List of atheists in science and technology

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This is a list of atheists in science and technology. Per wikipedia policy WP:BLPCAT, persons in this list are people (living or not) who have publicly identified themselves as atheists or have been historically known to be atheists and whose atheism is relevant to their notable activities or public life. A mere statement by a person that he or she does not believe in God does not meet the criteria for inclusion on this list. Their atheism must be relevant to their notable activities or public life in order to be included on this list.

Science and technology[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ "Prominent Russians: Zhores Alferov". RT.com. Retrieved 21 April 2012. In public life the scientist is a strong supporter of communism, an atheist strongly objecting to advancement of religious education in Russia, and proponent of science and knowledge as the means to see a better future. 
  2. ^ "Zhores I. Alferov". NNDB.com. Retrieved 21 April 2012. 
  3. ^ Willem B. Drees (1990). Beyond the Big Bang: Quantum Cosmologies and God. Open Court Publishing. pp. 22–24. ISBN 9780812691184. 
  4. ^ "Sometime after this, Hannes Alfvén was brought to the presence of Prime Minister Ben-Gurion. The latter was curious about this young Swedish scientist who was being much talked about. After a good chat, Ben Gurion came right to the point: "Do you believe in God?" Now, Hannes Alfvén was not quite prepared for this. So he considered his answer for a few brief seconds. But Ben-Gurion took his silence to be a "No." So he said: "Better scientist than you believes in God."" As told by Hannes Alfvén to Asoka Mendis, Hannes Alfvén Birth Centennial.
  5. ^ "Nuclear power is uniquely unforgiving: as Swedish Nobel physicist Hannes Alfvén said, "No acts of God can be permitted."" Amory Lovins, Inside NOVA – Nuclear After Japan: Amory Lovins, pbs.org.
  6. ^ "Alfven dismissed in his address religion as a "myth," and passionately criticized the big-bang theory for being dogmatic and violating basic standards of science, to be no less mythical than religion." Helge Kragh, Matter and Spirit in the Universe: Scientific and Religious Preludes to Modern Cosmology (2004), page 252.
  7. ^ Philip W. Anderson (2011). "Imaginary Friend, Who Art in Heaven". More and Different: Notes from a Thoughtful Curmudgeon. World Scientific. p. 177. ISBN 9789814350129. We atheists can, as he does, argue that, with the modern revolution in attitudes toward homosexuals, we have become the only group that may not reveal itself in normal social discourse. 
  8. ^ "The same Arago who spent his time criticizing unfounded myths now peddled them. Arago the atheist now spoke of souls." Theresa Levitt, The shadow of enlightenment: optical and political transparency in France, 1789–1848, page 105.
  9. ^ Gordon Stein (1988). The encyclopedia of unbelief. 1. Prometheus Books. p. 594. ISBN 9780879753078. Svante Arrhenius (I859-I927), recipient of the Nobel Prize in chemistry (I903), was a declared atheist and the author of The Evolution of the Worlds and other works on cosmic physics. 
  10. ^ NNDB.com. "Svante Arrhenius". Soylent Communications. Retrieved 11 September 2012. 
  11. ^ Asprey 2014, pp. 110, 349.
  12. ^ When asked by Rod Liddle in the documentary The Trouble with Atheism "Give me your views on the existence, or otherwise, of God", Peter Atkins replied "Well it's fairly straightforward: there isn't one. And there's no evidence for one, no reason to believe that there is one, and so I don't believe that there is one. And I think that it is rather foolish that people do think that there is one."The Trouble with Atheism, UK Channel 4 TV .
  13. ^ "In religious matters he was an atheist." A.G. MacGregor: "Bailey, Edward Battersby", Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography Vol. 1 p. 393. Detroit: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2008.
  14. ^ Noel G. Charlton (2008). Understanding Gregory Bateson: mind, beauty, and the sacred earth. SUNY Press. p. 29. ISBN 9780791474525. This was to be the last large-scale work of lifelong atheist Bateson, seeking to understand the meaning of the sacred. 
  15. ^ "A confirmed agnostic, he [Bateson] was converted to atheism after attending a dinner where he tried to converse with a woman who was a creationist. "For many years what had been good enough for Darwin was good enough for me. Not long after that dreadful dinner, Richard Dawkins wrote to me to ask whether I would publicly affirm my atheism. I could see no reason why not." " Lewis Smith, 'Science has second thoughts about life', The Times (London), January 1, 2008, Pg. 24.
  16. ^ "William Bateson was a very militant atheist and a very bitter man, I fancy. Knowing that I was interested in biology, they invited me when I was still a school girl to go down and see the experimental garden. I remarked to him what I thought then, and still think, that doing research must be the most wonderful thing in the world and he snapped at me that it wasn’t wonderful at all, it was tedious, disheartening, annoying and anyhow you didn’t need an experimental garden to do research." Interview with Dr. Cecilia Gaposchkin by Owen Gingerich, March 5, 1968.
  17. ^ George Beadle, An Uncommon Farmer: The Emergence of Genetics in the 20th Century. CSHL Press. 2003. p. 273. ISBN 9780879696887. Beadle's views on this occasion were somewhat more tempered than David's characterization of him as a "vehement atheist," and from his earliest days "intolerant of religion and other forms of superstition.
  18. ^ John Ellis, D. Amati (2000). "Biographical notes on John Bell". Quantum Reflections. Cambridge University Press. p. xi. ISBN 9780521630085. Retrieved 4 February 2017. By now, he was also a 'Protestant Atheist', which he remained all his life. 
  19. ^ Andrew Whitaker; Mary Bell; Shan Gao (Sep 19, 2016). "1 – John Bell – The Irish Connection". Quantum Nonlocality and Reality: 50 Years of Bell's Theorem. Cambridge University Press. p. 8. ISBN 9781107104341. John Bell was certainly not interested in Protestantism as such – his wife Mary [33] has reported that he was an atheist most of his life. 
  20. ^ "The Bernals were originally Sephardic Jews who came to Ireland in 1840 from Spain via Amsterdam and London. They converted to Catholicism and John was Jesuit-educated. John enthusiastically supported the Easter Rising and, as a boy, he organised a Society for Perpetual Adoration. He moved away from religion as an adult, becoming an atheist." William Reville, John Desmond Bernal – The Sage.
  21. ^ Robert K. Wilcox (2010). The Truth About the Shroud of Turin: Solving the Mystery. Regnery Gateway. p. 23. ISBN 9781596986008. In 1902, Marcellin P. Berthelot, often called the founder of modern organic chemistry, was one of France's most celebrated scientists—if not the world's. He was permanent secretary of the French Academy, having succeeded the giant Louis Pasteur, the renowned microbiologist. Unlike Delage, an agnostic, Berthelot was an atheist—and militantly so. 
  22. ^ Thomas de Wesselow (2012). The Sign: The Shroud of Turin and the Secret of the Resurrection. Penguin. ISBN 9781101588550. Although Delage made it clear that he did not regard Jesus as the resurrected Son of God, his paper upset the atheist members of the Academy, including its secretary, Marcellin Berthelot, who prevented its full publication in the Academy's bulletin. 
  23. ^ a b "Napoleon replies: "How comes it, then, that Laplace was an atheist? At the Institute neither he nor Monge, nor Berthollet, nor Lagrange believed in God. But they did not like to say so." Baron Gaspard Gourgaud, Talks of Napoleon at St. Helena with General Baron Gourgaud (1904), page 274.
  24. ^ Horgan, J. (1992) Profile: Hans A. Bethe – Illuminator of the Stars, Scientific American 267(4), 32–40.
  25. ^ Denis Brian (2001). The Voice Of Genius: Conversations With Nobel Scientists And Other Luminaries. Basic Books. p. 117. ISBN 9780738204475. Bethe: "I am an atheist." 
  26. ^ Larry Hannant (1998). The Politics of Passion: Norman Bethune's Writing and Art. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 978-0-8020-0907-4. Bethune was a communist and an atheist with a healthy contempt for his evangelical father. 
  27. ^ "The grandson of a vicar on his father’s side, Blackett respected religious observances that were established social customs, but described himself as agnostic or atheist." Mary Jo Nye: "Blackett, Patrick Maynard Stuart." Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography, Vol. 19 p. 293. Detroit: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2008.
  28. ^ Simmons, John (1996). The Scientific 100: a rankings of the most influential scientists, past and present. Carol Publishing Group. p. 16. ISBN 978-0-8065-1749-0. His mother was warm and intelligent, and his father, as Bohr himself later recalled, recognized "that something was expected of me." The family was not at all devout, and Bohr became an atheist who regarded religious thought as harmful and misguided. 
  29. ^ J. Faye; H. Folse, eds. (2010). Niels Bohr and Contemporary Philosophy. Springer. p. 88. ISBN 9789048142996. Planck was religious and had a firm belief in God; Bohr was not, but his objection to Planck's view had no anti-religious motive. 
  30. ^ Ray Spangenburg; Diane Kit Moser (2008). Niels Bohr: Atomic Theorist (2 ed.). Infobase Publishing. p. 37. ISBN 9780816061785. Niels had quietly resigned his membership in the Lutheran Church the previous April. Although he had sought out religion as a child, by the time of their marriage he no longer “was taken” by it, as he put it. “And for me it was exactly the same,” Margrethe later explained. “[Interest in religion] disappeared completely,” although at the time of their wedding, she was still a member of the Lutheran Church. (Niels's parents were also married in a civil, not a religious, ceremony, and Harald also resigned his membership in the Lutheran Church just before his wedding, a few years later.) 
  31. ^ Science and Religion in Dialogue, Two Volume Set. John Wiley & Sons. p. 416. ISBN 9781405189217. On the other hand Bohr wrote of his admiration for the writing and presentation of Kierkegaard – at the same time stating he could not accept some of it. Part of this may have followed from Kierkegaard being a very avowed, yet rather circuitous proponent of a costly Christian faith, while after a youth of confirming faith Bohr himself was a non-believer. 
  32. ^ Larry Witham (2006). The Measure of God: History's Greatest Minds Wrestle with Reconciling Science and Religion. HarperCollins. pp. 138–139. ISBN 9780060858339. "Bohr's atheism, the counterpiece of Einstein's monotheism, ... was more affined to traditional Far Eastern philosophy,” according to Stent. ...The young Bohr thus lived in two worlds, but mostly the cultural Christianity of the Danish middle class. As a young man, he had read Søren Kierkegaard, a fellow Dane and a Christian existentialist from the nineteenth century, with some enthusiasm. But he finally faced a religious crisis, and by the time he went to England to study physics, the idea of God had lost its appeal. The aim of life was happiness, he wrote his fiancée, making it impossible “that a person must beg from and bargain with fancied powers infinitely stronger than himself." ... In his only published paper on the topic of religion, Bohr spoke not of deities and doctrines but of psychological experience. 
  33. ^ Gunther S. Stent; Balazs Hargittai; István Hargittai (2005). Candid Science V: Conversations with Famous Scientists. Imperial College Press. p. 518. ISBN 9781860945052. Gunther S. Stent: "Niels Bohr was one of the few five-star scientists who really was an atheist — and not merely paying lip service to atheism." 
  34. ^ John L. Heilbron; Finn Aaserud (2013). Love, Literature and the Quantum Atom: Niels Bohr's 1913 Trilogy Revisited. Oxford University Press. pp. 159–160. ISBN 9780191669736. A statement about religion in the loose notes on Kierkegaard may throw light on the notion of wildness that appears in many of Bohr's letters. “I, who do not feel in any way united with, and even less, bound to a God, and therefore am also much poorer [than Kierkegaard], would say that the good [is] the overall lofty goal, as only by being good [can one] judge according to worth and right.” 
  35. ^ Finn Aaserud; John L. Heilbron (2013). "Part 2. Nascent Science". Love, Literature and the Quantum Atom: Niels Bohr's 1913 Trilogy Revisited. Oxford University Press. p. 110. ISBN 9780199680283. Bohr's sort of humor, use of parables and stories, tolerance, dependence on family, feelings of indebtedness, obligation, and guilt, and his sense of responsibility for science, community, and, ultimately, humankind in general, are common traits of the Jewish intellectual. So too is a well-fortified atheism. Bohr ended with no religious belief and a dislike of all religions that claimed to base their teachings on revelations. 
  36. ^ "Since his childhood in Vienna Bondi had been an atheist, developing from an early age a view on religion that associated it with repression and intolerance. This view, which he shared with Hoyle, never left him. On several occasions he spoke out on behalf of freethinking, so-called, and became early on active in British atheist or "humanist" circles. From 1982 to 1999, he was president of the British Humanist Association, and he also served as president of the Rationalist Press Association of United Kingdom." Helge Kragh: "Bondi, Hermann", Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography Vol. 19 p. 343. Detroit: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2008. Accessed via Gale Virtual Reference Library Archived 2008-05-27 at the Wayback Machine. April 29, 2008.
  37. ^ In a letter to the Guardian, Jane Wynne Willson, Vice-President of the British Humanist Association, added to his obituary: "Also president of the Rationalist Press Association from 1982 until his death, and with a particular interest in Indian rationalism, Hermann was a strong supporter of the Atheist Centre in Andhra Pradesh. He and his wife Christine visited the centre a number of times, and the hall in the science museum there bears his name. When presented with a prestigious international award, he divided a large sum of money between the Atheist Centre and women's health projects in Mumbai." Obituary letter: Hermann Bondi, Guardian, September 23, 2005 (accessed April 29, 2008).
  38. ^ Boyer, Paul. "A Path to Atheism". Freedom From Religion Foundation. Retrieved February 3, 2007.
  39. ^ István Hargittai; Magdolna Hargittai (2006-10-23). Candid Science VI: More Conversations with Famous Scientists. Books.google.com. p. 32. Retrieved 2016-12-01.
  40. ^ "...he always remained true to his own concepts and ideals and did not dissimulate. His open designation of himself as "atheist" in "Who's Who in America" and his opposition to the invasion of the Soviet Union by the Allies..." H J Muller, 'Dr. Calvin B. Bridges', Nature 143, 191–192 (04 Feb 1939).
  41. ^ "Percy Williams Bridgman". NNDB.com. Retrieved 24 April 2012. He was raised in the Congregational Church, but faith in God clashed with his well-known analytical nature and he told his family as a young man that he could not in good conscience become a church member. 
  42. ^ Maila L. Walter (1990). Science and Cultural Crisis: An Intellectual Biography of Percy Williams Bridgman (1882–1961). Stanford University Press. pp. 14–15. ISBN 978-0-8047-1796-0. Raymond Bridgman was extremely disappointed with his son's rejection of his religious views. Near the end of his life, however, he offered a conciliatory interpretation that allowed him to accept Percy's commitment to honesty and integrity as a moral equivalent to religion. 
  43. ^ Ray Monk (2013). Robert Oppenheimer: A Life Inside the Center. Random House LLC. ISBN 9780385504133. In many ways they were opposites; Kemble, the theorist, was a devout Christian, while Bridgman, the experimentalist, was a strident atheist. 
  44. ^ "Paul Broca (1824–80)". sciencemuseum.org.uk. Retrieved 12 April 2012. He was a left-wing atheist who argued against African enslavement. 
  45. ^ Evans, James; Thorndike, Alan S. (2007). Quantum Mechanics at the Crossroads: New Perspectives From History, Philosophy And Physics. Springer. p. 71. ISBN 9783540326632. Asked to join Le Conseil de l'Union Catholique des Scientifiques Français, Louis declined because, he said, he had ceased the religious practices of his youth. 
  46. ^ Kimball, John (2015). Physics Curiosities, Oddities, and Novelties. CRC Press. p. 323. ISBN 978-1-4665-7636-0.
  47. ^ "Although in her youth she had shared her father's Zionist sympathies, she was not otherwise involved in Jewish affairs and was by conviction an atheist." 'BRUNSWICK, Ruth Jane Mack (Feb. 17, 1897-Jan. 24, 1946)' in Notable American Women: 1607–1950. Retrieved August 01, 2008, from Credo Reference
  48. ^ "College Roll: Burnet, Sir Frank Macfarlane." RACP: College Roll. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Jan. 2017. "He...developed a fairly aggressive atheism."
  49. ^ http://www.ucl.ac.uk/ani/Prof/Most%20Highly%20Cited%20Scientist.pdf
  50. ^ The Telegraph – Professor Sir Paul Callaghan https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/obituaries/science-obituaries/9169952/Professor-Sir-Paul-Callaghan.html "Callaghan was brought up a Methodist, but showed a typically scientific interest in other faiths, trying out Anglicanism, Catholicism and Marxism, before finally settling for atheism."
  51. ^ Carroll, Sean "Science and Religion Can’t Be Reconciled. Why I won’t take money from the Templeton Foundation." Slate. May 9, 2013. Retrieved May 6, 2015.
  52. ^ Michael Martin (2007). The Cambridge Companion to Atheism. Cambridge University Press. p. 310. ISBN 9780521842709. "Among celebrity atheists with much biographical data, we find leading psychologists and psychoanalysts. We could provide a long list, including...Raymond B. Cattell..."
  53. ^ Andrew Brown (1997). The neutron and the bomb: a biography of Sir James Chadwick. Oxford University Press. p. 362. ISBN 9780198539926. He was a lifelong atheist and felt no need to develop religious faith as he approached the end of his life. 
  54. ^ "In his later years, Chandra had openly admitted to being an atheist which also meant that he subscribed to no religion in the customary sense of the word." Vishveshwara, S. 2000. Leaves from an unwritten diary: S. Chandrasekhar, Reminiscences and Reflections, Current Science, 78(8):1025–1033.
  55. ^ Kameshwar C. Wali (1991). Chandra: A Biography of Chandrasekhar. University of Chicago Press. p. 304. ISBN 9780226870557. SC: I am not religious in any sense; in fact, I consider myself an atheist. 
  56. ^ "Interview with Dr. S. Chandrasekhar". American Institute of Physics. 
  57. ^ "Georges Charpak". NNDB.com. Retrieved 17 July 2012. 
  58. ^ Charpak, Georges, and Henri Broch. Debunked!: ESP, telekinesis, and other pseudoscience. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins U Press, 2004. Print.
  59. ^ Chertok, B. E. Rockets and people. Washington, D.C.: NASA, 2005. Print. "I have always considered myself a diehard atheist and materialist..."
  60. ^ John Snygg (2011). A New Approach to Differential Geometry Using Clifford's Geometric Algebra. Springer. p. 111. ISBN 9780817682828. However, the dogmatic position of the Anglican Church against Darwin's theory of evolution induced him to reexamine his beliefs. He soon evolved into an agnostic and then an atheist. 
  61. ^ Kroto, Harold (2015). "Sir John Cornforth ('Kappa'): Some Personal Recollections". Australian Journal of Chemistry. 68 (4): 697–698. doi:10.1071/CH14601. 
  62. ^ "Yet they [the NCSE] can afford to ignore us because, in the end, where else can we atheists go for support against creationists? [...] Am I grousing because, as an atheist and a non-accommodationist, my views are simply ignored by the NAS and NCSE? Not at all. I don't want these organizations to espouse or include my viewpoint. I want religion and atheism left completely out of all the official discourse of scientific societies and organizations that promote evolution." Jerry Coyne, 'Truckling to the Faithful: A Spoonful of Jesus Helps Darwin Go Down', April 22, 2009 (accessed 23 April 2009).
  63. ^ Francis Crick, What Mad Pursuit: a Personal View of Scientific Discovery, Basic Books reprint edition, 1990, ISBN 0-465-09138-5, p. 145.
  64. ^ "How I Got Inclined Towards Atheism". Positiveatheism.org. Archived from the original on 2012-05-21. Retrieved 2012-06-03. 
  65. ^ Mark Steyn identify Crick as an atheist. See:The Twentieth-Century Darwin by Mark Steyn, published in The Atlantic Monthly, October 2004.
  66. ^ "Francis Crick was an evangelical atheist."Francis Crick's Legacy for Neuroscience: Between the α and the Ω
  67. ^ "Instead, it is interlaced with descriptions of Crick’s vacations, parties and assertions of atheism — occasionally colorful stuff that drains the intellectual drama from the codebreaking."Genome Human
  68. ^ "There is Crick the mentor, Crick the atheist, Crick the free-thinker, and Crick the playful."Entertaining Dr Crick
  69. ^ Crick, 86, said: "The god hypothesis is rather discredited." Do our genes reveal the hand of God?
  70. ^ "George Washington Crile". The Educational Broadcasting Corporation. 2002. Retrieved 10 September 2012. Although both parents were English Lutherans, Crile, after reading Paine, Ingersoll, and Voltaire in his college years, became a lifelong atheist, devoted to the concept of intellectual freedom. 
  71. ^ Warren Allen Smith (2000). Who's who in hell: a handbook and international directory for humanists, freethinkers, naturalists, rationalists, and non-theists. Barricade Books. p. 259. ISBN 9781569801581. Retrieved 4 February 2017. Curie, Pierre (1859—1906) A codiscoverer of radium, Pierre Curie was an atheist. 
  72. ^ Jonathan Israel (2011). Democratic Enlightenment: Philosophy, Revolution, and Human Rights 1750–1790. Oxford University Press. p. 115. ISBN 978-0-19-954820-0. D'Alembert, though privately an atheist and materialist, presented the respectable public face of 'la philosophie' in the French capital while remaining henceforth uninterruptedly aligned with Voltaire. 
  73. ^ James E. Force; Richard Henry Popkin (1990). James E. Force; Richard Henry Popkin, eds. Essays on the Context, Nature, and Influence of Isaac Newton's Theology. Springer. p. 167. ISBN 9780792305835. Unlike the French and English deists, and unlike the scientific atheists such as Diderot, d'Alembert, and d'Holbach,... 
  74. ^ "She advised him that he risked being called up, and suggested an unusual way to avoid the draft – by becoming a priest, one of the categories exempt from military service. Dalton discovered a little-known religious group called the Universal Life Church of California which for $25 would "ordain" anyone. He duly sent off a cheque and within days was delighted to learn that he was now a bona fide Minister of Religion. It became a running joke and his friends frequently addressed letters to the Reverend Howard Dalton; as a life-long atheist, he particularly relished the irony of his new title." 'Obituary of Professor Sir Howard Dalton, Microbiologist who became Defra's Chief Scientific Adviser just after the foot-and-mouth outbreak', Daily Telegraph January 15, 2008, Pg. 25.
  75. ^ Dawkins identifies himself as an atheist in his article "A Challenge to Atheists: Come Out of the Closet," Free Inquiry, Summer 2002. Excerpt reprinted at Positiveatheism.org Archived 2008-05-09 at the Wayback Machine.
  76. ^ Michael Ruse (2010). "Introductory Essay for Life Evolving: Molecules, Mind, and Meaning". International Society for Science & Religion. Retrieved 18 November 2013. 
  77. ^ John Farrell (5 August 2013). "A Nobel Laureate And Proponent Of Original Sin". Forbes. Retrieved 18 November 2013. 
  78. ^ "Nobel-winning cancer researcher ends his own life". ABC. 7 May 2013. Retrieved 18 November 2013. 
  79. ^ Martin Childs (14 May 2013). "Christian de Duve: Authority on cell mechanisms". The Independent. London. Retrieved 18 November 2013. 
  80. ^ John Beloff (1997). Parapsychology: A Concise History. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 47. ISBN 9780312173760. "He seems an unlikely convert considering that his atheistic views had debarred him from a position at Oxford or Cambridge but his involvement with spiritualism was partly due to his wife, Sophia."
  81. ^ "There is a word in our language with which I shall not confuse this subject, both on account of the dishonourable use which is frequently made of it, as an imputation thrown by one sect upon another, and of the variety of significations attached to it. I shall use the world Anti-Deism to signify the opinion that there does not exist a Creator who made and sustains the Universe." Augustus De Morgan, An essay on probabilities: and on their application to life contingencies and insurance offices (1838), page 22.
  82. ^ Memoir of Augustus De Morgan. Longmans, Green, and Company. 1882. p. 393. "So you called me an atheist vagabond, fancying that Voltaire was an atheist : he was, in fact, theistic to bigotry, and anti-revolutionist to the same extent."
  83. ^ "Denjoy was an atheist, but tolerant of others' religious views; he was very interested in philosophical, psychological, and social issues." "Denjoy, Arnaud", Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography Vol. 17, p.219. Detroit: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2008.
  84. ^ "First of all, I do not believe in the supernatural, so I take it for granted that consciousness has a material explanation. I also do not believe in insoluble problems, therefore I believe that this explanation is accessible in principle to reason, and that one day we will understand consciousness just as we today understand what life is, whereas once this was a deep mystery." David Deutsch in an interview with Philosophy Now magazine, Philosophy Now, December/January 2001 issue.
  85. ^ Werner Heisenberg recollects a friendly conversation among young participants at the 1927 Solvay Conference about Einstein's and Planck's views on religion. Wolfgang Pauli, Heisenberg and Dirac took part in it. Among other things, Dirac said: "I cannot understand why we idle discussing religion. If we are honest — and as scientists honesty is our precise duty — we cannot help but admit that any religion is a pack of false statements, deprived of any real foundation. The very idea of God is a product of human imagination.[...] I do not recognize any religious myth, at least because they contradict one another.[...]" Pauli jokingly said: "Well, I'd say that also our friend Dirac has got a religion and the first commandment of this religion is: God does not exist and Paul Dirac is his prophet." Physics and Beyond: Encounters and Conversations. New York: Harper & Row. ISBN 0-06-131622-9. 
  86. ^ a b "... I [Pauling] am not, however, militant in my atheism. The great English theoretical physicist Paul Dirac is a militant atheist. I suppose he is interested in arguing about the existence of God. I am not. It was once quipped that there is no God and Dirac is his prophet." Linus Pauling & Daisaku Ikeda (1992). A Lifeling Quest for Peace: A Dialogue. Jones & Bartlett. p. 22. ISBN 0-86720-277-7. 
  87. ^ Helge Kragh (1990). Dirac: A Scientific Biography. Cambridge University Press. pp. 256–257. ISBN 9780521380898. 
  88. ^ Sara Lippincott (August 30, 2009). "The Strangest Man: The Hidden Life of Paul Dirac, Mystic of the Atom' by Graham Farmelo". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 9 June 2012. Dirac was contemptuous of philosophy and, as many scientists do, professed atheism. But it was a narrow sort, mainly dismissive of religious orthodoxy. In notes he wrote in 1933, he embraces another creed: "[T]his article of faith is that the human race will continue to live for ever and will develop and progress without limit . . . Living is worthwhile if one can contribute in some small way to this endless chain of progress." 
  89. ^ Helen Brown (23 Jan 2009). "The Strangest Man: the Hidden Life of Paul Dirac by Graham Farmelo". The Telegraph. Retrieved 9 June 2012. Dirac’s story ends with a whimper. As a young man he had joked that physicists were all washed up by 30 and as he aged his powers waned. The Cambridge physics department took away his parking space and an outraged Manci insisted he take up a fellowship at Florida State University. He died in 1984, aged 82. An atheist, he was buried under a gravestone chosen by Manci. It read “because God said it should be so”. 
  90. ^ H. B. G. Casimir (2010). Haphazard Reality: Half a Century of Science. Amsterdam University Press. p. 151. ISBN 9789089642004. Kramers was certainly not a dogmatic atheist like, for instance, Dirac in his younger years, whose attitude was summed up by Pauli in one famous sentence: "Our friend Dirac has a religion; and the main tenet of that religion is: 'There is no God and Dirac was his prophet. 
  91. ^ "Carl Djerassi: The Steroid King." Carl Djerassi: The Steroid King. N.p., n.d. Web. 01 Oct. 2016. His parents were both Jewish, but although young Carl was bar mitzvahed, the family was not religiously observant. He characterizes himself as a "Jewish atheist."
  92. ^ Michel Meulders (2010). "5: Helmholtz and the Understanding of Nature". In Laurence Garey. Helmholtz: From Enlightenment to Neuroscience. MIT Press. p. 74. ISBN 9780262014489. Du Bois-Reymond was a self-proclaimed atheist but more through intimate conviction than logical necessity. 
  93. ^ Conversation of Eugene Dynkin with Sergei Kuznetsov, Ithaca, New York, July 25, 1999 http://dynkincollection.library.cornell.edu/sites/default/files/Dynkin%20and%20Kuznetsov%20July%2025,%201999-Final%20English%20transcript_0.pdf "I realized that the existence of God is not supported by scientific evidence and became an atheist."
  94. ^ Ronald Clark (2011). Einstein: The Life and Times. Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 9781448202706. That Einstein's attitude was the result more of muddle than agnostic scruple seems clear from a letter which he wrote less than two years later when Paul Ehrenfest ruled himself out from becoming Einstein's successor by roundly declaring himself an atheist. 
  95. ^ Thomas Levenson (2004). Einstein in Berlin. Random House of Canada. p. 172. ISBN 9780553378443. The man he had hoped would succeed him in Prague, Paul Ehrenfest, refiased to compromise his true atheist's principles. Einstein scolded him. "Your refusal to acknowledge a religious affiliation" was just this side of "willful stupidity," he assured him, with the benefit of recent experience. Once he became a professor Ehrenfest could revert to unbelief. 
  96. ^ Nielsen, Stevan Lars & Ellis, Albert. (1994). "A discussion with Albert Ellis: Reason, emotion and religion", Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 13(4), Win 1994. pp. 327–341
  97. ^ "Everett was a life-long atheist, but he did not let that stand in his way as St. John's was well-regarded academically and socially." Peter Byrne, The Many Worlds of Hugh Everett III: Multiple Universes, Mutual Assured Destruction, and the Meltdown of a Nuclear Family (2010), page 29.
  98. ^ Michael Martin (2007). The Cambridge Companion to Atheism. Cambridge University Press. p. 310. ISBN 9780521842709. Among celebrity atheists with much biographical data, we find leading psychologists and psychoanalysts. We could provide a long list, including...Hans Jürgen Eysenck... 
  99. ^ "The study of medicine also contributed to a loss of religious faith and to becoming atheist." Michael Heidelberger, Nature from within: Gustav Theodor Fechner and his psychophysical worldview, page 21.
  100. ^ "Festinger, a professed atheist, was an original thinker and a restless, highly motivated individual with (in his words) "little tolerance for boredom". " Franz Samelson: "Festinger, Leon", American National Biography Online, Feb. 2000 (accessed April 28, 2008) [1].
  101. ^ Denis Brian (2008). The Voice of Genius: Conversations with Nobel Scientists and Other Luminaries. Basic Books. p. 49. ISBN 9780465011391. Interviewer: Do you call yourself an agnostic or an atheist? Feynman: An atheist. Agnostic for me would be trying to weasel out and sound a little nicer than I am about this. 
  102. ^ Feynman was of Jewish birth, but described himself as "an avowed atheist" by his early youth in Freethought of the Day, Freedom From Religion Foundation, May 11, 2006.
  103. ^ "Having abandoned the tenets of Judaism at 13, he never wavered in his gentle atheism, nor in his determination to stay away from matters about which he had opinions but no expertise." John Morrish reviewing the collection of Feynman's letters Don't You Have Time to Think?, "Particle Physics: The Route to Pop Stardom", Independent on Sunday (London), July 24, 2005, p. 21.
  104. ^ "His Methodist upbringing soon turned into a thoroughgoing humanistic atheism. This freed him for the sympathetic study of exotic religions, and for discussions of the role of faith in the anthropologist's own perceptions. He tended to feel a sort of good-natured intolerance of the religious beliefs of his friends and colleagues." Obituary: Professor Sir Raymond Firth, The Times (London), February 26, 2002.
  105. ^ "James Franck was born in Hamburg, the son of a Jewish banker. ...As he said, science was his God and nature his religion. He did not insist that his daughters attend religious instruction classes (Religionsunterricht) in school. But he was very proud of his Jewish heritage..." David Nachmansohn, German-Jewish pioneers in science, 1900–1933: highlights in atomic physics, chemistry, and biochemistry, page 62.
  106. ^ "[Freud and Jung] were close for several years, but Jung's ambition, and his growing commitment to religion and mysticism — most unwelcome to Freud, an aggressive atheist — finally drove them apart." Sigmund Freud, by Peter Gay, The TIME 100: The Most Important People of the Century.
  107. ^ "Nobel laureate Friedman: Time travel is not possible." Merinews. Web. 15 Jan. 2017. <http://www.merinews.com/article/nobel-laureate-friedman-time-travel-is-not-possible/153326.shtml>. "An atheist himself, Friedman refused to answer theological questions..."
  108. ^ Atlantseglaren från Bromma vill tänja gränsen mot rymden Archived 2007-10-16 at the Wayback Machine., Dagens Nyheter, December 10, 2006.
  109. ^ ANDERSON: "What, uh, one thing I’m fascinated with is, of course, George Gamow left the university in ’59 [1956], and Edward Teller had left in 1946 [1945] and went to the University of Chicago. But do you have any recollections of maybe some of the, anything between Dr. Marvin and Dr. Gamow, as far as, just before he left and went to Colorado?" NAESER: "Ah, no, I don’t know of any. I know Gamow made no, never did hide the fact that he was an atheist, but whether that came into the picture, I don’t know. But the story around the university was that Gamow and Mrs. Gamow were divorced, but they were in the same social circles some of the time, he thought it was better to get out of Washington. That’s why he went to Ohio State." The George Washington University and Foggy Bottom Historical Encyclopedia, Gamow, George and Edward Teller Archived 2010-06-13 at the Wayback Machine., October 23, 1996.
  110. ^ Grote Reber. "The Big Bang Is Bunk" (PDF). 21st Century Science Associates. p. 44. Retrieved 28 May 2012. After the initial mathematical work on relativity the ory had been done, the Big Bang theory itself was invented by a Belgian priest, Georges lemaitre, im proved upon by an avowed atheist, George Gamow, and is now all but universally accepted by those who hold advanced degrees in astronomy and the physical sciences, despite its obvious absurdity. 
  111. ^ Simon Singh (2010). Big Bang. HarperCollins UK. ISBN 9780007375509. Surprisingly, the atheist George Gamow enjoyed the Papal attention given to his field of research. 
  112. ^ Jane Gregory (2005). "Fighting for space". Fred Hoyle's Universe. Oxford University Press. p. 71. ISBN 9780191578465. Gamow was, like Hoyle, an atheist, but he was familiar with organized religion: his grandfather was the Metropolitan, the senior bishop, of Odessa Cathedral. 
  113. ^ Ramesh Chopra (2005). Academic Dictionary Of Philosophy. Gyan Books. p. 143. ISBN 9788182052246. Renowned French chemist. He was one of the greatest chemists in Europe at the time. He made innumerable discoveries in the science, and even the restored royalty made him a Peer of France, although he worked politically with the anti-clericals. He was closely associated with Arago and shared his atheism. 
  114. ^ Giaever, Ivar (November 2016). "I Am The Smartest Man I Know": A Nobel Laureate's Difficult Journey. World Scientific. ISBN 978-981-3109-17-9. 
  115. ^ Matlock, Mark. Raising Wise Children: Handing Down the Story of Wisdom. 2012. Print. "Elkhonon Goldberg, who refers to himself as an atheist with agnostic tendencies..."
  116. ^ Paolo Mazzarello; Henry A. Buchtel; Aldo Badiani (1999). The hidden structure: a scientific biography of Camillo Golgi. Oxford University Press. p. 34. ISBN 978-0-19-852444-1. It was probably during this period that Golgi became agnostic (or even frankly atheistic), remaining for the rest of his life completely alien to the religious experience.
  117. ^ Rapport, Richard L. Nerve Endings: The Discovery of the Synapse. New York: W.W. Norton, 2005. Print.
  118. ^ What I don't like about Richard [Dawkins] is not so much what he knows or doesn't know as the dogmatic way in which he says things. I think that is a poor advertisement for science, because the whole thing about being a scientist is that you shouldn't be prejudiced, you should have an open mind. So, I don't believe in God but that is a belief, not some thing I know. I believe I love my husband, but I couldn't prove it to you one way or the other. How could I? I just know I do. My particular belief is that there is no Deity out there, but I can't prove it and therefore I would not have the temerity to tell other people they're wrong. The coinage of proof is not appropriate for belief and Dawkins thinks it is. But if you keep an open mind, that doesn't mean you swallow anything whole. As someone has said, 'Believing in anything is as bad as believing in nothing.' 'Brain Teaser: Susan Greenfield talks to Peter McCarthy Archived 2012-07-29 at Archive.is', Third Way, November 2000.
  119. ^ Grosch, Herbert (July 15, 1970). "Smithsonian National Museum of American History – Computer Oral History Collection, 1969–1973, 1977 – Interview with Herbert R. Grosch" (PDF). Retrieved 12 April 2012. I made them quit essentially. When I was nine years old I decided that I was an atheist. So I told them, "Well you shouldn't go to church anymore, it's silly." Well, apparently they'd been going to church primarily for my benefit. So after I refused to go, they quit going too. 
  120. ^ Krauss, Lawrence Maxwell. Hiding in the Mirror: The Quest for Alternate Realities, from Plato to String Theory (by Way of Alice in Wonderland, Einstein, and the Twilight Zone). New York: Penguin, 2006. Print.
  121. ^ http://www.hri.org/news/greek/apeen/2015/15-10-01.apeen.html "He also said that he is atheist and humanist"
  122. ^ "Notable Signers". Humanism and Its Aspirations. American Humanist Association. Archived from the original on October 5, 2012. Retrieved October 2, 2012. 
  123. ^ Shaposhnikova, T. O. (1999). Jacques Hadamard: A Universal Mathematician. American Mathematical Soc. pp. 33–34. ISBN 978-0-8218-1923-4. In 1924, Hadamard recounted his meetings with Hermite: "...When Hermite loved to direct to me remarks such as: "He who strays from the paths traced by Providence crashes." These were the words of a profoundly religious man, but an atheist like me understood them very well, especially when he added at other times: "In mathematics, our role is more that of servant than master."" 
  124. ^ "Religions are technologies that are evolved over millennia to do this and many religions are very effective in doing this. I'm an atheist, I don't believe that gods actually exist, but I part company with the New Atheists because I believe that religion is an adaptation that generally works quite well to suppress selfishness, to create moral communities, to help people work together, trust each other and collaborate towards common ends." Jonathan Haidt, Interview with Jonathan Haidt, Vox Popoli November 19, 2007 (accessed April 14, 2008).
  125. ^ Haldane, J. B. S., Fact and Faith. London: London, Watts & Co., 1934.
  126. ^ " 'Unequalled stability and sweetness of disposition' are said to have been among his domestic virtues, while in politics and religion he was 'a declared democrat and avowed atheist' (The Times)." Jean Jones: 'Hall, Sir James, of Dunglass, fourth baronet (1761–1832)', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, September 2004; online edition, October 2006 (accessed May 1, 2008).
  127. ^ Martin, Michael, ed. (2006). The Cambridge Companion to Atheism. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. p. 310. ISBN 978-1-1398-2739-3. 
  128. ^ "It can hardly have been due to any reluctance on Newton's part to becoming too closely involved with Halley, the well-known atheist." Derek Gjertsen, The Newton Handbook (1986), page 250.
  129. ^ "He and the Bishop of Oxford staged another version of the great debate between Thomas Henry ('Darwin's bulldog') Huxley and Bishop ('Soapy Sam') Wilberforce that followed the publication of Darwin's Origin Of Species. The present Bishop defended the new Darwinian orthodoxy, but Dr Halstead, an atheist, took the line that the former Bishop of Oxford had been quite right to oppose Darwin's thesis. But that too was entirely characteristic. He told me that he was a member of the Athenaeum only because it had a painting of Darwin in the lobby." Tim Radford, 'A passion for dinosaurs: Obituary of Beverly Halstead', The Guardian (London), May 2, 1991.
  130. ^ Biography of Gerhard Henrik Armauer Hansen whonamedit.com
  131. ^ Gerhard Armauer Hansen (1814–1912) Journal of the Association of Physicians of India, vol 63, March, 2015
  132. ^ "Hardy... was a stringent atheist..." Hit Play on Ramanujan Archived 2007-10-16 at the Wayback Machine., by Lisa Drostova, East Bay Express, April 30, 2003. Retrieved October 7, 2007.
  133. ^ "The first Bombe to be delivered was named Agnus by Turing: a joke that atheist Hardy might have made..." Alan Turing — a Cambridge Scientific Mind, by Andrew Hodges, Cambridge Scientific Minds (Cambridge University Press, 2002) Retrieved July 2, 2007.
  134. ^ "Outside the field of scientific research, he was known for his outspoken atheism: belief in God, he once declared, is not only incompatible with good science, but is "damaging to the wellbeing of the human race." " The Telegraph. [2]
  135. ^ Boyett, Jason. "Stephen Hawking says there's no creator God; the twitterverse reacts", The Washington Post, September 3, 2010, Retrieved April 25, 2011.
  136. ^ "Ernst Mach". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. May 21, 2008. Retrieved 4 September 2012. Hering and Mach were atheists, and disbelieved in a soul, but still accepted the idea that nature had internal direction. 
  137. ^ David Edwards (Sep 24, 2014). "Stephen Hawking comes out: 'I'm an atheist' because science is 'more convincing' than God". Raw Story. Retrieved 25 September 2014. 
  138. ^ "Officially, the particle is called the Higgs boson, but its elusive nature and fundamental role in the creation of the universe led a prominent scientist to rename it the God particle. The name has stuck, but makes Higgs wince and raises the hackles of other theorists. "I wish he hadn't done it," he says. "I have to explain to people it was a joke. I'm an atheist, but I have an uneasy feeling that playing around with names like that could be unnecessarily offensive to people who are religious." Ian Sample, 'The God of Small Things', The Guardian, November 17, 2007, Weekend pages, Pg. 44.
  139. ^ Lucas Garron (December 2010). "Background & Currents". NATIONAL SOCIALISM AND THE DEATH OF GERMAN MATHEMATICS (PDF). p. 8. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 May 2015. Retrieved 9 July 2012. Hilbert was famously atheist, but mathematics at the time often bordered on philosophy 
  140. ^ "Mathematics is a presuppositionless science. To found it I do not need God, as does Kronecker, or the assumption of a special faculty of our understanding attuned to the principle of mathematical induction, as does Poincaré, or the primal intuition of Brouwer, or, finally, as do Russell and Whitehead, axioms of infinity, reducibility, or completeness, which in fact are actual, contentual assumptions that cannot be compensated for by consistency proofs." David Hilbert, Die Grundlagen der Mathematik, Hilbert's program, 22C:096, University of Iowa.
  141. ^ Michael R. Matthews (2009). Science, Worldviews and Education. Springer. p. 129. ISBN 9789048127795. As is well known, Hilbert rejected Leopold Kronecker's God for the solution of the problem of the foundations of mathematics. 
  142. ^ Liberato Cardellini: "A final and more personal question: You defined yourself as “an atheist who is moved by religion”. Looking at the tenor of your life and the many goals you have achieved, one wonders where your inner force comes from." Roald Hoffmann: "The atheism and the respect for religion come form the same source. I observe that in every culture on Earth, absolutely every one, human beings have constructed religious systems. There is a need in us to try to understand, to see that there is something that unites us spiritually. So scientists who do not respect religion fail in their most basic task—observation. Human beings need the spiritual. The same observation reveals to me a multitude of religious constructions—gods of nature, spirits, the great monotheistic religions. It seems to me there can’t be a God or gods; there are just manifestations of a human-constructed spirituality." Liberato Cardellini, Looking for Connections: An Interview with Roald Hoffmann[permanent dead link], page 1634.
  143. ^ "A reader who has suffered me so far will have realised how much of my mental energy had been hitherto absorbed in a fruitless search for an intellectually compelling rationale to rescue some fragments from the wreckage of my family faith. The mood of liberation I experienced when I finally discarded the last remnant of theism was no less exhilarating than that of Bunyan's Pilgrim when the burden of sin fell from his back. [...] In retrospect, the final steps seem as sudden as they were painless. [...] As I looked upward [at the night sky], I realised that the sole prospect was limitless expanse of unthreatening and impersonal emptiness — but for unapproachable galaxies — of a universe without purpose of punishment or reward for a lately arrived animal species, free to make or mar its own destiny without help or hindrance from above." Lancelot Hogben, Lancelot Hogben: Scientific Humanist: An Unauthorised Autobiography, edited by Adrian and Ann Hogben. Merlin Press, 1998.
  144. ^ American Society for Cell Biology Member Profile https://www.ascb.org/wp-content/uploads/2009/04/brigid_hogan.pdf
  145. ^ Hildebrand, Joe (11 February 2008). "Fred Hollows remembered at ceremony in Bourke". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 25 May 2013. 
  146. ^ Jane Gregory (2005). "Fighting for space". Fred Hoyle's Universe. Oxford University Press. p. 143. ISBN 9780191578465. According to Hoyle: "I am an atheist, but as far as blowing up the world in a nuclear war goes, I tell them not to worry." 
  147. ^ "He has worked with monkeys in laboratories and in the wild. He has been a media don, a campaigner against nuclear weapons and the holder of a chair in parapsychological research who was dedicated to debunking even the possibility of telepathy or survival after death. He is an atheist, and the man who suggested to Richard Dawkins the analogy of viruses of the mind for religions; yet nowadays he talks as if spirituality were the thing that makes us human." Andrew Brown interviewing Humphrey, 'A life in science: The human factor', The Guardian, July 29, 2006, Review Pages, Pg. 13.
  148. ^ "Despite his atheism Huxley could appreciate Teilhard de Chardin's vision of evolution, and like his grandfather T. H. Huxley he believed progress could be described in biological terms." Robert Olby, 'Huxley, Sir Julian Sorell (1887–1975)', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, Sept 2004; online edition, May 2007 (accessed May 2, 2008).
  149. ^ http://www.nndb.com/people/020/000204405/
  150. ^ Siegman, Aron Wolfe, and Stanley Feldstein. Nonverbal Behavior and Communication. Hillsdale, NJ: L. Erlbaum Associates, 1978. Print.
  151. ^ Thomas Steven Molnar (1980). Theists and Atheists: A Typology of Non-belief. Walter de Gruyter. p. 59. ISBN 9789027977885. The biologist Francois Jacob (who shared the Nobel Prize with Jacques Monod) admits that he is an atheist, but he finds, parallel to the material nature of the universe, another aspect — in man — which is not reductible to the first. 
  152. ^ "Raised in a completely nonreligious family, Joliot never attended any church and was a thoroughgoing atheist all his life." Perrin, Francis: "Joliot, Frédéric", Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography Vol. 7 p. 151. Detroit: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2008.
  153. ^ "Irène Joliot-Curie". Making the Modern World. 1956-03-17. Retrieved 2012-06-03. 
  154. ^ "It was to her grandfather, a convinced freethinker, that Irène owed her atheism, later politically expressed as anticlericalism." Joliot-Curie, Irène. Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography. 2008. Encyclopedia.com. 17 Mar. 2012.
  155. ^ Denis Brian. The Curies: A Biography of the Most Controversial Family in Science. Wiley. p. 389. ISBN 9780471273912. There were no prayers: Irene was deeply atheist. 
  156. ^ "Scientists in Britain, where the film will premiere at next month's London Film Festival, with general release in December, dismissed the intelligent design lobby's expropriation of the film. Steve Jones, professor of genetics at University College London and an atheist, said: 'I find it sad that people with intrinsically foolish viewpoints don't recognise this as a naturally beautiful film, but have to attach their absurd social agendas to it.' " David Smith, 'How the penguin's life story inspired the US religious right: Antarctic family values', The Observer, September 18, 2005, News Pages, Pg. 3.
  157. ^ On the side of the atheists were Steve Jones, professor of genetics at University College London, [...] Jones, meanwhile, revealed that he would "love to believe in God", because it would offer some degree of comfort. But he said he stopped believing in God as a child as soon as he discovered that what he was learning in school biology classes conflicted with the kind of things he had been taught in Sunday school – like dinosaurs and humans walking the earth at the same time." If Darwin has really killed God, when was the funeral?', Guardian Unlimited, 13 May 2009 (accessed 26 May 2009).
  158. ^ "The Law of Serialitity". Retrieved 18 July 2012. The paradox is that he thought of himself as a hard-boiled philosophical materialist. He was also what one may call a devoted atheist; a freemason; a member of the Austrian Socialist Party; and a regular contributor to the Monisticshe Monatshelfe, the monthly published by the German league of Monists. 
  159. ^ "Paul Kammerer". NNDB.com. Retrieved 18 July 2012. 
  160. ^ "Sam Karlin, mathematician who improved DNA analysis, dies". Stanford Report. January 16, 2008. Retrieved 21 April 2012. Karlin was born in Yonova, Poland, in 1924. His family immigrated to Chicago when he was a small child and struggled financially through the Great Depression. He was raised in a strict Orthodox Jewish household but broke with religion in his early teens and remained an atheist for the rest of his life. 
  161. ^ "TSN: Stuart Kauffman". Thesciencenetwork.org. Retrieved 2012-06-03. 
  162. ^ Citi, Sandra; Berg, Douglas E. "Grete Kellenberger-Gujer: Molecular biology research pioneer". Bacteriophage. 6 (2): 1–12. doi:10.1080/21597081.2016.1173168. "Grete became an atheist and relinquished her affiliation to the Church"
  163. ^ "Kinsey was also shown to be an atheist who loathed religion and its constraints on sex." 'Kinsey' critics ready, Cheryl Wetzstein, The Washington Times. Retrieved February 2, 2007.
  164. ^ Michael Martin (2007). The Cambridge Companion to Atheism. Cambridge University Press. p. 310. ISBN 9780521842709. Among celebrity atheists with much biographical data, we find leading psychologists and psychoanalysts. We could provide a long list, including...Melanie Klein... 
  165. ^ "Dillwyn [Knox, son of an Evangelical bishop] was from his student years an unwavering atheist." Alan Hollinghurst, "The Victory of Penelope Fitzgerald" (a review of Hermione Lee, Penelope Fitzgerald [a niece of Alfred Dillwyn Knox]: A Life, Knopf, 488 pp.), The New York Review of Books, vol. LXI, no. 19 (December 4, 2014), p. 8. (The article comprises pp. 8, 10, 12.)
  166. ^ Padgaonkar, D. (2013). Kosambi’s uplifting idea Of India."Both were pious — his mother a Hindu, his father a Buddhist — while he himself remained an atheist."
  167. ^ "...I had the opportunity to participate in several exciting panel discussions at the World Science Festival in New York City. But the most dramatic encounter took place at the panel strangely titled 'Science, Faith and Religion.'... I ended up being one of two panelists labeled 'atheists.'..." God and Science Don't Mix: A scientist can be a believer. But professionally, at least, he can't act like one., Lawrence M. Krauss, The Wall Street Journal, page A15, 26 June 2009 (retrieved 22 May 2010). On the 21 June 2012 Colbert Report, the author of A Universe from Nothing: Why There is Something Rather than Nothing told Colbert: "There is no evidence for any deity.... You don't need him.... There's no need for God." The evolutions of the universe occur "without any supernatural shenanigans."
  168. ^ "Lack of understanding is not evidence for God. It is evidence of lack of understanding, and a call to use reason to try and change that." Lawrence M. Krauss, "In Reason We Trust" notice of the Freedom from Religion Foundation, Scientific American, vol. 315, no. 5 (November 2016), p. 19.
  169. ^ Harold Kroto claims to have four "religions": humanism, atheism, amnesty-internationalism and humourism.[3]
  170. ^ "In his mythic book The Singularity Is Near, Ray Kurzweil, serial inventor, technology enthusiast, and unabashed atheist, announces: "Evolution moves toward greater complexity, greater elegance, greater knowledge, greater intelligence, greater beauty, greater creativity, and greater levels of subtle attributes such as love. In every monotheistic tradition God is likewise described as all of these qualities, only without any limitation.... So evolution moves inexorably toward this conception of God, although never quite reaching this ideal."" – Kevin Kelly, What Technology Wants (2010).
  171. ^ Michael Martin (2007). The Cambridge Companion to Atheism. Cambridge University Press. p. 310. ISBN 9780521842709. Among celebrity atheists with much biographical data, we find leading psychologists and psychoanalysts. We could provide a long list, including...Jacques Lacan... 
  172. ^ "Napoleon replies: "How comes it, then, that Laplace was an atheist? At the Institute neither he nor Monge, nor Berthollet, nor Lagrange believed in God. But they did not like to say so." Baron Gaspard Gourgaud, Talks of Napoleon at St. Helena with General Baron Gourgaud (1904), page 274.
  173. ^ "He studied at the Jesuit College in Lyon and at this stage he nearly decided to join the Jesuit Order. In fact it was his parents who encouraged him to continue his education by going to Paris to study law, which he did. It is somewhat ironical that Lalande, who would later become renowned as an atheist, should have come so close to becoming a Jesuit." J J O'Connor and E F Robertson, Joseph-Jérôme Lefrançais de Lalande Archived 2010-07-17 at the Wayback Machine..
  174. ^ Henry F. Schaefer (2003). Science and Christianity: Conflict Or Coherence?. The Apollos Trust. p. 9. ISBN 9780974297507. I present here two examples of notable atheists. The first is Lev Landau, the most brilliant Soviet physicist of the twentieth century. 
  175. ^ "Listed as an atheist in NNDB.com." Lev Landau, NNDB.com
  176. ^ Pendergrast, Mark. Inside the Outbreaks: The Elite Medical Detectives of the Epidemic Intelligence Service. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2010. Print. "She knew that her father was an atheist who did not believe in an afterlife..."
  177. ^ Napoleon said to Laplace: "You have written this huge book on the system of the world without once mentioning the author of the universe [God]." Laplace replied: "Sire, I had no need of that hypothesis." Quoted in Augustus De Morgan, A Budget of Paradoxes, London, Longmans, Green and Co., 1872. As found in http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/~history/Quotations/Laplace.html, accessed 13 February 2006.
  178. ^ "The Catholic newspaper La Quotidienne [The Daily] announced that Laplace had died in the arms of two curés (priests), implying that he had a proper Catholic end, but this is not credible. To the end, he remained a skeptic, wedded to his deterministic creed and to an uncompromised ethos derived from his vast scientific experience." Roger Hahn, Pierre Simon Laplace, 1749–1827: a determined scientist, page 204.
  179. ^ "Laplace Theorizes That the Solar System Originated from a Cloud of Gas." Science and Its Times: Understanding the Social Significance of Scientific Discovery. Encyclopedia.com, n.d. Web. 23 Jan. 2017. <http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/laplace-theorizes-solar-system-originated-cloud-gas>. "The two greatest astronomers of Revolutionary and Napoleonic France were Laplace and his rival, Joseph Jérôme Le Français de Lalande (1732–1807), director of the Paris Observatory. Both were atheists. "
  180. ^ Dawson, M. Joan. Paul Lauterbur and the Invention of MRI. Cambridge, MA: MIT, 2013. Print. "Paul became an atheist, revering intellectual honesty and the quest for truth."
  181. ^ Leakey, Richard; Virginia Morell (September 2001). Wildlife Wars: My Fight to Save Africa's Natural Treasures. design by Kathryn Parise. p. 257. ISBN 0-312-20626-7. 
  182. ^ "Although an atheist, Le Dantec was always open to religious discussion. [...] Among his philosophical works are L'athéisme (Paris, 1907); " 'Le Dantec, Félix', Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography. Vol. 8. Detroit: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2008, p. 124.
  183. ^ Babu Gogineni (July 10, 2012). "It's the Atheist Particle, actually". Postnoon News. Archived from the original on 11 July 2012. Retrieved 10 July 2012. Leon Lederman is himself an atheist and he regrets the term, and Peter Higgs who is an atheist too, has expressed his displeasure, but the damage has been done! 
  184. ^ "It is a scene I won’t forget in a hurry: Jean-Marie Lehn, French winner of the Nobel prize in chemistry, defending his atheism at a packed public conference at the new Alexandria Library in Egypt." Ehsan Masood, ProspectMagazine.co.uk, Islam’s reformers, 22nd July 2006.
  185. ^ "In these years Leslie was an unsuccessful candidate for the chairs of natural philosophy at the universities of St Andrews and Glasgow respectively. He failed at the former because he was then an extreme whig and an atheist who deplored the Erastianism of many of the Scottish clergy." Jack Morrell, 'Leslie, Sir John (1766–1832)', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004 (accessed May 2, 2008).
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  190. ^ "By that time Longuet-Higgins had become a convinced atheist, although he still respected many of the features of the Church of England." John Murrell, 'Higgins, (Hugh) Christopher Longuet- (1923–2004)', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, online edition, Oxford University Press, January 2008 (accessed May 1, 2008).
  191. ^ "Paul MacCready, the inventor, defines it thus: "A secular humanist does not believe in God, and doesn't steal."" Paul Kurtz, Is Secular Humanism a Religion?.
  192. ^ R. S. Cohen; Raymond J. Seeger (1975). Ernst Mach, Physicist and Philosopher. Springer. p. 158. ISBN 978-90-277-0016-2. And Mach, in personal conviction, was a socialist and an atheist. 
  193. ^ Gregory Scott Charak (2007). Between Soul and Precision: Ernst Mach's Biological Empiricism and the Social Democratic Philosophy of Science. ProQuest. p. 94. ISBN 9780549129738. Both make explicit claims against the pseudo-problems generated by materialism, and although Mach the atheist would have no gripe with “irreligion” per se, as a pacifist and a socialist he was indeed an ardent proponent of “peace. 
  194. ^ Helge Kragh (2004). Matter And Spirit In The Universe: Scientific And Religious Preludes To Modern Cosmology. OECD Publishing. p. 55. ISBN 9781860944697. The Austrian positivist physicist and philosopher Ernst Mach was nominally a Catholic, but in reality he was an atheist and strongly opposed to Christian doctrines. 
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  197. ^ "Of course, Markov, an atheist and eventual excommunicate of the Church quarreled endlessly with his equally outspoken counterpart Nekrasov. The disputes between Markov and Nekrasov were not limited to mathematics and religion, they quarreled over political and philosophical issues as well." Gely P. Basharin, Amy N. Langville, Valeriy A. Naumov, The Life and Work of A. A. Markov, page 6.
  198. ^ Loren R. Graham; Jean-Michel Kantor (2009). Naming Infinity: A True Story of Religious Mysticism and Mathematical Creativity. Harvard University Press. p. 69. ISBN 978-0-674-03293-4. Markov (1856–1922), on the other hand, was an atheist and a strong critic of the Orthodox Church and the tsarist government (Nekrasov exaggeratedly called him a Marxist). 
  199. ^ Michael Martin (2007). The Cambridge Companion to Atheism. Cambridge University Press. p. 310. ISBN 9780521842709. Among celebrity atheists with much biographical data, we find leading psychologists and psychoanalysts. We could provide a long list, including G. Stanley Hall, John B. Watson, Carl R. Rogers...Abraham Maslow...Maslow was a second-generation atheist, and his father was a militant freethinker. 
  200. ^ Joseph McCabe (1950). A rationalist encyclopaedia: a book of reference on religion, philosophy, ethics, and science (2 ed.). Watts. p. 384. Retrieved 4 February 2017. He was a member of the firm of Vickers' Sons and Maxim. Maxim was an aggressive Atheist (personal knowledge) and the compiler (with the present writer) of the collection of strong criticisms of religion... 
  201. ^ {{cite book|title=The Freethinker, Volume 92|year=1972|publisher=G.W. Foote|page=45

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