they may request that a dainenbutsu (Buddhist chanting ritual) be performed outside their house. This is one of the local performing arts of the region. The group always forms a procession in front of the house led by a person carrying a lantern and marches to the sound of flutes, Japanese drums and cymbals.

Hamamatsu Kite Festival[edit]

Naka-ku, Minami-ku, others: May

Hamamatsu Kite Festival is also called Hamamatsu Festival. Hamamatsu Kite Festival held from May 3 to May 5 each year, includes a Tako Gassen, or kite fight, and luxuriously decorated palace-like floats. The festival originated about 430 years ago, when the lord of Hamamatsu Castle celebrated the birth of his first son by flying kites. In the Meiji Era, the celebration of the birth of a first son by flying Hatsu Dako, or the first kite, became popular, and this tradition has survived in the form of Hamamatsu Kite Festival. During the nights of Hamamatsu Kite Festival, people parade downtown carrying over 70 yatai, or palace-lake floats, that are beautifully decorated while playing Japanese traditional festival music. The festival reaches its peak when groups representing the city's various districts compete by energetically marching through the downtown streets.

Hamakita Hiryu Festival[edit]

Hamakita-ku: June

This festival is held in honor of Ryujin, the god believed to be associated with the Tenryū River, and features a wide variety of events such as the Hamakita takoage (kite flying) event and the Hiryu himatsuri (flying dragon fire festival) which celebrates water, sound, and flame.

Hamamatsu International Piano Competition[edit]


This festival celebrates Hamamatsu's history as a city of musical instruments and music, and brings dozens of the best young pianists from all over the world. It has been held triennially since 1991 at the Act City Concert Hall and Main Hall.

Hamakita Man'yō Festival[edit]

Hamakita-ku, Hamamatsu: October

This event takes place in Man'yō-no-Mori Park to commemorate the Man'yō period and introduce its culture. As part of the festival, people reenact the ancient past by wearing traditional clothes from the Heian period and presenting Japanese poetry readings.

Inasa Puppet Festival[edit]

Inasa, Kita-ku: November

One of the few puppet festivals held in Japan, featuring 60 performances of about 30 plays by puppet masters from all over the country. The shows provide a full day of enjoyment for both children and adults.

Princess Road Festival[edit]

Hosoe, Kita-ku: April

This reenactment of a procession made by the princess in her palanquin along with her entourage of over 100 people including maids, samurai, and servants makes for a splendid scene beneath the cherry blossoms along the Toda River. In the Edo period, princesses enjoyed traveling this road which came to be known as a hime kaidō (princess road).

Samba Festival[edit]

The Hamamatsu Samba Festival is held in the city.[31]

Shoryu Weeping Ume Blossom Festival[edit]

Inasa, Kita-ku: late February to late March

In Ryusui Garden there is a stream with seven small waterfalls and about 80 weeping ume trees pruned to give the appearance of dragons riding on clouds to the heavens. There are also 200 young trees planted along the mountainside.


Club Sport League Venue Established
Chunichi Dragons Baseball Ce.League Vantelin Dome Nagoya, Hamamatsu Baseball Stadium 1936
San-en NeoPhoenix Basketball B.League Toyohashi City General Gymnasium, Hamamatsu Arena 1965
Honda FC Soccer Japan Football League (JFL) Honda Miyakoda Soccer Stadium 1971
Agleymina Hamamatsu Futsal F.League Hamamatsu Arena 1996
Breath Hamamatsu Volleyball V.League Hamamatsu Arena 2012


  • Honda FC which plays Japan Football League (third division) games at their own Miyakoda Soccer Stadium. Honda competed in the Japan Soccer League's First Division from 1981 to 1991, but chose to relegate itself and not compete in the professional divisions due to parent company Honda's choice to retain team ownership. Many Hamamatsu football fans prefer to follow Júbilo Iwata, across the Tenryū River in Iwata. Júbilo maintains a club shop within Hamamatsu.
  • Volare FC Hamamatsu, an autonomous club who competed in the Tokai Regional Football League Division 2 in 2011, flouted plans to either overtake Honda FC or merge with it, but it finished last in the Tokai League and was relegated. Hamamatsu University also keeps a team in the said division, but college teams cannot be promoted to the top three tiers.


The Hamamatsu Arena was one of the host arenas of the 2006 FIBA World Championship.

Hamamatsu 3x3 FIBA: Placed Second at FIBA World Tour Final in ABU Dhabi in 2016. (Bikramjit Gill, Inderbir Gill, Chiro Kheda)

Women's volleyball[edit]

Hamamatsu was one of the host cities of the official 2010 Women's Volleyball World Championship.

External relations[edit]

Twin towns – sister cities[edit]


Sister City

Hamamatsu has ratified Music Culture Exchange Treaty with the following cities (however, of the following Rochester is the only official sister city):

City Country State since
Porterville United States United States California February 16, 1981 (once a sister city of Hosoe, Hamamatsu assumed the sister city honors in 1981)
Camas United States United States Washington September 29. 1981 (once a sister city of Mikkabi, Hamamatsu assumed the sister city honors in 1981)
Chehalis United States United States Washington October 22, 1990 (once a sister city of Inasa, Hamamatsu assumed the sister city honors in 1998)
Rochester United States United States New York October 12, 2006 (once a sister city of Hamamatsu assumed the Music Culture Exchange Treaty honors in 1996)
Twinned Cities

Hamamatsu is twinned with:

City Country State since
Warsaw Poland Poland Masovian Voivodeship February 22, 1990[32]
Manaus Brazil Brazil Amazonas June 20, 2008
Taipei Taiwan Taiwan Special municipality July 31, 2013
Bologna Italy Italy Emilia-Romagna April 23, 2014
Bandung Indonesia Indonesia West Java December 19, 2014
Friendship cities
City Country State since
Shenyang China China Liaoning August 28, 2010
Hangzhou China China Zhejiang April 6, 2012

Notable people[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Hamamatsu City official statistics (in Japanese)
  2. ^ Alliance for Healthy Cities official home page
  3. ^ a b c d e Fukue, Natsuko. "Nonprofit brings together foreign, Japanese residents in Hamamatsu" (Archive). The Japan Times. March 13, 2010. Retrieved on October 12, 2015.
  4. ^ 気象庁 / 平年値(年・月ごとの値). Japan Meteorological Agency. Retrieved May 19, 2021.
  5. ^ 観測史上1~10位の値(年間を通じての値). JMA. Retrieved April 26, 2022.
  6. ^ 気象庁 / 平年値(年・月ごとの値). JMA. Retrieved April 26, 2022.
  7. ^ Hamamatsu population statistics
  8. ^ a b Sugino, Toshiko (National Defense Academy of Japan). "Linguistic Challenges and Possibilities of Immigrants In Case of Nikkei Brazilians in Japan" (Country Note on Topics for Breakout Session 4) (Archive). Centre for Education Research and Innovation (CERI), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development See list of reports. p. 1/8. Retrieved on October 12, 2015.
  9. ^ Aparecida, Tsutsumi Angela (Burajiru Fureai Kai). "The Contradiction Between "Being and Seeming" Reinforces Low Academic Performance " (Archive). US-China Education Review B 2 (2012) p. 217-223. CITED: p. 217.
  10. ^ Tabuchi, Hiroko (2009-04-22). "Japan Pays Foreign Workers to Go Home, Forever". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2018-03-06.
  11. ^ Hamamatsu City official statistics (in Japanese)
  12. ^ 浜松市. "合併の経緯". 浜松市公式ホームページ (in Japanese). Retrieved 2024-02-07. 平成17年7月1日、浜松市、浜北市、天竜市、舞阪町、雄踏町、細江町、引佐町、三ヶ日町、春野町、佐久間町、水窪町及び龍山村の12市町村が合併して、新しい浜松市が誕生しました。
  13. ^ 住民基本台帳人口移動報告年報 [Annual Report on Population Movement in the Basic Resident Register] (in Japanese). 総務庁統計局. 2005. p. 142. Tenryu-shi, Hamakita-shi, Haruno-cho, Tatsuyama-mura, Sakuma-cho, Misakubo-cho, Maisaka-cho, Yuto-cho, Hosoe-cho, Inasa-cho, and Mikkabi-cho were incorporated into Hamamatsu-shi as of July 1, 2005.
  14. ^ "行政区の再編について".
  15. ^ Yoshitsugu Kanemoto. "Metropolitan Employment Area (MEA) Data". Center for Spatial Information Science, The University of Tokyo.
  16. ^ Conversion rates – Exchange rates – OECD Data
  17. ^ "Global Metro Monitor". 22 January 2015.
  18. ^ "Corporate Outline Archived 2019-09-15 at the Wayback Machine." Enkei Corporation. Retrieved on June 5, 2018.
  19. ^ "Headquarters Archived 2016-04-20 at the Wayback Machine." Hamamatsu Photonics. Retrieved on February 17, 2015.
  20. ^ "Radio Phoenix – CONECTOU...TÁ NA PHOENIX". Radiophoenix.jp. Archived from the original on 2013-03-25. Retrieved 2013-03-26.
  21. ^ From Chūbu Centrair International Airport to Hamamatsu station (34°42′14″N 137°44′05″E / 34.703866°N 137.734759°E / 34.703866; 137.734759) (surveying http://vldb.gsi.go.jp/sokuchi/surveycalc/bl2stf.html Archived 2008-05-18 at the Wayback Machine (in Japanese))
  22. ^ Semmens, Peter (1997). High Speed in Japan: Shinkansen - The World's Busiest High-speed Railway. Sheffield, UK: Platform 5 Publishing. p. 58. ISBN 1-872524-88-5.
  23. ^ a b c d e Aparecida, Tsutsumi Angela (Burajiru Fureai Kai). "The Contradiction Between "Being and Seeming" Reinforces Low Academic Performance" (Archive). US-China Education Review B 2 (2012) p. 217-223. CITED: p. 218.
  24. ^ a b c d "Escolas Brasileiras Homologadas no Japão" (Archive). Embassy of Brazil in Tokyo. Retrieved on October 13, 2015.
  25. ^ "Ubicación y Acceso." Mundo de Alegría. Retrieved on October 24, 2015. "〒431–0102 Shizuoka-ken Hamamatsu-shi Nishi-ku Yuto-cho Ubumi 9611-1" – Japanese address: "住所 〒431-0102 静岡県 浜松市 西区 雄踏町 宇布見 9611-1"
  26. ^ "Escolas Brasileiras Homologadas no Japão" (Archive). Embassy of Brazil in Tokyo. February 7, 2008. Retrieved on October 13, 2015.
  27. ^ Kitawaki, Yasuyuki (北脇保之) (Former mayor of Hamamatsu, Director of the Center for Multilingual Multicultural Education and Research, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies (CEMMER, 東京外国語大学多言語・多文化教育研究センター)). "A Japanese approach to municipal diversity management: The case of Hamamatsu City" (Archive). Managing Diversity: Stronger Communities, Better Cities. Information about the book (Archive). At the Council of Europe website. Retrieved on October 12, 2015. PDF p. 7-8/13.
  28. ^ a b Kitawaki, Yasuyuki (北脇保之) (Former mayor of Hamamatsu, Director of the Center for Multilingual Multicultural Education and Research, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies (CEMMER, 東京外国語大学多言語・多文化教育研究センター)). "A Japanese approach to municipal diversity management: The case of Hamamatsu City" (Archive). Managing Diversity: Stronger Communities, Better Cities. Information about the book (Archive). At the Council of Europe website. Retrieved on October 12, 2015. PDF p. 8/13.
  29. ^ Sugino, Toshiko (National Defense Academy of Japan). "Linguistic Challenges and Possibilities of Immigrants In Case of Nikkei Brazilians in Japan" (Country Note on Topics for Breakout Session 4) (Archive). Centre for Education Research and Innovation (CERI), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (See list of reports). p. 4/8. Retrieved on October 12, 2015.
  30. ^ "Gosha Shrine/Suwa Shrine | iN HAMAMATSU.COM". www.inhamamatsu.com. Retrieved 2023-11-07.
  31. ^ Kitawaki, Yasuyuki (北脇保之) (Former mayor of Hamamatsu, Director of the Center for Multilingual Multicultural Education and Research, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies (CEMMER, 東京外国語大学多言語・多文化教育研究センター)). "A Japanese approach to municipal diversity management: The case of Hamamatsu City" (Archive). Managing Diversity: Stronger Communities, Better Cities. Information about the book (Archive). At the Council of Europe website. Retrieved on October 12, 2015. PDF p. 9/13.
  32. ^ "Miasta partnerskie Warszawy". um.warszawa.pl (in Polish). Biuro Promocji Miasta. 2005-05-04. Archived from the original on October 11, 2007. Retrieved 2008-08-29.

External links[edit]