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Dish of kazunoko prepared ready to serve.

Kazunoko (数の子), in Japanese cuisine,[2] are the eggs or the ovaries (egg skeins) of the Pacific herring (Japanese: kazunoko nishin) that have been salted or dried.


komochi kombu or herring "spawn on kelp".

Kazunoko is a product processed by removing the roe sacs (or "egg skeins") from female herrings intact in its shape, then preserving by sun-drying (hoshi kazunoko) or by salting or brining (shio kazunoko). The eggs are individually tiny, but together they form oblong clusters measuring approximately 8 centimetres (3.1 in) long and 3 centimetres (1.2 in) wide.[3]

The kazunoko, symbolizing fertility, has been a staple of the osechi assortment of food for the New Year. From around 1955 domestic herring catches fell sharply for Japan (mostly only caught around Hokkaido in the north), and nearly all supplies now depend on imports, mostly from the Pacific coasts of Canada and Alaska[4] but also including the use of Atlantic herring.[5] A technique for bleaching into uniform gold color was established, and the lucrative commodity earned the nickname of "yellow dia[mond]".[6][3]

A subtype is the komochi kombu (子持ち昆布) or "spawn on kelp", which are Pacific herring eggs laid on various seaweed regarded as "kelp", now harvested mostly in British Columbia, Canada.[7]

Historically, the oldest records of kazunoko in Japan date to the 15th and 16th centuries, served e.g. to Toyotomi Hideyoshi, during the spring season (Cf. § history below). The harvest of kazunoko from herring occur in the spring, but the dried product was being sold as a New Year's season item by the end of 17th century.[8] The history of its production overlaps with the history of producing dried migaki nishin [ja] for food, that came into full force around Kyōho (1716–36) with the availability of salt up north,[9] and later the production of kasu or fishmeal rom early 19th century[10][11] onwards.

The traditional harvesting of span on kelp by natives, including the use of hemlock branches for the purpose, are surveyed (Cf. § First Nations food source).

There are various socio-economic issues which concerns Pacific herring fishing overall, with regards to native fishing grounds being overtaken by modern mass commercialized production,[12] But aspects particular to herring roe have been taken up below, e.g., the "kazukono ledger" to record the debts to be worked off by Ainu women.[13] Also, North American herring fishing since the 1960s have has principally been aimed at harvesting the kazunoko for the Japanese market, waste/sustainability issues have been raised[14][15] (cf. also Pacific herring § Roe fishery).


Both "kazunoko" and the archaic kadonoko occur in medieval or post-medieval writings and also written in Sinitic forms such as 鯟子, 鰊子, 鯡子, .[17] or .[18]

There are two or three etymological hypotheses that have been presented.

The derivation of kazunoko as the corrupted form of kado no ko, where kado is the old name for herring, is the generally accepted etymology according to some sources.[19] This explanation is already attested in the Honchō shokkan [ja] published 1697.[20] The entry under kado in the Honchō shokkan clarifies the pronunciation of the character by the supply the phonetic reading as kato/kado (加登).[16] It goes on to state that kazunoko (數子) has been phonetically written as ka-to-no-ko (加登乃古/加豆乃古).[a][16][19] Even beyond the Edo Period, kado or kado iwashi still survives in dialect as local name for herring, even though nishin is the standard Japanese term.[21]

The alternate etymological theory holds that kazunoko may well have derived from the literal verbatim meaning of 'child of numbers/numerousness', as had been suggested by Ōishi Chibiki [ja]'s Gengentei (言元梯) (1830/1834),[22] and in fact, early usage writes the word as kazunoko (cf. § History below).

A third theory is discernible in the Edo Period essay Kiyū shōran [ja] (1830),[b] which mentions that kazunoko was known by the alias kazukazu (かずかず) in contemporary women's language [ja] (onna kotoba), juxtaposed with the information that Muromachi period literature wrote of kozukozu (cod organ[c]) as a New Year's dish. The connection between these two (similarly sounding) terms as synonymous (cognates?) are made in the Daigenkai [ja] dictionary.[24]

There is speculation that Japanese kado must have derived from some Ainu word,[26][27] but the known Ainu word for "herring" is heroki,[28] (with variant spellings), and linguist Minoru Umegaki [ja] rejects this hypothesis.[25][19]

Japanese cuisine[edit]

Kazunoko marketed in Japan fall into these groups: hoshi kazunoko (干し数の子, 'dried herring roe'), shio kazunoko (干し数の子, lit. 'salt herring roe') and ajitsuke kazunoko (味付け数の子, lit. 'flavored herring roe').[d]

Only limited supplies of the dried are now manufactured.[30][e] The flavored type using Atlantic roe have been characterized as "secondary market",[34] or even "substitute" products by American sources[35] (but see further discussion below).

Kazunoko a standard part of New Year's fare called osechi,[36] and are soy-sauce marinaded to keep for days (or made into kasuzuke[37]).[40]

Kitaōji Rosanjin, eminent gourmet connoisseur and restaurateur, commented in his time that although raw or salted kazunoko was becoming available, dried kazunoko reconstituted with water was the best, taste-wise (essay, loosely translated "Kazunoko is about eating the sound", 1930).[g] While it is typically served topped with bonito flakes and splashed with soy sauce,[41][42] Rosanjin insists on not letting the sauce seep in too much; his rule also opposes introducing other flavors such as miso or sakekasu, or pickling/marinating in soy sauce.[41] However, there is also the opposite opinion, that the dried kazunoko is "more delicious after letting the soy sauce soak in well"".[43][h]

Matsumaezuke is a soy-pickled dish that typically contains chunks of kazunoko in the mix of julienned dried squid (surume) and kombu seaweed.[45][i] The addition of kazunoko allegedly only dates back to 1929, as an arrangement on what was originally a squid and kelp recipe.[47]

The kazunoko is known for its texture or mouthfeel (crunchiness), the sound of biting into it described onomatopoeically as puchi puchi[48] (cf. § Quality assessment by region) The Atlantic herring is deemed overall to have less crunchiness, so that they are largely consigned to becoming "flavored kazunoko" or a side dish (sōzai, equivalent to okazu).[49][27][5] But Atlantic herring of some regions are made into the normal salted/brined variety[5] (Cf. § Quality assessment by region).

The "komochi kombu" (aka kazunoko kombu[3]) or "spawn on kelp" may be eaten on its own as a delicacy, or sliced up and used for sushi.[7] and can command very high prices.[3]

Quality assessment by region[edit]

Of the diminished Japanese herring catch in Hokkaido, only a minuscule fraction now gets used for exploiting the eggs.[50] According to one comparative study, the Canada Pacific herring roe taken in British Columbia, or Alaskan roe harvested in Sitka or Kah Shakes Cove[j] produce quality eggs, suited for salted (or even dried).[50]

Atlantic herring roe according to some sources are considered to be limper.[51] But they are not always being downgraded as "flavored kazunoko" quality, and some are considered fit for making into regular salted/brined kazunoko, particularly roes from Baltic and North Sea area fish.[5] Thus the Baltic group (subspecies C. harengus menbrus) has been rated best among Atlantic species[k] fit to be made into salted (shio kazunoko), as are the roes originating in Scotland (Shetlands), Ireland, and Netherlands have been[5] Other than texture, viscosity (ability to bind together into a lump) is another criterion for quality, and eggs that fall apart easily is a disqualifying factor for manufacturing whole salted kazunoko.[l]

The Atlantic herring , with the crunchiness (hagotae) somewhat wanting.[27] And one study does concur the Atlantic types do not solidify as firmly, and are mostly processed as flavored kazunoko,[52] but generalizations aside, the same study assesses the Baltic Sea Baltic catches (subspecies C. harengus menbrus) to be superlative in Atlantic,[53] and these do get used for making salted kazunoko,[54] even though the individual egg size is smaller (half by weight) according to other studies.[56]

Nutritional value[edit]

A basic nutritional value and energy assessment has been made in a study of Edo Period foods, including kazunoko.[57]

While kazunoko is high in cholesterol (as are fish roe in general), it also contains a high concentration of EPA and DHA fatty acids, known to reduce cholesterol levels.[60] While herring is classed as an aozakana (lit. 'blue fish') consisting of fish considered good sources of omega-3 fatty acids,[61] herring (or 'blue fish' in general) had been blacklisted as food to avoid for gout (gouty arthritis) patients due to purine content,[62] though recent studies and guideline[65] have muted the warning against 'blue fish', unless it is the dried or semi-dried himono type.[66][67] But even though fish roe are generally to be avoided by gout sufferers,[62][66] kazunoko is listed as containing very low concentrations of purine (<50 mg per 100g).[63] Similar dieteary cautions and recommendations apply to those diagnosed with hyperuricemia, which is considered a preliminary stage towards gout.[63][64]: 1 


In Japan, the custom of serving kazunoko for the New Year's season may date back to the Muromachi Period, according to some sources.[68] As aforementioned, there is the record of kozukozu (不来々々) being served for the New Year according to the mid-Muromachi Period Diary of Ninagawa Chikamoto (親元日記, Chikamoto nikki) (Kanshō 6/1465), but this was actually cod's innards, probably the male cod's milt;[23] howbeit, kozukozu has been treated as an alias for kazunoko by some dictionaries.[24][69] The kazunoko (かずの子) is attested to be the offspring(eggs) of the kado fish in an even earlier source Satsujōshū (撮壌集) (1454) which names it alongside the kurukuru (alias of kozukozu)[71].

The name kazunoko also appears on the menus in later Muromachi period and Azuchi–Momoyama period documents.

It was offered as menu item during a visit by the Ashikaga shogunate to Echizen Province in 1568 (Eiroku 11), recorded in Asakura-tei onariki (朝倉亭御成記).[m][n]

Later Toyotomi Hideyoshi was offered kazunoko on the menu when he was hosted by the Maeda clan of Kaga Province, as recorded in the Kaga no chūnagon dono e onari no koto (加賀之中納言殿江御成之事) of the 4th lunar month of Bunroku 3 ( 1594).[77][78][80]

Edo Period[edit]

In the Edo Period, documents from the Kanbun era (1661–1673) for instance indicate shipments of dried herring and kazunoko occurring out of Ezo (Hokkaido).[81]

The work Honchō shokkan (本朝食鑑) (published 1697) attests that kazunoko was an item that circulated in the market during the lunar 12th and 1st month.[40][o]

The repertoire of herring products was limited until salt became readily available locally and products such as migaki nishin [ja] appeared, around the Kyōho] Period.[9] Production of the migaki nishin and kazunoko (for food), as well as dried milt, gills (and guts[82]) for fertilizer are depicted in an 18th-century series of folding screen pictures[83] entitled Esashi-hama nishin no zu (江指浜鰊之図, 'Picture of herring[s] at Esashi beach').[84] Damaged (crumbled) kazunoko pieces were also relegated to becoming fertilizer material.[83] Note that kasu or shimekasu (herring meal squeezed of oil[85]) was not manufactured at this time, and would not commence until several decades later in the early 19th century,[10] or perhaps earlier.[11]

Matsumae clan records from Kyōho 2/1717 show that kazunoko was being loaded on ships from various provinces, while the dried milt and herring for fertilizer headed particularly to the Chūgoku region provinces and Ōmi Province.[88][p]

The kazunoko was all part of the fertilizer trade according to some commentators,[90][q] though other sources regard the kazunoko as food item.[91] The document also records that yose kazunoko (寄鰊子) (eggs that were pried apart, re-gathered and molded into rectangles, cf. below) was being sent as kenjōhin [ja] or tribute to the Shogunate.[81] The kazunoko during the Tokugawa period were packed in straw tawara [ja] (俵),[93] then at Osaka unpacked and re-boxed.[95]

A Kyōho 2/1719 memorandum from the hamayaku ("beach official") also lists kazunoko and yose kazunko as tribute items to the bakufu (shogunate). yosekazunoko (寄数子), aka yoseko (寄せ子) is described as a kazunoko broken up into individual eggs, with stringy tissue removed, then molded into a square shape (or disc-shape[96]), and cut up into smaller rectangular logs to be used.[95][96][97] Other sources say yose kazunoko were shaped into squares.[98][99]

The kazunoko became the byproduct of a much more intensely traded commodity once herring meal [r] or ニシン粕/〆粕 (nishin kasu/shimekasu, lit 'herring-pressed residue')[s] began to be manufactured in the 19th century according to one study[10] though some commentators place the date earlier by some decades, as afore stated.[11]

This herring meal (oil residue) grew to become increasingly sought-after as a replacement solution to the price-hiking, diminishing supplies of hoshika (干鰯, dried sardine,[102] actually anchovy[103]) fertilizer.[104][105][87][t]

The 8th Tokugawa shogun Yoshimune, known for his Kyōhō Reforms promoting frugality, allegedly devised a 3-item sake snacks (三つ肴, mitsu zakana) menu: kazunoko, gomame [ja] (aka tazukuri, an anchovy dish), and black soybeans [ja] to accompany New Year's sake drinking,[u][v][w] so that the common folk and the shogun alike could celebrate the holiday season in similar fashion.[111]

The salted herring roe (鹽數子(塩数の子, shio kazunoko) was available by the 19th century, and recorded as a tribute item (for the 12th month) to the shogunate either in the Bunka (1804–1818) or Tenpō (1831–1845) eras, supplied by the Matsumae and also Ise-Kameyama Domain.[112][98] Anecdotal evidence of its being a prized delicacy is that the Ichiriki Chaya restaurant of Kyoto charged 2 shu gold [ja] (minted 1824, 1 shu = 1/16 ryō) per dish.[113][114]

Processing methods[edit]

Domestically caught kazunoko in Japan were principally the dried type, and though some roe were eaten fresh locally, most were roe harvested and sundried as byproducts of dried herring (migaki nishin) .[37] The "salted" (or brined) type did not overtake the supply until 1954–1955, just when the domestic herring fishery collapsed.[31]


There are different grades of dried kazunoko. According to Taishō era government literature, production of hokawari nishin (外割り鰊, subtype of migaki, with the spine removed) entailed the removal of hararago (, roe skein) which were then cleansed in a pool of water, sundried on top of straw mats, then graded for size and quality.[115]

However older (formerly conventional) methods dried the roe without rinsing, so that the adhering blood tissues would cause darkening of the roe as it dried, leading to the method being called kokkan hō (黒乾法, 'black-drying method'). This method was long abandoned by the Showa era.[42][29] There were subsequently the "modified" and "semi-modified" methods (kairyōhō, hankairyōhō) . Although both involved dousing the roe in saltwater (with water changes) until the blood leeched out sufficiently, the former method was significantly labor-intensive, since it prescribed using precisely measured concentrations of saltwater (4%), and arranging the roe individually. The semi-modified method substituted seawater, and dumping the cleansed roe onto a su (bamboo-braided drip trays).[42][29]


Salted or shio kazunoko was already mentioned above as tribute to the shogunate,[112][98] though some seafood processors claim manufacture did not begin until the 1900s (Meiji 30s).[116][117] According to sources around this time (Meiji 27=1894) a shio kazunoko was made by first "flushing" the roe by submerging in water (changing water several times), then salting the roe in a tub.[118] However[x] in later years, the method was to cure the roe in saline solution[37] or saturated saline solution.[119][37]

The "salted" kazunoko intensified in the 1960s and thereafter[120] and according to statistics, the primary fishing ground around Hokkaido[y] had little catch beyond 1954,[105] and from that point on, dried kazunoko began to disappear, ceding the market share to salted types.[31]

While still often referred to as "salted" or "salt preserved" by Japanese writers, the product of modern processing methods is probably better characterized as "brined". In fact, sodium chloride solution is used in three steps: first, the egg-bearing (gravid) herring itself is brined in order to stiffen the roe for extraction, second, washed in weak solution, and third, cured in saturated brine.[121]


After domestic Japanese herring could not be procured, there were ex-Soviet (Russian) frozen herring being imported during the transitional period,[6][z] and in the narrow margin of time c. 1960 shio kazunoko developed a reputation for gamy odor and inferior quality to dried.[37] However, in 1963, a seafood processing company based in Rumoi, Hokkaido established a technique of bleaching the kazunoko using hydrogen peroxide[6][125] The technique also effectively mitigated odor, according to lab results,[126] and the color turned uniformly golden yellow,[127] earning the moniker "yellow dia[mond]" turning it into a high-priced commodity.[6][119][3][aa]

Bleaching is still used in the manufacture of kazunoko.[128] Although excess residue was already being removed from product using enzymes,[127] concern levels rose when studies found that for rats deficient in the specific enzyme catalase, it posed a minor carcinogen risk. In 1980, the Ministry of Health and Welfare did not ban, but mandated zero-level tolerance for residual peroxides in food, and as a result, all the other industries abandoned its use, except for kazunoko operators.[129][130]


Extracting the egg sacs from fresh (unfrozen) herring, as done in the past was a delicate operation. According to the description of pre-industrial herring processing at Esashi in Ezo country, it is observed that even the removal of the fish from gillnets without scarring the eggs inside involved recruiting inveterate fishermen.[131] Removal of egg sac, milt, etc. was known as nishin tsubushi (鰊潰し, 'herring crushing, squeezing'),[ab] and was considered women's work,[134] and the fish were gutted without a knife, using just the fingers outfitted with finger cots. The roe was dried and made into hoshi kazunoko, but some crumbled pieces wound up as fertilizer, together with the dried milt and gills which were entirely sold as fertilizer.[83]

Herring-squeezing (roe stripping) was not just women's work,[134] but often depended largely on the recruitment of Ainu women. At Sōya (northern tip of Hokkaido), it is explicitly stated, herring-squeezing was the work for menoko (メノコ, 'adult Ainu woman'), according to the work Igen zokuwa (夷諺俗話, 'Tales of Ezo Customs', Kansei 4/1792) concerning the bakufu government's otameshi kōeki (御試交易, 'experimental trade') post there.[136][ac] Merchants peddled Japanese-made goods to the Ainu on maegashi (前貸し, 'advance loan'), then collect any remaining balance in the form of providing labor for seafood production. At the Aniva Bay operation (southern tip of Sakhalin), there has been found a loan ledger for "sudare", whereby the Ainu made repayments by crafting and delivering the surdare grass screens after the winter season. Any outstanding balance was then copied onto the kazunokocho (数子帳, or presumably read as such), indicating how much debt was still owed, to be discharged by service to kazunoko, etc. production.[13]

According to the 1792 work, removed milt can be handled right away to be dried, but kazunoko are fragile and will break apart unless they are first "rested" for 2 or 3 days in boxes or barrels before manipulating them to be sun-dried.[136]

Later, during the heyday of the earlier Showa era, when domestic production did not depend on freezing technologies, the roe-stripping was done manually from fresh herring.[138]

Early Alaska roe stripping operation from around 1960 employed the coarse method of heaping herring and shoveling salt over it, allowing the fish to "age" for 4, 5 days, after which "herring squeezer" could easily "pop" the roe skein, without need of any skill.[139] Though the crude method persisted until the mid-1970s, it was superseded by the practice (since c. 1970) of shipping frozen egg-bearing herring whole to Japan.[140] Freezing firms the roe partially making them more easily removable, and this avoids the problem of industrial waste-management when high concentration salt is used, however, freezing improperly could lead to sponginess of texture.[141]

Mold-shaped kazunoko[edit]

There were kazunoko remolded into disks or squares after being dissembled, called yose kazunoko, which used to be presented to the shogun, as aforementioned.[96][99] In more recent times, stray eggs gathered were salvaged and solidified together, then cut out into flower-shapes, to be sold as hana kazunoko.[142] Also imitation kazunoko have been made using capelin eggs as substitute[27] (though stray herring eggs may also be added[143]).

Fishing grounds[edit]

The main fishing grounds for herring were in Hokkaido (formerly Ezochi), targeting the particular schools that feed and spawn on the Sea of Japan side.[y][105] Thus the main production center administrated by the Matsumae clan was at Esashi (or Matsumae), on the southwestern coast. Later, the clan extended control over the fisheries north and eastward, as far as Southern Sakhalin (Minami Karafuto), and opened Hakodate port on the east coast.[144]

The Matsumae clan was outsourcing the seafood fishing and trade to merchants basho or akinaiba trading posts,[ad] in a contracting system (basho ukeoi-sei).[145] The clan lost control of the territory and fishing trade in Ezo to the central government (shogunate) for certain periods.[147] responding to a perceived Russian threat.[148] The herring production in Sakhalin thus shifted between Japanese control (Tokugawa period, Meiji to Showa) and Russia (postwar).including kazunoko.[149][151][153][154]

After the principal fishing grounds on the Seas of Japan side collapsed c. 1955 (Showa 30), as aforementioned, and for a few years thereafter, Japanese herring ships had to operate in greatly scaled-down fashion seeking regional herring groups, or at Gulf of Patience and Aniva Bay in Southern Sakhalin[155] The egg-bearing (or "gravid") herring were being imported from Russia in the 1960s and 1970s,[6][124][154] and also in increasingly large volumes from Alaska from c. 1960 onward, as aforementioned (§ Imports into Japan). In the year 1980 (Showa 55) the "bubble burst" for the herring roe industry. Prices soared, with rumors of speculative hoarding. The government stiffened regulation on peroxide bleaching agents. The market reacted by not buying, and companies were left with a huge dead inventories of overpaid herring roe.[156]

Imports into Japan[edit]

As already discussed, Japan largely imports Pacific herring roe from British Columbia; Canada, Alaska, USA,[157][50] and also Atlantic herring roe from Europe.[157][5]

Alaska has been known for having some of the shortest seasons for the catch, sometimes counted in hours.[3] Alaska's allotted quotas at the main fisheries (mostly targeting roe herring) in 2022 were: Sitka Sound, late March,45,164 short tons (41,000 t; 90 million pounds), Kodiak Island, April, 8,075 short tons (7,000 t; 16 million pounds), and Togiak[ae], May, 65,107 short tons (59,000 t; 130 million pounds). However, there was no prospect of catching full quotas. Japanese taste had changed, and the price fallen since the $1000 per ton in the heyday of the 1990s, and the gross receipt of $60 million for the fishermen has fallen to $5 million by 2020.[160] In 2023, Togjk's last processing plant indicate it would not be buying for the coming year, and the fishing season was cancelled.[161]

There has also been criticism regarding the harvesting of herring in Alaska primarily for the herring roe cash value, since all the male and rest of the female fish, about 90% in weight of the catch, were discarded up to the 1990s, minced into liquid sludge.[15] Though this was replaced with using the residue as meal for petfood or fertilizer, issues have been raised regarding this non-optimal use of resources from a bioenergetics standpoint.[14] The problem of sludge waste has been also discussed in the literature concerning Canadian processing plants (cf. "stickwater").[121]

First Nations food source[edit]

The native peoples of the Pacific coast of Canada and Alaska (current major producing regions of kazunoko) have had a tradition of gathering herring eggs on seafood or wood branches during the spring herring runs when the fish come to spawn.

The Sitka, Alaska area was one of the oldest Tlingit village settlements, and had been collecting eggs on seaweed or hemlock branches since time immemorial, according to descendant testimony.[162][163] These are the spawn on kelp (Tlingit: daaw) or on hemlock (haaw). One seaweed type used is called "hair kelp" or "hair seaweed"[162][164] though not a "kelp" in a strict sense, identified as Desmarestia sp. or more precisely Desmarestia viridis, belonging to a non-kelp ordo.[165] There are a number of testimonies from European explorers during the 18th and 19th centuries.[169][af]

The Haida who inhabit Haida Gwaii (formerly Queen Charlotte Islands) in Canada as a base point[ag] also traditionally gather k'aaw[ah][171] These may be eaten fresh on site, or may be sund-dried, and the dried may be eaten as is, or reconstituted in water then blanched or fried.[ai][168][172]

A seaweed known in Haida as "raven's moustache" (x̱uya sg̱yuug̱a") in Haida folklore is said to be usable, but inferior to hemlock as a medium for gathering eggs. Probably a Desmarestia species is meant here also. [173] Again Western Hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) is the species of the branch used to lure egg-laying. The attached Haida origin myth holds that when the Raven stuck his beak in the dancing hall of the Herring People, the eggs stuck on his moustache were not so appetizing, so he discarded the moustche, which became seaweed. He then stuck a sprig of hemlock in the hall, which grew thick with egg and was good-tasting. Hence the lesson to mankind that hemlock is the better implement to use.[aj][174][175][177]

On the opposite from the Haida dwell the Tsimshian of Lax Kwʼalaams (formerly Port Simpson), who also engaged in the egg-gathering practices. In the Tsimshian languages, the spawn on hemlock branches are called xs'waanx[ak].[178] And spawn-on-kelp are also locally referred to as gyoos[179] meaning "kelp".[181]

In the Bristol Bay (east extreme of Bering Sea) area including Togiak and nearby communities, [158][al] the Yup'ik Eskimo also traditionally engaged in fishing herring and gathering their eggs.[182] The spawn on kelp (Central Alaskan Yupʼik: qaryaq,[183][am]) are preserved frozen, salted, or dried, and customarily eaten with seal oil.[184][an] Yup'ik communities on Nelson Island (Alaska)[ao] also go out to sea to collect spawn on kelp. Although residents say they usually consume these quickly, they may preserve spawn on kelp packed in seal oil, inside a sealskin poke (puuq),[185] as they do with preserve herrings.[186][188] The Bering Strait zone is generally Iñupiat Eskimo country, but an informant from Stebbins (which was settled by Nelson Islanders) stated that the collection of spawn on kelp (Yup'ik, Neson-Stebbins subdialect: ellquat) is a time honored tradition.[189][ap] The Iñupiat of the region also gather and consume herring egg.[190]

Ainu cuisine[edit]

In Ainu cuisine there is a dish named after the cow parsnip Heracleum lanatum (syn. Heracleum maximum. Japanese: hanaudo, actually ōhanaudo)[193] that adds herring roe as ingredient. The foraged vegetable is called pittok (ピットㇰ) or siturukina (シト゜ルキナ) and the stems, or more precisely the stalks of the radical leaves [ja] which have been peeled and preserved are reconstituted and sliced up. Dried herring roe (Ainu: pere (ペレ/ぺレー)[194] and seal fat are pounded until milky white, and mixed with the vegetable and diatomaceous earth (added to counteract the acerbity. The liquid squeezed from this dish was used as ersatz milk for infants.[195]).[191][196][194][199]

In poetry[edit]

In haiku poetry, kazunoko is a kigo (季語, 'season word') for the New Year season and jinji ( human affairs).[200] An example Kazunoko ni itokenaki ha wo narashi keri (数の子にいとけなき歯を鳴らしけり, "Herring roe, upon which the young 'uns teeth resound") read by Mokkoku Tamura [ja].[200]

See also[edit]

  • roe
  • Matsumaezuke
  • Surströmming – Swedish femented herring which sometimes contain roe, but should be avoided from consumption.
  • Polish cuisineśledź po japońsku or "Japanese-style herring". Allegedly originated after Japanese use of "herring eggs" was garbled with "herring and [chicken] eggs".

Explanatory notes[edit]

  1. ^ Here to instead of do. The dakuon [ja] or voiced sound shift, indicated by dakuten [de] (゛) symbol is routinely eschewed in archaic texts.
  2. ^ Note that this essay Kiyū shōran writes the kado fish as 靑魚(カド), which can be construed as the class of 'blue fish' (discussed under § Nutritional value) rather than herring.
  3. ^ Probably the soft roe (milt) of cod,[23] still often used in Japanese cuisine.
  4. ^ The ajitsuke type may be soy sauce, wasabi, or chili-pepper flavored, etc.[29]
  5. ^ On the question of whether dried kazunoko is now a higher quality item than salted, it has certainly become a pricey luxury item in short supply, commanding prices in the 40,000 yen per kilo range by the 2000s. [31] Note that a brand developed under the name Marehibiki (稀響) fetched a record price of 100,000 per kilo, and this was reported by press as salted kazunoko,[32] but the product, developed by Ihara Suisan, is actually sun-dried prime herring roe.[33]
  6. ^ Pickling (tsuke[ru]) in sakekasu makes it a kasuzuke dish.
  7. ^ That is, the crunchy sounding texture is important.
  8. ^ Dried type must be reconstituted in water, sometime for a number of days. Pre-soaking in rice-wash water (togi jiru) is an old cooking tip for removing harsh tasted, and also applied to salted (as of Motoyama 1965[42]), but soaking in plain water suffices for now available salted products, for two days, but not to desalinate too much.[44]
  9. ^ Here too, some express opinion that extraneous seasoning should not be used.[46]
  10. ^ aka Kah Shakes Lagoon, at the southern tip of the state, in Ketchikan Gateway Borough, Alaska.
  11. ^ Sasaki's Table 7 describes Baltic as quality midway between Pacific and Atlantic.
  12. ^ The Canadian Atlantic coast caught herrings are assessed by Sasaki's study as low viscosity and brittle/crumbly, making them unfit for salted.[5]
  13. ^ The date of the visit was 17th day of 5th lunar month (which converts to 12 June 1568), when the 14th shogun Ashikaga Yoshiharu was still in office, but the actual person hosted was Ashikaga Yoshiaki who would become the 15th shogun. That it was "Yoshiaki" being hosted by Echizen's ruler Asakura Yoshikage is explicit in the primary source.[72] However, a number of sources confound the Ashikaga guest (as Yoshiharu[73] or Yoshiteru[74]).
  14. ^ This was brought as the 三献。三 (sankon san, '3rd part of the 3rd sake cup') with kazunoko in hiragana, transcribed かずのこ[72][38] or かづのこ[75] A huge number of dishes are brought just for sidedish or snack to go with the alcohol. Some source implicity assumes the Ashikaga certainly ate the kazunoko.[76][74]
  15. ^ Since Hokkaido's Pacific herring spawn in spring, the harvest must preserved and held in storage until winter.
  16. ^ The fertilizer merchants of Ōmi Province received privileged treatment by the Matsumae clan who governed the herring production,[89][9] Ōmihachiman merchants are the model case in Mizuhara's paper.[87]
  17. ^ Mizuhara also counts kazunoko together as a fertilizer commodity, but in the context of Tenmei era (1780s).[87]
  18. ^ Also "herring guano", "herring manure" in English language sources.
  19. ^ The term kasu refers to "residue",[85] referring to what remains after the fish are "boiled, pressed [to extract herring oil[85]] and dried into a mealy state".[100]
  20. ^ The term hoshika is written as dried iwashi (イワシ) conventionally literally translated as "dried sardine",[102] but somewhat inaccurate, insofar anchovy was the ingredient used more often,[103] The hoshika used as fertilizer was really no different from niboshi used in cuisine,[106] and the aforementioned New Year's dish tazukuri [ja] (lit. 'rice-paddy making') was so-named because it used fertilizer fish as ingredient (anchovies, accord. Koizumi, etc.)[103] The hoshika subtype using Japanese sardines/pilchards (maiwashi) was referred by some as "shiro hoshika" or the 'white' variety.[107]
  21. ^ The three sakana () or shukō (酒肴, 'sake snack'), namely, the side dishes to accompany the toso imbibed on New Year's occasion.[108]
  22. ^ The three sake snacks are illustrated with English commentary in a book by "Doctor" Yukio Hattori[109]
  23. ^ A variant, consisting of kazunoko, tazukuri, and uchimame [ja] (flattened soy), served on a sanpō is illustrated in the Edo Period Hirosaki Domain document entitled Nenchū gyōji oiwai kondate narabini sanpō nado okazari (年中行事御祝献立並三方等御飾, roughly tr. 'Menu and arrangement on sanpō for annual events/festivities') (created after 1825/Bunsei 6).[110][57]
  24. ^ Already there is some brining involved by the time of the Department of Fisheries at the Ministry of Agriculture and Commerce document(1935): salted in barrels, but if the liquid level falls, discoloring occurs rendering the product inedible, so saltwater (saline) needs to be added.[114]
  25. ^ a b That is to say, the Hokkaido-Sakhalin herring group on the Sea of Japan side.
  26. ^ Alaskan herring fishery aimed at harvesting roe did not become a substantial commercially operation until 1964.[122]
  27. ^ According to a collection of newspaper columns written by an ex-worker at Hokkaido during the Showa era, the salted kazunoko became even higher quality than dried, fetching a high price.[119]
  28. ^ "herring squeezer" is Alaskan English vernacular for gutters or roe-strippers.[132]
  29. ^ This 1792 document defines tsubushi as gutting, but eleaborates that when this is done, kazunoko, milt, and sasame (gills) are sorted.[137]
  30. ^ Though originally meant for retainers to conduct the trade, the shift happened within a few years.
  31. ^ Both purse seine and gillnet fishing here.[158][159]
  32. ^ Sitka Tlingits before commercial operations (before 1950s?) still harvested herring roe on small rowboats.[170]
  33. ^ But disparate populations occur in Alaska also.
  34. ^ "k'aaw (S, M)" i.e. Skidegate or Masset dialects. It is k'áaw (A) in Alaskan dialect. While "kelp" is variously called ngall, ng, aal (S,M) or k'aay (S,M).[171]
  35. ^ eulachon (candlefish) oil often is used as a sauce.[168]
  36. ^ The tale was collected by Swanton from Walter McGregor member of the Qā'ial lā'nas clan[171]
  37. ^ Though according to dictionary, xs'waanx refers to herring spawn on either kelp or branches, while the kazunoko inside the herring are called {lang
  38. ^ Wright & Chythlook (1985) employs the term "Togiak district".
  39. ^ Wright & Chythlook (1985), p. 31 writes that "herring spawn-on-kelp" is melucuaq, but according to the Yup'ik dictionary, the herring egg in singular is melucuaq or qaarsaq whereas the plural or the egg skein (kazunoko) collectively would be elquaq, and "herring egg on kelp" is qaryaq.[183]
  40. ^ The Wright & Chythlook (1985) paper survey concentrates on residents of "Togiak district" (Togiak, Twin Hills, Manokotak, Aleknagik, Dillingham, Clark's Point).
  41. ^ Tununak, Newtok, Toksook Bay, Nightmute.
  42. ^ In this dialect, dried herring roe is called imlaat. Cf. glossary.


  1. ^ OECD: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (2009). "Kazunoko". Multilingual Dictionary of Fish and Fish Products. John Wiley & Sons. p. 124. ISBN 9781444319422.
  2. ^ Although one source gives the Korean equivalent in hangul only,[1] the term Korean청어속; Hanja靑魚屬; RRcheonggeosok; lit. 'blue fish genus' refers to Clupea genus of herring, not specifically the roe.
  3. ^ a b c d e f Bledsoe, Gleyn; Rasco, Barbara (2006). "Ch. 161. Caviar and Fish Roe". In Hui, Yiu H. (ed.). Handbook of Food Science, Technology, and Engineering. CRC Press. p. 161-11. ISBN 978-0-8493-9849-0.
  4. ^ Sasaki (2002), pp. 17–19, cf. Fig. 1, line graph of annual catch tonnage, imports, egg supply.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g Sasaki (2002), pp. 21, 32 and Table 7 "Processing suitabilities of Atlantic herring, by production area 大西洋ニシンの生産地別加工適性について" (in Japanese)
  6. ^ a b c d e (MLIT) Hokkaidō Regional Development Bureau: Rumoi Development and Construction Dept. [in Japanese] (June 2022). "Rumoi fūdo shisan Card" るもい風土資産カード (PDF). p. 18. Retrieved 8 January 2024. 当時のソ連産ニシンは塩蔵だったため、卵は血液や内臓で真っ黒の状態で、塩カズノコの加工にはむかないものでしたが、昭和38年(1963年)に留萌市内の水産加工会社が過酸化水素を使用した漂白技術を独自に開発。
  7. ^ a b Weinstein, Jay (2010), The Ethical Gourmet, Broadway Books, p. 266, ISBN 0307484394
  8. ^ Attested in the Honchō shokkan [ja] published 1697, cf. below.
  9. ^ a b c d e Yakumo Township Office (11 May 2012), "Dai4 shō. Matsumae han no seiritsu" 第4章 松前藩の成立, Digital Kumaishicho shi デジタル熊石町史
  10. ^ a b c Fukuda (2007), p. 99: "[though] the arrival of the nishin kasu [herring meal] would have to wait until the beginning of the 19th century 鰊粕の登場には 19 世紀の初めまで待たなければならない"
  11. ^ a b c Howell writes that "herring-meal fertilizer nishin shimekasu was known for a long while in the Tohoku region, "but did not become a major commodity until cultivators of cotton [etc.] in Ōmi [Province] began using it in the Kyōho era (1716–1736).[89] Godefroy places shimekasu (prematurely) in the 1730s.[101] Mizuhara concludes herring shimekasu etc. began to be sold around Tenmei era (1780s) to merchants of Tsuruga and Obama (Echizen Province) and Osaka.[87]
  12. ^ Thornton & Moss (2021), p. 17ff.
  13. ^ a b c Tanimoto, Akihisa (2014), "Roshia kagaku akademī tōyō koseki bunken kenkyūjo Saharin Ainu kōeki chōbo no kenkyū gaihō" ロシア科学アカデミー東洋古籍文献研究所サハリンアイヌ交易帳簿の研究概報─一九世紀初頭アニワ湾岸地域における交易のすがた─ [The research of Account books in the trade relations with SAKHALIN Ainu : 1800–1806] (PDF), Research annual of the Historiographical Institute (24), The University of Tokyo Historiographical Institute: 55–57
  14. ^ a b Thornton, Thomas F.; Moss, Madonna L. (2021), Herring and People of the North Pacific: Sustaining a Keystone Species, University of Washington Press, p. 199, ISBN 9780295748306
  15. ^ a b Mackovjak (2022), pp. 20, 318.
  16. ^ a b c d e 〔Honchō shokkan 本朝食鑑〕s.v. "(鯟(かどkado)", in the compendium Kōji ruien古事類苑, under Dōbutsu-bu/gyo chū nishin (動物部/魚中「鯡」, 'Animasl. Fish(middle). Herring.'), p. 1428
  17. ^ The author of Honchō shokkan is uncertain concerning the single character 鯑 for "kazunoko".[16] This is a kokuji :国字 or a Chinese character invented in Japan.
  18. ^ Nakajima, Mitsuru@manabook (2002–2010). "329 [魚+巻][蜷(虫→魚)]". Manamanajiten 真名真魚字典. Retrieved 14 January 2024.
  19. ^ a b c Mainichi Shimbun, Hokkaidō hakkoshō hōdōbu (1977). Kita no shokumotsu shi 北の食物誌. Mainichi shimbunsha. p. 36.
  20. ^ "誤って數子を以って鯟子と爲す"[16]
  21. ^ Kawashima, Shiro [in Japanese] (1969) [1965]. "Nishin" にしん(鰊、鯡). Sekai daihyakka jiten 世界大百科事典. Vol. 17. Heibonsha. pp. 176–177. Online new edition@kotobank
  22. ^ Maeda, Tomiyoshi [in Japanese] (2005). "Kazunoko" 数の子. Nihon gogen daijiten 日本語源大辞典. Shogakukan. p. 322. ISBN 9784095011813.
  23. ^ a b Wakabayashi, Kisaburo [in Japanese] (1968). Nanao-shi shi: tsūshi hen 七尾市史: 通史編. Nanao City. p. 124.
  24. ^ a b Ōtsuki, Fumihiko, ed. (1932). "Kazunoko" かずのこ. Daigenkai 大言海. Vol. 1. 冨山房. 数の子ノ語ヲ、子孫繁榮/義=取リテ、婚姻、其他祝儀二用キル。カズカズ。コズコズ。クルクル。
  25. ^ a b Umegaki, Minoru [in Japanese] (1975). Gairaigo =外来語. Kodansha. p. 23.
  26. ^ Dr. Ōtsuki who edited the Daigenkai [ja] dictionary proposed this, according to Umegaki.[25]
  27. ^ a b c d e f Furukawa, Tomoko (2005). "Kazunoko" 数の子 [Pacific herring ovary]. Shokuzai kenkō daijiten 食材健康大事典. Supervised by Toshiharu Gomyō. Jiji Press. p. 345. ISBN 9784788705616.
  28. ^ Thornton & Moss (2021), p. 19.
  29. ^ a b c Sasaki (2002), p. 35.
  30. ^ Kaneda, Takashi (1994). "Kazunoko" 数の子. Nipponica 日本大百科全書(ニッポニカ). Shogakukan. @ Kotobank
  31. ^ a b c Sasaki (2002), p. 19.
  32. ^ "Shōgatsu no shiokazunoko hatsuseri. Osaka kako saikō 10 man en de rakusatsu" 正月の塩カズノコ初競り 大阪、過去最高10万円で落札. Nikkei shimbun. 22 November 2016. {{cite journal}}: Unknown parameter |agency= ignored (help)
  33. ^ "Ihara suisan shio kazunoko Marehibiki 300g" 井原水産 塩数の子 稀響 300g. By Emotion. 2024. Retrieved 11 January 2024. 銀座の高級料亭の料理人からの要望もあり、開発されたのが「稀響」..極上のカナダ産数の子が利用され、..晴れが続く日を選んで干されます。.. この手間もコツも必要な「戻し作業」を、井原水産にておこない、再度塩漬けし1本ずつ真空パックをしたものが「稀響」です (in Japanese)
  34. ^ "Herring". Seafood Leader. 9 (4): 142. April 1989. The Japanese used to purchase only roe from Pacific.. insurgence of the European herring stocks has led to a secondary market in Atlantic roe.. Atlantic herring roe is generally less crunchy and tangy than Pacific herring roe and so sells for less
  35. ^ a b Johnson & Knapp (2001), p. 725.
  36. ^ Emami, Ali; Queirolob, Lewis E.; Johnston, Richard (1994), "Monopsony, Trade Restrictions and International Markets for Intermediate Seafood Products. The U.S.-Canada Herring Dispute", in Antona, Martine; Cantanzano, Joseph; Sutinen, John G. (eds.), Proceedings of the Sixth Conference of the International Institute of Fisheries Economics and Trade (PDF), vol. 2, Institut français de recherche pour l'exploitation de la mer, p. 590 n1, Herring roe (kazunoko) is a traditional food.. primarily [for] New Year's celebration.. symbolize long life and prosperity,.. high price.. Pacific herring is the preferred source.
  37. ^ a b c d e "Kazunoko" 数の子. Kokumin hyakka jiten 国民百科事典. Vol. 2. 平凡社. 1961. p. 65.
  38. ^ a b c Hitomi, Hitsudai (1980). "Nishin" . In Shimada, Isao [in Japanese] (ed.). Honchō shokkan 本朝食鑑. Vol. 4. Heibonsha. pp. 111–113. ISBN 978-4-582-80378-5.
  39. ^ Kawakami (2006), p. 307: "江戸時代に入っての元禄時代は醤油や煎酒に漬けて食べたり酒糟に漬けて食べたりしたことが『本朝食鑑』に書いてあるが"
  40. ^ a b The Honchō shokkan (1697) attests that already by late 17th century the kazunoko was an item commodity that appeared in the market around the lunar 12th month and 1st month. The source describes the dried kazunoko as resembling sōkyō/saikachi (皂莢, Japanese locust seedpods), and states that by this period (Genroku era), kazunoko was eaten pickled in soy sauce, irizake [en] (umeboshi reduced in sake), or sakekasu.[f][16][38][39]
  41. ^ a b Kitaōji Rosanjin (1980) [1930]. "Kazunoko wa oto wo kū mono" 数の子は音を食うもの. Rosanjin midō 魯山人味道. Chuokoron. -Aozora bunko
  42. ^ a b c d e f Abe, Tokiharu; Motoyama, Tekishū [in Japanese] (1969) [1965]. "Kazunoko" 数の子. Sekai daihyakka jiten 世界大百科事典. Vol. 4. Heibonsha. p. 448.
  43. ^ Co-author Tekishū Motoyama [ja][42]
  44. ^ Tsuji Culinary Institute [in Japanese] (1993). NIhon ryōri Puro no kakushi waza 日本料理 プロの隠し技. Kobunsha., excerpted under Keyword: kanbutsu, shiozōhin, kakōhin no atsukai kata at school site.
  45. ^ Okuyama (1984) s.v. "Matsumaezuke 松前漬", p. 378
  46. ^ a b Tsūsan (MITI) Kikaku chōsakai, ed. (1987). 日本の地域産業: 特産品編. Ministry of Trade and Industry, MITI. p. 10.
  47. ^ According to a government (Ministry of Trade and Industry) research group.[46]
  48. ^ Kawabata, Akiko [in Japanese]; Fuchinoe, Shōko, eds. (2006). "Kazunoko" かずのこ. Oishisa no hyōgen jiten おいしさの表現辞典. Tokyodo shuppan. p. 162. ISBN 9784490106947., citing Nikkei shimbun (evening edition)
  49. ^ JETRO (1991). Nōrin suisanbutsu no bōeki: shuyō 100 hinmoku no kokunai・kaigai jijō 農林水産物の貿昜: 主要 100品目の国内・海外事情. JETRO. pp. 480, 567. 主として味付けかずのこの原料として利用されるにしんの卵は大西洋産、正月の贈答用などに用いられるにしん卵等は太平洋産である
  50. ^ a b c Sasaki (2002), p. 32 and Table 6 "Processing suitabilities of Pacific herring, by production area 太平洋ニシンの生産地別加工適性について" (in Japanese)
  51. ^ Alaskan source claims "smaller and softer",[35] while the Japanese says "size is bigger but lacks crunchiness".[27]
  52. ^ Sasaki (2002), p. 21.
  53. ^ Described as "midway between Pacific and [other] Atlantic" in Table 7.
  54. ^ Sasaki (2002), p. 32.
  55. ^ Takemura, Sayuri; Shirafuji, Norio; Yamane, Kōdai; Murase, Iki; Iwata, Yoko; Kawamura, Tomohiko; Watanabe, Yoshiro [in Japanese] (2020), "Nishin ni okeru mesu shingyo saizu to ranshigyo saizu no kankei" ニシンにおける雌親魚サイズと卵仔魚サイズの関係 [Relationship between female body size and egg and larval sizes in Pacific herring Clupea pallasii], Bulletin of the Japanese Society of Scientific Fisheries, 86 (6): 490, doi:10.2331/suisan.19-00045
  56. ^ The data for Hokkaido shows significant variance by region, and the fertilized egg measures from about 1.3–1.4 millimters, with dry mass of about 0.13–0.30 mg. Meanwhile the "Norwegian spring-spawning herring [group].. [laid] eggs with average dry mass of 0.29–0.35 mg" while the Baltic sea egg at "0.12–0.14 mg.. was short of half [that] weight".[55]
  57. ^ a b Yamaoka, Shin; Koyama, Tatsuya (2020). "Edo jidai no shiryō kara no eiyōka no sanshutsu hōhō no kentō" 江戸時代の史料からの栄養価の算出方法の検討 [Examination of calculation method of nutritional values from historical records in Edo period] (PDF). Aomori Journal of Health and Welfare. 2 (1). p. 8, Photo 1. doi:10.24552/00002155.
  58. ^ Kasuga, Atsuko; Ogiwara, Eiko; Aoyagi, Yasuo (2007). "The Behavior of Taste Ingredients during Desalination of Salted Pacific Herring Ovary (Kazunoko)" 数の子の塩抜き過程における味成分の挙動. 日本調理科学会誌. 40 (5): 329!--329–336-->.
  59. ^ Suzuki, Hiramitsu (1994). "Gyoran no eiyōka to sono tokusei" 魚卵の栄養価とその特性. Syoku no kagaku/Food science journal (195): 41–46.
  60. ^ The Shokuzai kenkō dictionary under "Pacific herring" writes of EPA content and blood-clot prevention in boldface, and mentions the fish having EPA and DHA content, with cholesterol lowering effects; and under "Kazunoko" states "since fish lipid prevent arteriosclerosis and blood clots, it effectively 'makes the blood [flow] all smoothy-like' or ketsueki sarasara, in colloquial parlance.".[27] Herring roe is richer in EPA or DHA than herring flesh. (Kasuga, Ogiwara & Aoyagi (2007), p. 329,[58] citing Suzuki (1994).[59])
  61. ^ Andoh, Elizabeth (2005). Washoku: Recipes from the Japanese Home Kitchen. Photographs by Leigh Beisch. Berkeley: Ten Speed Press. p. 233. ISBN 9781580085199.
  62. ^ a b Murray, Michael T.; Pizzorno, Joseph (2010). "Gout". The Encyclopedia of Healing Foods. Simon and Schuster. p. 723. ISBN 9781439103449.
  63. ^ a b c d Oka, Jun (2005). "Taisha・eiyō shikkan to shite no kōnyōsankesshō・tsūfū to purin nukureochido/nyōsan taisha" 代謝・栄養疾患としての高尿酸血症・痛風とプリンヌクレオチド/尿酸代謝 [Hyperuricemia and Gout as Metabolic Disorders, and Purine Nucleotide and Uric Acid Metabolism]. Eiyōgaku zasshi: The Japanese journal of nutrition and dietetics. 63 (1): 82, Table 4.
  64. ^ a b c Iba, Tatsuya (5 August 2023). "[(Nyōsan chi)] Tsūfū no tenteki 'purin tai' taisaku no otoshiana 'zero nara anshin' to wa īkirenai riyū to wa?" 【尿酸値】痛風の天敵「プリン体」対策の落とし穴「ゼロなら安心」とは言い切れない理由とは?. 東洋経済オンライン. Interviewee, Prof. Atsuo Taniguchi, Tokyo Women's Medical University. Toyo Keizai: 1–4.
  65. ^ Guideline for the management of hyperuricemia and gout (『高尿酸血症・痛風の治療ガイドライン』, Kōnyōsankesshō・tsūfū chiryō gaidoraine), published by the Japanese Society of Gout and Uric & Nucleic Acids. Oka cites 1st edition;[63] Dr. Taniguchi cites the 3rd edition in the newspaper article.[64]: 2  The paper and article each print its own excerpted table of high/low purine foods. Oka's table lists kazunoko as low.
  66. ^ a b Rheumatoid specialist Dr. Taniguchi states that overeating seafoods, dried himono fish, and fish roe may be harmful, though "it has been reported that 'blue fish' containing EPA and DHA are not a problem".[64]: 3 
  67. ^ Oka's table, excerpted from Guideline, lists about a dozen items as very high (300mg+ per 100g) or high (200–300mg), including semi-dried himono of maiwashi (sardine/prichard, S. s. melanostictus), maaji (jack mackeral), and sanma (saury); bonito and bonito flakes, and niboshi, which may fall into 'blue fish' category. About thirty very low (<50mg) listed, including kazunoko.[63]
  68. ^ Okuyama (1984), s.v. "Kazunoko", p. 100
  69. ^ a b Keizai zasshisha [in Japanese], ed. (1901). "Kadonoko" かどのこ. Nihon shakai jii 日本社会事彙. Vol. 1 (ref. expanded ed.). Keizai zasshisha. p. 675.; 第3版(1907)、 上巻:717頁
  70. ^ Kitamura, Nobuyo [in Japanese] (1887) [1830]. Kondō, Heijō [in Japanese] (ed.). Kiyū shōran 嬉遊笑覧. Zonzai sōsho 105. Vol. 17/23. p. Kan 9, 46 verso.; Nihon zuihitsu taisei henshūbu ed. (1932) Kiyū shōran 嬉遊笑覧, 5th edition, volume 2, Narimitsu kan shuppanbupp. 392–393
  71. ^ Iinoo Tametane [ja] Satsujōshū (撮壌集) (1454): "魚名の内に来々とみえたり。かずの子はかどの子にてこともなきを"[69][70]
  72. ^ a b "Yoshihide shogunki 4 (17-day 5th lunar month of Eiroku 11 )" 義栄将軍記四(永禄11年5月17日). Zoku kokushi taikei 続国史大系. Vol. Gokan. dai 8 kan. Keizai zasshisha. 1904. pp. 1181–1182.
  73. ^ a b Verschuer, Charlotte von [in French] (2017). "Histoire et philologie du Japon ancien et médiéval". Annuaire de l'EPHE, Section des Sciences Historiques et Philologiques (2015–2016). 148 (148). n3. doi:10.4000/ashp.2011.
  74. ^ a b Obata (1961), p. 114.
  75. ^ Kawakami (2006), p. 307 citing the Gunsho Ruijū' compilation of many texts.
  76. ^ Okuyama (1984), "NIshin ニシン", p. 314
  77. ^ "Bunroku 3 nen ugetsu 8-ka Kaga no chūnagon dono onari no koto (No. 1070)" 文禄三年卯月八日加賀之中納言殿江御成之事 (No. 1070), Gunsho ruijū 群書類従, 1594, p. 3/15 National Archives of Japan
  78. ^ Japanese: 二献。かずの子・かいあはび・さしみ・たい[38]
  79. ^ Kawakami (2006), p. 308.
  80. ^ Also styled Bunroku sannen Maeda-tei onariki (文禄三年前田亭御成記).[73][79]Aramata (1989), p. 68 The date was 8th day of ugetsu (lunar 4th month), converted to 17 May 1594.
  81. ^ a b c d Chihōshi kenkyū kyōgikai, ed. (1960). Nihon sangyōshi taikei dai-2 (Hokkaido chihō hen) 日本産業史大系 第2 (北海道地方篇). Tokyo daigaku shuppankai. p. 31. 「松前蝦夷記」は、端鰊(胴鰊)、身欠鰊、丸干鰊、数の子、白子、および幕府献上品の寄鰊子が内地へ移出されたことを記している
  82. ^ Fukuda (2007), pp. 104–105.
  83. ^ a b c Fukuda (2007), pp. 96–97.
  84. ^ More fully, the second half(坤/乾坤) of 福田アジオ Esashi Hiyama byō} (江差檜山屏, Esashi Hiyama folding screen'), cf. Fukuda, Ajio [ja], "Foreword まえがき".
  85. ^ a b c Shibusawa, Keizo (1969) [1958]. Japanese Society in the Meiji Era. Japanese Culture in the Meiji Era 6. Translated by Culbertson, Aora H. Toyo Bunko. p. 28. shimekasu fertilizer ( herring residue after oil is extracted )
  86. ^ Fukuda (2007), pp. 98–99.
  87. ^ a b c d e Mizuhara, Masamichi (15 March 2012). "Tokugawa bakufu no keizai seisaku to chihōkeizai: Kinsei no Ōmi Hachiman no jirei wo chūshin ni" 徳川幕府の経済政策と地方経済──近世の近江八幡の事例を中心に── [The economic policy of Tokugawa Japan and the local economy : a case of Omi Hachiman] (PDF). Doshisha Shogaku: The Doshisha Business Review. 63 (5): 550. doi:10.14988/pa.2017.0000012862.
  88. ^ Matsumae Ezo ki (『松前蝦夷記』): "Nishin narabi ni kazunoko shirako tomo Easahi mura Matsumaechō ni shikashite shokoku yori fune ki tumi noboru yoshi, toriwake nishin narabini shirako Chūgoku Ōmiji e tsuminobori, ta&hatasaku koyashi ni itashi mōshiyoshi (鰊子白子共江指村松前町ニ而諸国より船来積登ルよし、取分ケ鯡白子中国近江路江[へ]積登、田畑作こやしニいたし申よし)" ((『"鯡"+"鰊子" Matsumaechō shi: shiryōhen 松前町史: 史料編』, vol. 1, 1974, p. 382)[86][87]
  89. ^ a b Howell (2018), pp. 32–33.
  90. ^ Fukuda (2007), p. 98: "Nishin ya kazunoko, shirako ga hiroku Chūgoku ya Ōmi suji ni renpi [=nishin+koe] to shite urarete ita 鰊や数の子、白子が広く中国や近江筋に鰊肥として売られていた"
  91. ^ Yakumochō yakuba [Municipal office] 八雲町役場 ed. Kumaishichō shi 熊石町史 [History of Kumaishi]: "しかし、これら鰯の干(ほ)し鰯(か)が享保年間頃からあまり獲れなくなり、その代用として近江商人らが、捨てられて省みられなかった胴鯡や白子をその代用として利用し始めた。享保2年の“松前蝦夷記"では「鯡並鯡子とも..", namely, the Ōmi merchants began using the milt and dōnishin which were being discarded as a substitute for the anchovy/sardine hoshika whose supply was falling from the Kyōho period onwards.[9] The dōnishin (胴鰊) here mentioned (also as hanishin (端鰊) [81]) are the carcass and belly part after migaki nishin is removed).[81]『熊石町史』では胴鰊=肥料(端鰊)、数の子=食用、寄席数の子=主に幕府献上のため、と位置付ける[9]
  92. ^ Azuma (2013), p. 137.
  93. ^ Hokkai zuihitsu (北海随筆, 'An essay on the Northern Sea', 1739).[92]
  94. ^ Azuma (2013), pp. 136, 137.
  95. ^ a b Ezokoku shiki/Ezo no kuni shiki (蝦夷国私記, 'Private records of the Ezo', c. Hōreki era, 1750s)[94]
  96. ^ a b c Kawakami (2006), p. 306 assumes the yose kazunoko to be a secondary grade item, and writes that "Numerous kazunoko [are congealed into a] round [shape], 7 to 8 sun (21 to 24 cm) diameter, 4 to 5 bu (1.2 to 1.5 cm) thick which can then be "soaked and cut up [into portions] to be used".
  97. ^ Hokkaido Prefectural Government [in Japanese], ed. (1918–1919). Hokkaido shi 北海道史. Vol. 1. pp. 219–229.
  98. ^ a b c "Hoshi nishin" ほしにしん. Bōeki bikō 貿易備考. Vol. 1. MOF Record Bureau. 1885. p. 666.
  99. ^ a b Aramata, Hiroshi (1989). Sekai daihakubutsu zukan 世界大博物図鑑. Vol. 第2巻. Heibonsha. pp. 68–69. ISBN 978-4-582-51822-1.
  100. ^ Howell (2018), p. 1.
  101. ^ Godefroy, Noémy (2021). "Chapter 21 Rethinking Ezo-chi, the Ainu, and the Tokugawa Japan in a global perspective". In Leupp, Gary P.; Tao, De-min (eds.). The Tokugawa World. Routledge. p. 384. ISBN 9781000427417.
  102. ^ a b Watanabe, Takashi [in Japanese] (2021). "Chapter 9 Villages and Farmers in the Tokugawa Period". In Leupp, Gary P.; Tao, De-min (eds.). The Tokugawa World. Routledge. p. 162. ISBN 9781000427417. dried sardines (hoshika) [followed by description of aburakasu as "[seed] dregs after extraction of oil"
  103. ^ a b c Koizumi, Takeo [in Japanese] (1998). "Shōgatsu no shokutaku" 正月の食卓. Gakutō 學燈. 95 (1). Maruzen: 13.
  104. ^ Howell (2018), p. 38.
  105. ^ a b c Kobayashi, Tokimasa (2002). "Hokkaido ni okeru nishin gyogyō to shigen kenkyū (sōsetsu)" 北海道におけるニシン漁業と資源研究(総説) [History of herring fishery in Hokkaido and the review of population study] (PDF). Sci. Rep. Hokkaido Fish. Exp. STN. 北水試研報 (62). Hokkaido Fisheries Experimental Station: 1–2.
  106. ^ Mizuhara (2012), p. 546.
  107. ^ Nagao, Shigetaka (1981), "Nōkaroku" 農稼録, in Oka, Mitsuo ed., tr., synopsis, notes [in Japanese] (ed.), Nihon nōgaku zenshū 日本農書全集, vol. 23, Tatsu, Yamada, series ed., Nōson gyoson bunka kyōkai, p. 63, ISBN 978-4-540-94009-5, 干鰯-鰯のうち真鰯は銀白色で、頭が太く脂が少ないので煮て食したり、干して肥料とする。これを「羽干鰯」または「白干鰯」という (in Japanese)
  108. ^ Tsuchiya, Kyoko (2010). "Sekku to sekku ryōri ni tsuite no ichi kōsatsu" 節句と節句料理についての一考察 [A Study of Festival Called Sekku and Festive Dishes Called Sekku Meal] (PDF). Bulletin of Tokyo Kasei University Museum. 15: 82.
  109. ^ Yukio, Hattori (2017). "iwai-zakana sanshu/mitsu-zakana" 祝い肴三種/三つ肴 [Three Good-luck foods]. Eiyaku tsuki Nippon no namae zukan washoku・nenjū gyōji 英訳付き ニッポンの名前図鑑 和食・年中行事 [An Illustrated Guide to Japanese Cooking and Annual Events]. Tankosha Publishing. p. 126.
  110. ^ Nenchū gyōji oiwai kondate narabini sanbō nado okazari 『年中行事御祝献立並三方等御飾』 Bunsei era (1818–1830); held by Hirosaki City Library.
  111. ^ Obata (1961), p. 112.
  112. ^ a b 赤堀又次郎 (1908). "Kenjōmono" けんじゃうもの(献上物). Nihon hyakka daijiten 日本百科大辭典. Vol. 3. 三省堂. p. 1312表末.
  113. ^ Sasaki (2002), p. 18, citing Nihon suisan seihin shizen 日本水産製品誌全(1935)、pp. 319–320
  114. ^ a b Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Fisheries Agency, ed. (1935). "§12 Shiokazunoko" =§第12鹽鯑鮞(しほ・かず・のこ). Nihon suisan seihinshi 日本水産製品誌. Vol. Total. Suisansha. pp. 319–320.
  115. ^ Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Fisheries Agency, ed. (1913). "§12 Shiokazunoko" §第12鹽鯑鮞(しほ・かず・のこ). Nihon suisan seihinshi 日本水産製品誌. Vol. 2. MAF Fisheries Agency. pp. 108–109.
  116. ^ Miura, Junjiro (3rd proprietor) (11 March 1978). "Otaru shiokazunoko shi" 小樽塩数の子史. Gyoran hitosuji Miura Suisan 魚卵一筋 -三浦水産. Retrieved 8 January 2024.
  117. ^ Sato suisan (2007–2008) Ginjō hyakusen 吟醸百選 (pamphlet), p. 34
  118. ^ Hakubunkan editorial bureau, ed. (1894). Meiji setsuyō taizen: Denka hōten 明治節用大全:傳家寳典. Hakbunkan. p. 281.
  119. ^ a b c Uchida, Goro (1978). Nishinba monogatari =鰊場物語. Hokkaido Shimbun Press. p. 50.
  120. ^ Tekishū Motoyama [ja] writing at the time says as much,[42]
  121. ^ a b Boyd, J.W.; Cheng, Joe; Huynh, Minh Dieu; Tsuyuki, H. (January 1980), "Roe Herring Processing: Preservation and Factors Affecting Firming of Roe" (PDF), Fisheries and Marine Service Technical Report (921), Vancouver, B.C.: 1
  122. ^ Mackovjak (2022), pp. 146, 153.
  123. ^ Hara, Yoichiro; Hirota, Hideki; Kwon, Ohgyoung; Nakamura, Daisuke; Makino, Tomokazu; Shibata, Takashi (2016). "Jigyōka wo mokuteki to suru sangyō renkeigata gijutsu kaihatsu ni okeru seikō yōin to keizaisei hyōka ni kansuru kenkyū Part II" 事業化を目的とする産業連携型技術開発における成功要因と経済性評価に関する研究〈Part Ⅱ〉―地域企業のイノベーションとその可能性― (PDF). The Bulletin of Nagaoka University (14): 15–16.
  124. ^ a b "Ihara suisan ni tsuite" 井原水産について. Ihara. 2022. Retrieved 8 January 2024.; 英語版: "black as night roe from frozen Russian herring, we developed a process to remove blood from the roe, and seeking superior quality, we ventured to Canada and Alaska"
  125. ^ Ihara (seafood company) [ja] is credited.[123] According to Ihara's website under History (Eng. vers.), "black as night roe from frozen Russian herring" underwent "remov[al of] blood from the roe" at the company's operation at the time. And according to the history (Japanese vers., with timeline) it was in June 1963 (Showa 38) that they conducted research and development on the thawing and peroxide use on frozen egg-bearing herring. And "seeking superior quality, we ventured to Canada and Alaska". Timeline gives April 1967 (Showa 42) as the beginning of the company giving technical advice at Bristol Bay.[124]
  126. ^ Kitabayashi, Toru; Hashimoto, Kenji (2002). "Kazunoko no seisei shori shiken Kasanka suiso ni anmonia wo tenka suru hyōhaku shori" カズノコの精製処理試験 過酸化水素にアンモニア水を添加する漂白処理. Sci. Rep. Hokkaido Fish. Exp. Stn. 25 (6). Hokkaido Prefectural Fisheries Experiment Station: 17–39.
  127. ^ a b Tsuyuki, Henry; Cheng, Joe; Williscroft, S. N.; Huynh, Minh Dieu (July 1977), "Cause of Development of Sponginess in Roe Produced from Frozen Herring" (PDF), Fisheries and Marine Service Technical Report (739), Vancouver, B.C.: 4, bleached or "brightened" in Japan with hydrogen peroxide the excess removed enzymatically.. kazunoko is.. transformed ..to a translucent product uniformly light golden yellow in color.
  128. ^ Sasaki (2002), p. 36.
  129. ^ Japanese Ministry of Health [in Japanese] (1981). "Hoshi nishin" ほしにしん. Kōseishō hakusho 厚生白書. p. 341.
  130. ^ Matsuura, Toshiki [in Japanese] (2008). "Kasanka suiso" 過酸化水素. Zukai nyūmon yoku wakaru saishin shokuhin tenkabutsu no kihon to shikumi: Gendai no shokutaku wo sasaeru kage no kōrōsha 図解入門よくわかる最新食品添加物の基本と仕組み: 現代の食卓を支える影の功労者. Shuwa System. p. 80. ISBN 9784798021027.
  131. ^ Fukuda (2007), pp. 92–93.
  132. ^ a b Mackovjak (2022), p. 145.
  133. ^ Fukuda (2007), p. 96.
  134. ^ a b Done by fishwives (漁婦) and female day laborers called onna-demen (女出面(でめん)).[133]
  135. ^ Azuma (2013), pp. 136, 140.
  136. ^ a b Igen zokuwa (夷諺俗話, Kansei4/1792).[135] Also identified merely as a "record" of the Sōya basho experimental trade<"--ソウヤ場所御試交易の記録--> of this date.[13]
  137. ^ A record described as "Sōya basho otameshi kōeki no kiroku (ソウヤ場所御試交易の記録, Kansei 4/1792), quoted by Tanimoto (2014), pp. 56–57: "鯡の腸を取る事を、鯡を潰すといふ。右鯡つぶしの時はメノコのする業なり.. 数の子は、鯡潰す時、数の子、白子、笹目.. に撰り分け", etc.
  138. ^ Uchida (1978), p. 212.
  139. ^ Afterwards, Japanese technicians would grade the kazunoko and pack them in brine in 5 to 6 US gallons (19 to 23 L) plastic buckets.[132]
  140. ^ Mackovjak (2022), p. 146.
  141. ^ Tsuyuki et al. (1977), p. 1.
  142. ^ Sasaki (2002), p. 28.
  143. ^ Murata, Chihiro (1986). "Odoroki momonoki sanshonoki: Shokuhin tenkabutsu to kopī shokuhin (ge)" 驚き桃の木、山椒の木--食品添加物とコピ-食品-下-. Gekkan Sōhyō (338): 90–93.
  144. ^ Howell (2018), p. 36.
  145. ^ Howell (2018), pp. 31–32.
  146. ^ Howell (2018), p. 33.
  147. ^ Howell summaries as "between 1799 and 1821 and again from 1854 until the collapse of the Tokugawa regime in 1858".[146]
  148. ^ Howell (2018), p. 40.
  149. ^ Thornton & Moss (2021), pp. 23–25.
  150. ^ Karafuto teichi gyogyō suisan kumiai ("Karafuto fixed-net fishery union") ed. pub., ed. (1931). Karafuto to gyogyō 樺太と漁業. Toyohara (Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk): Karafuto teichi gyogyō suisan kumiai. p. 30.
  151. ^ Trade in Sakhalin was conducted already during the Tokugawa period, and in later years Ansei Era (1854–1860), the Hakodate Magistrate establish the Kita Ezo Kaisho nearby to conduct the Sakhalin trade, via bidding, however, the magistrate also published a standard normal price list for kazunoko and other goods:
    • kazunoko 1300 mon for 8 kanme or 30 kilograms (66 lb)
    • milt 1500 mon for 20 kanme
    • herring oil 3400 mon per chō () barrel
    • herring kasu meal 1 ryō per 60 kanme[150]
  152. ^ Piłsudski, Bronisław (1998), "Statistical data on Sakhalin Ainu for the year 1904 (1907)", in Majewicz, Alfred F. [in Polish] (ed.), Collected Works, Trends in Linguistics. Documentation [TiLDOC] 15-1, vol. 1, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, p. 342 Table 7 "Prices of various goods being bought or sold by the Sakhalin Ainu 1902–1903", ISBN 3-11-010928-X
  153. ^ According to Russian statistics before war in 1905, the Ainu received for a bag of herring roe 4 rubles, dried milt 3 rubles, 100 pieces of salted herring 50–80 copecks.[152]
  154. ^ a b Cf. Thornton & Moss (2021), p. 25: Russian Far East in the post- 1970s, shifted focus on "gravid herring (those with females rich with eggs".
  155. ^ Kobayashi (2002), p. 2.
  156. ^ Alley, Andrew G. (1983), "Speculation , risk and consumer demand in Japanese markets for herring roe", Proceedings of the International Seafood Trade Conference: September 8–12, 1982, Anchorage, Alaska, Anchorage: 119
  157. ^ a b Mackovjak (2022), p. 144.
  158. ^ a b Mackovjak (2022), pp. 219–237.
  159. ^ Wright & Chythlook (1985), p. 1.
  160. ^ Welch, Laine (28 March 2022). "As demand for Alaska herring roe plummets, industry seeks markets for the wasted fish". Alaska Dispatch News.
  161. ^ Ross, Izzy Ross (26 March 2023). "No commercial Togiak sac roe herring fishery this spring, after years of a shrinking market". KDLG. Dillingham.
  162. ^ a b Mark Jacobs, Jr., vice president of the Central Council of the Tlingit & Haida Indian Tribes of Alaska (Hearing testimony):A Hearing Before the Select Committee on Indian Affairs, United States Senate, One Hundred Second Congress, Second Session, on Implementation of Section 8 of the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act; S. 2481, a Bill to Provide for the Reauthorization of the Indian Health Care Improvement Act; and Reauthorization of the Indian Housing Program and the Housing Needs of Alaska Native Communities, May 23, 1992, Anchorage, AK, S. hrg 102-792, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1992, p. 320, ISBN 9780160392825
  163. ^ Woodford, Riley (May 2020). "Record Herring Event Highlights Roe on Kelp Fishery". Alaska Fish & Wildlife News. Alaska Department of Fish and Game.
  164. ^ Mackovjak (2022), p. 166.
  165. ^ Schroeder & Kookesh (1990), pp. 2, 7.
  166. ^ Schroeder & Kookesh (1990), p. 4.
  167. ^ a b Schroeder & Kookesh (1990), p. 6.
  168. ^ a b c Haggan, Nigel; Beattie, Alasdair I.; Pauly, Daniel (1999). "Back to the Future: Reconstructing the Hecate Strait Ecosystem". Fisheries Centre Research Report. 7 (3). Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia: 43. doi:10.14288/1.0074777. (downloadable pdf)
  169. ^ French explorer Étienne Marchand [fr] during his expedition abord the Solide (1790–92) witnessed the "Tchinkitanay" (Sitka Tlingit) eating lumps of dried fish eggs, assumed to be herring roe.[166] The German Aurel Krauseduring his 1881–82 voyage reached Sitaka on 25 April 1882, reported that "Everywher along the beach I see fisheggs {herring eggs} being dried on strings hung up between poles. Some fisheggs are spread on rocks and cloths".[167] Jefferson Franklin Moser (1899) also said that various tribes came to Sitka Sound in April when the "herring.. deposit [their: eggs in the sea grass, rockweed", and the "Indians [place] hemlock twigs at the low-water mark..after which they are gathered in canoe loads". He claims the name "Alask grapes" had been conferred on the edible egg clusters. And that the natives eat it with "rancid oil"[167] (cf. candlefish oil[168]).
  170. ^ Thornton, Thomas F. (2011), Being and Place among the Tlingit, University of Washington Press, p. 125, ISBN 0295800402
  171. ^ a b c Turner, Nancy J. (2004), Plants of Haida Gwaii, Illustrated by Florence Edenshaw Davidson, Winlaw, B.C.: Sono Nis Press, pp. 197–199, ISBN 1-55039-144-5
  172. ^ Higashidōri mura Suisan shinkō group (July–September 2017). "Taiheiyō ni ukabu ritō Haida Guwai no suisanbutsu no riyō" 太平洋に浮かぶ離島ハイダグワイの水産物の利用 (PDF). Suisan News 水産ニュース. 4: 2.
  173. ^ Turner (2004), pp. 95, 207, 264 notes that John James Enrico (doctorate in 1980) theorized Desmarestia intermedia.
  174. ^ "Parts of the young man's story told by Walter McGregor of the Qā'ial lā'nas">Swanton, John R. (1905). Haida Texts and Myths, Skidegate Dialect. U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 135.
  175. ^ Turner, Nancy J. (1995). "Western Hemlock (Pine Family) Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg. (Pinaceae)". Food Plants of Coastal First Peoples. Royal British Columbia Museum Handbook 34. University of B. C. Press. pp. 33–35. ISBN 0774805331.
  176. ^ Thornton, Thomas F. (2021), "II. Ethnographic Synthesis: Cultural Significance and Management of Herring", Herring Synthesis: Documenting and Modeling Herring Spawning Areas within Socio-Ecological Systems Over Time in the Southeastern Gulf of Alaska (PDF), North Pacific Research Board Project No. 728, pp. 56–58
  177. ^ There are variants to the origin myth, differing in the charcters involved, etc.; two examples are given in a paper.[176]
  178. ^ Dunn, John Asher (1978) A Practical Dictionary of the Coast Tsimshian Language, s.v. "[1]
  179. ^ Ohshima, George [in Japanese] (20 November 1985). "カナダ北西岸インディアンの生活 : ポート・シンプソンの伝統的食糧" [The Life of Northwest Coast Indian in Canada, Traditional Foods of Port Simpson] (PDF). 人文論究. 35 (3): 31. hdl:10236/5722.
  180. ^ Dunn, John Asher (1978) A Practical Dictionary of the Coast Tsimshian Language, s.v. "[2]: "kelp (algae grinnella), a flat-leaf kelp used to collect xs'waanx"; online edition gives "Scientific name: Macrocystis integrifolia".
  181. ^ Dunn's dictionary identifies gyoos as kelp with the Latin name Grinella, which is obsolete taxon, and the online version supplements this to be Macrocystis (i.e. giant kelp).[180]
  182. ^ Wright & Chythlook (1985), p. i.
  183. ^ a b Jacobson, Steven A. (2012). "herring egg/~on kelp; herring roe". Yupʼik Eskimo Dictionary. Alaska Native Language Center, University of Alaska Fairbanks. ISBN 9781555001155., excerpted in Alaska Native Language Center Publications (catalog) 2012–2013
  184. ^ Wright & Chythlook (1985), pp. ii, 25.
  185. ^ Pete, Mary C.; Kreher, Ronald E. (December 1986), Subsistence herring fishing in the Nelson Island District 1986 (PDF), Technical Paper No. 144, Bethel, Alaska: Alaska Department of Fish and Game, p. 41
  186. ^ Pete & Kreher (1986), p. 39.
  187. ^ Raymond-Yakoubian (2013), p. 42.
  188. ^ Storing herring in seal oil inside pokes is common also to Iñupiat Eskimo interviewed in Shishmaref, Alaska.[187]
  189. ^ Raymond-Yakoubian, Julie (2013), When the fish come, we go fishing: Local Ecological Knowledge of Non-Salmon Fish Used for Subsistence in the Bering Strait Region (PDF), Kawerak, Inc. Social Science Program, Natural Resources Division, pp. 107–108, 120–121 (Sections on Stebbins)
  190. ^ Raymond-Yakoubian (2013), sections on Shishmaref, pp. 41–42; [sections on Brevig Mission, pp. 72–73; sections on Teller, pp. 98–99
  191. ^ a b Chiri, Mashiho, ed. (1953). "§113 Hanaudo Heracleum lanatum Michx." §113 ハナウド. Bunrui Ainugo jiten dai-1kan shokubutsu-hen 分類アイヌ語辞典第1巻植物編. Nihon Jōmin Bunka Kenkyūjo. e-text@Kanagwa Univ.
  192. ^ Büttner, Richard, ed. (2001). "Heracleum lanatum". Mansfeld's Encyclopedia of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops. Vol. 1. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 1325. ISBN 9783540410171.
  193. ^ Although Chiri's dictionary gives the species Heracleum lanatum and Japanese: hanaudo,[191] this scientific name is now matched with ōhanaudo, whereas hanaudo is Heracleum sphondylium only distributed further south than Hokkaido. Heracleum dulce given by Williams is another synonym for H. lanatum.[192]
  194. ^ a b Tanigawa, Ken'ichi [in Japanese] (1997). Kita no minzokushi: Saharin・Chishima no minzoku 北の民俗誌: サハリン・千島の民族. San-ichi Publishing. pp. 440, 467. ISBN 9784380975288.
  195. ^ a b Williams, Dai (2017). Ainu Ethnobotany (PDF). Society of Ethnobotany. pp. 197–199. ISBN 978-0-9887330-7-7.
  196. ^ Fukuoka, Itoko (1995). Aomi to shokubutsu アイヌと植物. Illustrated by Sato, Hisako. Sōfūkan. pp. 42–43. ISBN 9784883230792.
  197. ^ Chiri (1953), p. 24.
  198. ^ Fukuoka (1995), p. 180.
  199. ^ Williams instead writes the "gruel" is "given to a mother whose milk supply had ceased",[195] but such attributes are noted for tsuru ninjin (ツルニンジン, Codonopsis lanceolata).[197][198]
  200. ^ a b Tsuji, Momoko [in Japanese]; Abe, Genki (2016), Ichiban wakariyasui haiku saijiki いちばんわかりやすい俳句歳時記, Shufu no tomo sha, p. 412, ISBN 9784074184323

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