Jhapa District

Coordinates: 27°55′03″N 84°11′37″E / 27.917373°N 84.193726°E / 27.917373; 84.193726
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Jhapa District
झापा जिल्ला
View of both hills and Terai in Jhapa district
View of both hills and Terai in Jhapa district
Country Nepal
ProvinceKoshi Province
Admin HQ.Bhadrapur
Government
 • TypeCoordination committee
 • BodyDCC, Jhapa
 • HeadMr. Bishwanath Baral
 • Deputy-HeadMrs. Shanta Rokka
 • Parliamentary constituencies5
 • Provincial constituencies10
 • Chief District OfficerChhabilal Rijal [1]
Area
 • Total1,606 km2 (620 sq mi)
Elevation
(maximum)
506 m (1,660 ft)
Population
 (2021)
 • Total994,090
 • Rank4th (Nepal)
 • Density620/km2 (1,600/sq mi)
 • Households
219,989
Demographics
 • Ethnic groupsBahun, Chhetri, Rajbanshi, Gangai or Ganesh Limbu, Rai
 • Female 51.97%
 • Male /100 female92,43
Human Development Index
 • Per Capita Income1,226 USD
 • Poverty rate21.82
 • Literacy75%
 • Life Expectancy67.29
Time zoneUTC+05:45 (NPT)
Telephone Code023
Main Language(s)Nepali, Rajbanshi, Surjapuri language Limbu, Maithili
Major highwaysMahendra Highway, Postal Highway
Websitedaojhapa.moha.gov.np

Jhapa District (Nepali: झापा जिल्ला; Listen) is a district of Koshi Province in eastern Nepal named after a Rajbanshi Surjapuri language word "Jhapa", meaning "to cover" (verb). The 2021 Nepal Census, puts the total population of the district at 994,090.[3] The total area of the district is 1,606 square kilometres.

The lowlands of Limbuwan (present-day terai lands of Sunsari, Morang and Jhapa) was collectively known as Morang since the time of King Mawrong of 7th century. In the beginning of 1400 AD, Morang Kingdom patriated from Kingdom of Ilam and Kingdom of Mikluk Bodhey (Choubise) and started ruling on its own.[4]

Location[edit]

Jhapa is the easternmost district of Nepal and lies in the fertile Terai plains. It is part of the Outer Terai. Jhapa borders with Ilam in the north, Morang in the west, the Indian state of Bihar in the south and the Indian state of West Bengal to the southeast and east. Geographically, it covers an area of 1,606 km2 (620 sq mi) and lies on 87°39’ east to 88°12’ east longitude and 26°20’ north to 26°50’ north latitude.[5]

Climate and geography[edit]

Jhapa receives 250 to 300 cm of rainfall a year, and mostly during the monsoon season in the summer, and its hilly northern area receives more rainfall than the south.[6] The maximum temperature recorded is 42 °C in summer and 10 °C in winter. The lowest elevation point is 58 meters which is the lowest land in Nepal and the highest elevation point is 500 meters from mean sea level.[5]

Climate Zone[7] Elevation Range % of Area
Lower Tropical below 300 meters (1,000 ft) 98.8%
Upper Tropical 300 to 1,000 meters
1,000 to 3,300 ft.
 1.2%

Administrative divisions[edit]

Jhapa consists of 15 administrative divisions including eight municipalities and seven rural municipalities. Each division has wards according to the demographic and geographic size. These are:

Municipalities[edit]

Rural municipalities[edit]

Demographics[edit]

At the time of the 2011 Nepal census, Jhapa District had a population of 812,650.

As first language, 55.7% spoke Nepali, 10.3% Rajbanshi, 5.6% Limbu, 5.5% Maithili, 3.6% Santali, 2.5% Rai, 2.4% Urdu, 2.1% Tamang, 1.5% Newar, 1.5% Tajpuriya, 1.2% Magar, 1.0% Dhimal, 0.8% Tharu, 0.7% Bengali, 0.6% Gurung, 0.5% Meche, 0.4% Bantawa, 0.4% Bhojpuri, 0.4% Hindi, 0.4% Rajasthani, 0.2% Chamling, 0.2% Danuwar, 0.2% Sunuwar, 0.2% Uranw/Urau, 0.1% Bhujel, 0.1% Ganagai, 0.1% Haryanvi, 0.1% Kisan, 0.1% Kulung, 0.1% Kumhali, 0.1% Majhi, 0.1% Sherpa, 0.1% Yakkha and 0.4% other languages.[8]

Ethnicity/caste: 23.8% were Hill Brahmin, 15.7% Chhetri, 9.1% Rajbanshi, 6.6% Limbu, 4.7% Rai, 3.8% Satar/Santal, 3.3% Newar, 3.2% Musalman, 3.0% Kami, 2.9% Tamang, 2.2% Magar, 1.9% Damai/Dholi, 1.5% Tajpuriya, 1.3% Sanyasi/Dasnami, 1.2% Gangai, 1.2% Tharu, 1.1% Dhimal, 0.9% Gharti/Bhujel, 0.9% Gurung, 0.9% Majhi, 0.7% Teli, 0.6% Sarki, 0.6% Yadav, 0.5% Bengali, 0.5% Marwadi, 0.5% Meche, 0.5% other Terai, 0.4% Terai Brahmin, 0.4% Hajam/Thakur, 0.4% Musahar, 0.3% Danuwar, 0.3% Dhanuk, 0.3% Halwai, 0.3% Kumal, 0.3% Sunuwar, 0.2% Jhangad/Dhagar, 0.2% Kathabaniyan, 0.2% Kurmi, 0.2% Mallaha, 0.2% Sherpa, 0.1% Baraee, 0.1% Chamar/Harijan/Ram, 0.1% Chamling, 0.1% other Dalit, 0.1% Dom, 0.1% Dusadh/Paswan/Pasi, 0.1% other Janajati, 0.1% Kalwar, 0.1% Kayastha, 0.1% Kewat, 0.1% Khawas, 0.1% Kisan, 0.1% Koche, 0.1% Koiri/Kushwaha, 0.1% Kulung, 0.1% Munda, 0.1% Nuniya, 0.1% Punjabi/Sikh, 0.1% Rajput, 0.1% Sonar, 0.1% Sudhi, 0.1% Tatma/Tatwa, 0.1% Thakuri, 0.1% Yakkha and 0.5% others.[9]

Religion: 79.9% were Hindu, 8.3% Kirati, 4.8% Buddhist, 3.2% Muslim, 1.9% Christian, 1.4% Prakriti and 0.3% others.[10]

Literacy: 75.0% could read and write, 1.8% could only read and 23.2% could neither read nor write.[11]

Jhapa District has average population density of around 619 per square kilometer. The district population growth rate is 1.93%. However, the growth is balanced and in-migration is rapidly increasing day to day into the district. At the time of the 2021 Nepal census, Jhapa District had a population of 994,090 making it the 4th largest district in Nepal after Kathmandu, Morang and Rupandehi.

Being at the cross-roads of the eastern hills and the eastern Terai, Jhapa has huge ethnic diversity with 110 castes/ethnic groups represented. The largest communities are Bahun and Chhetri . Other communities include the Janajati Limbu and other Kirati peoples, Dalit communities like Kami and Damai, as well as Tamang, Newar and Magar and Adivasi communities like the Rajbanshi/Tajpuriya, Gangai or Ganesh, Santal and Dhimal in the Terai.

Languages spoken at home[12]
Rank Language Speakers Percentage
1 Nepali (lingua franca) 453,536 55.82%
2 Rajbanshi/Tajpuria 95,331 11.73%
3 Limbu 45,484 5.60%
4 Maithili 45,038 5.54%
5 Santali 29,464 3.63%
6 Rai 20,665 2.54%
7 Urdu 19,796 2.44%
8 Tamang 17,218 2.12%
9 Newari 11,992 1.48%
10 Magar 10,203 1.26%
11 Dhimal 8,123 1.0%
Religion in Jhapa District
Religion Percent
Hinduism
79.9%
Kiratism
8.3%
Buddhism
4.8%
Islam
3.2%
Christianity
1.9%
Prakriti
1.4%
Others
0.3%

International Borders[edit]

Jhapa borders the Indian state of Bihar to the south and the Indian state of West Bengal to the east. Jhapa is an eastern entry point of Nepal from India. Kakarbhitta-Mechinagar border lies in Jhapa and is an important trade point for Nepal.

Education[edit]

Among 77 districts, Jhapa has a literacy rate of 75.2%, higher than the national average.[13] There are enough primary schools, secondary schools, high schools and colleges available both from private sector and the government.

Notable people[edit]

Jhapa district is home to notable personalities including one former prime minister and two former deputy prime ministers.


References[edit]

  1. ^ "Staff Profile of DAO". The Government of Nepal. Retrieved 23 November 2022.
  2. ^ "Nepal Human Development Report 2014". Npc.gov.np. Retrieved 2022-04-11.
  3. ^ "Preliminary Report of National Population Census 2021". National Census 2021. National Statistical Office. Retrieved 6 December 2022.
  4. ^ Chemjong, Iman Singh. History and Culture of Kirat People.
  5. ^ a b District Transport Masterplan-Jhapa (PDF), retrieved May 5, 2020
  6. ^ Climate in Jhapa, retrieved May 5, 2020
  7. ^ The Map of Potential Vegetation of Nepal - a forestry/agroecological/biodiversity classification system (PDF), Forest & Landscape Development and Environment Series 2-2005 and CFC-TIS Document Series No.110., 2005, ISBN 87-7903-210-9, retrieved Nov 22, 2013
  8. ^ NepalMap Language [1]
  9. ^ NepalMap Caste [2]
  10. ^ NepalMap Religion [3]
  11. ^ NepalMap Literacy [4]
  12. ^ "National Data Portal-Nepal". nationaldata.gov.np. Retrieved 2020-06-29.
  13. ^ "Census 2001". Census. central bureau of statistics, Nepal. 2001. Archived from the original on 2008-09-24. Retrieved 2008-08-24.

External links[edit]

27°55′03″N 84°11′37″E / 27.917373°N 84.193726°E / 27.917373; 84.193726