List of birds of Colombia

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The Andean condor is the national bird of Colombia.

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Colombia.

Except as an entry is cited otherwise, the list of species is that of Thomas Donegan et al.'s December 2015 Checklist of the Birds of Colombia (hereafter "Donegan")[1]

This list's taxonomic treatment (names and sequence of orders, families, and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) generally follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 2017 edition.[2] However, Donegan treats some forms as species which are not in Clements; these are included with notes. In addition, both Donegan and the South American Classification Committee (SACC) of the American Ornithological Society use some names which are different from those of “Clements”; these differences too are noted.[3] Differences from Clements in the sequence of orders, families, and species within families are not noted.

The Colombian province of San Andrés and Providencia is much closer to Nicaragua than to the South American mainland, so the SACC does not address records there. Fifteen species on Donegan’s country list have been recorded only in that archipelago, and they are noted in the list below.

The avifauna of Colombia has 1852 species (per the Clements taxonomy) with an additional 41 added by Donegan. Of the Clements list, 80 are endemic, four have been introduced by humans, 58 are rare or accidental, and one is extinct. Donegan adds one introduced species. Thirty-seven "Clements" species are hypothetical (see below) and Donegan adds 25 more. Assignments to the categories below are from either the SACC list[4] or, if noted, Donegan’s list, because Donegan does not use all of these categories.

The following tags have been used to highlight certain categories, but not all species fall into one of these categories. Those that do not are commonly occurring native species or migrants.

  • (A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Colombia
  • (E) Endemic - a species endemic to Colombia
  • (I) Introduced - a species introduced to Colombia as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions
  • (H) Hypothetical - a species with only sight record(s)
  • (SA) San Andrés and Providencia - a species recorded only in that archipelago


Contents

Tinamous[edit]

Order: Tinamiformes   Family: Tinamidae

The tinamous are one of the most ancient groups of bird. Although they look similar to other ground-dwelling birds like quail and grouse, they have no close relatives and are classified as a single family, Tinamidae, within their own order, the Tinamiformes. They are distantly related to the ratites (order Struthioniformes), that includes the rheas, emus, and kiwis. Seventeen species have been recorded in Colombia.

Screamers[edit]

Order: Anseriformes   Family: Anhimidae

The screamers are a small family of birds related to the ducks. They are large, bulky birds, with a small downy head, long legs, and large feet which are only partially webbed. They have large spurs on their wings which are used in fights over mates and in territorial disputes. Two species have been recorded in Colombia.

Ducks, geese, and waterfowl[edit]

Order: Anseriformes   Family: Anatidae

Anatidae includes the ducks and most duck-like waterfowl, such as geese and swans. These birds are adapted to an aquatic existence with webbed feet, flattened bills, and feathers that are excellent at shedding water due to an oily coating. Twenty-six species have been recorded in Colombia.

Guans, chachalacas, and curassows[edit]

Order: Galliformes   Family: Cracidae

The Cracidae are large birds, similar in general appearance to turkeys. The guans and curassows live in trees, but the smaller chachalacas are found in more open scrubby habitats. They are generally dull-plumaged, but the curassows and some guans have colorful facial ornaments. Colombia has the largest number of cracids of any country; twenty-six have been recorded there.

New World quail[edit]

Order: Galliformes   Family: Odontophoridae

The New World quails are small, plump terrestrial birds only distantly related to the quails of the Old World, but named for their similar appearance and habits. Ten species have been recorded in Colombia.

Grebes[edit]

Order: Podicipediformes   Family: Podicipedidae

Grebes are small to medium-large freshwater diving birds. They have lobed toes and are excellent swimmers and divers. However, they have their feet placed far back on the body, making them quite ungainly on land. Four species have been recorded in Colombia.

Flamingos[edit]

Order: Phoenicopteriformes   Family: Phoenicopteridae

Flamingos are gregarious wading birds, usually 3 to 5 feet (0.9 to 1.5 m) tall, found in both the Western and Eastern Hemispheres. Flamingos filter-feed on shellfish and algae. Their oddly shaped beaks are specially adapted to separate mud and silt from the food they consume and, uniquely, are used upside-down. One species has been recorded in Colombia.

Penguins[edit]

Order: Sphenisciformes   Family: Spheniscidae

The penguins are a group of aquatic, flightless birds living almost exclusively in the Southern Hemisphere. Most penguins feed on krill, fish, squid, and other forms of sealife caught while swimming underwater. Three species have been recorded in Colombia.

Albatrosses[edit]

Order: Procellariiformes   Family: Diomedeidae

The albatrosses are among the largest of flying birds, and the great albatrosses from the genus Diomedea have the largest wingspans of any extant birds. Two species have been recorded in Colombia.

Shearwaters and petrels[edit]

Order: Procellariiformes   Family: Procellariidae

The procellariids are the main group of medium-sized "true petrels", characterized by united nostrils with medium septum and a long outer functional primary. Thirteen species have been recorded in Colombia.

Storm-petrels[edit]

Order: Procellariiformes   Family: Hydrobatidae

The storm-petrelss are relatives of the petrels and are the smallest seabirds. They feed on planktonic crustaceans and small fish picked from the surface, typically while hovering. The flight is fluttering and sometimes bat-like. Nine species have been recorded in Colombia.

Tropicbirds[edit]

Order: Phaethontiformes   Family: Phaethontidae

Tropicbirds are slender white birds of tropical oceans, with exceptionally long central tail feathers. Their heads and long wings have black markings. Two species have been recorded in Colombia.

Storks[edit]

Order: Ciconiiformes   Family: Ciconiidae

Storks are large, long-legged, long-necked wading birds with long, stout bills. Storks are mute, but bill-clattering is an important mode of communication at the nest. Their nests can be large and may be reused for many years. Many species are migratory. Three species have been recorded in Colombia.

Frigatebirds[edit]

Order: Suliformes   Family: Fregatidae

Frigatebirds are large seabirds usually found over tropical oceans. They are large, black-and-white, or completely black, with long wings and deeply forked tails. The males have colored inflatable throat pouches. They do not swim or walk and cannot take off from a flat surface. Having the largest wingspan-to-body-weight ratio of any bird, they are essentially aerial, able to stay aloft for more than a week. Two species have been recorded in Colombia.

Boobies and gannets[edit]

Order: Suliformes   Family: Sulidae

The sulids comprise the gannets and boobies. Both groups are medium to large coastal seabirds that plunge-dive for fish. Six species have been recorded in Colombia.

Cormorants and shags[edit]

Order: Suliformes   Family: Phalacrocoracidae

Phalacrocoracidae is a family of medium to large coastal, fish-eating seabirds that includes cormorants and shags. Plumage coloration varies, with the majority having mainly dark plumage, some species being black-and-white, and a few being colorful. Three species have been recorded in Colombia.

Anhingas[edit]

Order: Suliformes   Family: Anhingidae

Anhingas are often called "snake-birds" because of their long thin neck, which gives a snake-like appearance when they swim with their bodies submerged. The males have black and dark-brown plumage, an erectile crest on the nape, and a larger bill than the female. The females have much paler plumage especially on the neck and underparts. The anhingas have completely webbed feet and their legs are short and set far back on the body. Their plumage is somewhat permeable, like that of cormorants, and they spread their wings to dry after diving. One species has been recorded in Colombia.

Pelicans[edit]

Order: Pelecaniformes   Family: Pelecanidae

Pelicans are large water birds with a distinctive pouch under their beak. As with other members of the order Pelecaniformes, they have webbed feet with four toes. Two species have been recorded in Colombia.

Herons, egrets, and bitterns[edit]

Order: Pelecaniformes   Family: Ardeidae

The family Ardeidae contains the bitterns, herons, and egrets. Herons and egrets are medium to large wading birds with long necks and legs. Bitterns tend to be shorter necked and more wary. Members of Ardeidae fly with their necks retracted, unlike other long-necked birds such as storks, ibises, and spoonbills. Twenty-three species have been recorded in Colombia.

Ibises and spoonbills[edit]

Order: Pelecaniformes   Family: Threskiornithidae

Threskiornithidae is a family of large terrestrial and wading birds which includes the ibises and spoonbills. They have long, broad wings with 11 primary and about 20 secondary feathers. They are strong fliers and despite their size and weight, very capable soarers. Eight species have been recorded in Colombia.

New World vultures[edit]

Order: Cathartiformes   Family: Cathartidae

The New World vultures are not closely related to Old World vultures, but superficially resemble them because of convergent evolution. Like the Old World vultures, they are scavengers. However, unlike Old World vultures, which find carcasses by sight, New World vultures have a good sense of smell with which they locate carrion. Six species have been recorded in Colombia.

Osprey[edit]

Order: Accipitriformes   Family: Pandionidae

The Pandionidae family contains only one species, the osprey. The osprey is a medium-large raptor which is a specialist fish-eater with a worldwide distribution.

Hawks, eagles, and kites[edit]

Order: Accipitriformes   Family: Accipitridae

Accipitridae is a family of birds of prey, which includes hawks, eagles, kites, harriers, and Old World vultures. These birds have powerful hooked beaks for tearing flesh from their prey, strong legs, powerful talons and keen eyesight. Fifty-one species have been recorded in Colombia.

Sunbittern[edit]

Order: Gruiformes   Family: Eurypygidae

The sunbittern is a bittern-like bird of tropical regions of the Americas and the sole member of the family Eurypygidae (sometimes spelled Eurypigidae) and genus Eurypyga.

Rails, gallinules, and coots[edit]

Order: Gruiformes   Family: Rallidae

Rallidae is a large family of small to medium-sized birds which includes the rails, crakes, coots, and gallinules. Typically they inhabit dense vegetation in damp environments near lakes, swamps, or rivers. In general they are shy and secretive birds, making them difficult to observe. Most species have strong legs and long toes which are well adapted to soft uneven surfaces. They tend to have short, rounded wings and to be weak fliers. Twenty-nine species have been recorded in Colombia.

Finfoots[edit]

Order: Gruiformes   Family: Heliornithidae

Heliornithidae is a small family of tropical birds with webbed lobes on their feet similar to those of grebes and coots. One species has been recorded in Colombia.

Limpkin[edit]

Order: Gruiformes   Family: Aramidae

The limpkin resembles a large rail. It has drab-brown plumage and a grayer head and neck.

Trumpeters[edit]

Order: Gruiformes   Family: Psophiidae

The trumpeters are dumpy birds with long necks and legs and chicken-like bills. They are named for the trumpeting call of the males. One species has been recorded in Colombia.

Thick-knees[edit]

Order: Charadriiformes   Family: Burhinidae

The thick-knees are a group of largely tropical waders in the family Burhinidae. They are found worldwide within the tropical zone, with some species also breeding in temperate Europe and Australia. They are medium to large waders with strong black or yellow-black bills, large yellow eyes, and cryptic plumage. Despite being classed as waders, most species have a preference for arid or semi-arid habitats. One species has been recorded in Colombia.

Stilts and avocets[edit]

Order: Charadriiformes   Family: Recurvirostridae

Recurvirostridae is a family of large wading birds, which includes the avocets and stilts. The avocets have long legs and long up-curved bills. The stilts have extremely long legs and long, thin, straight bills. Two species have been recorded in Colombia.

Oystercatchers[edit]

Order: Charadriiformes   Family: Haematopodidae

The oystercatchers are large and noisy plover-like birds, with strong bills used for smashing or prising open molluscs. One species has been recorded in Colombia.

Plovers and lapwings[edit]

Order: Charadriiformes   Family: Charadriidae

The family Charadriidae includes the plovers, dotterels, and lapwings. They are small to medium-sized birds with compact bodies, short, thick necks and long, usually pointed, wings. They are found in open country worldwide, mostly in habitats near water. Ten species has been recorded in Colombia.

Jacanas[edit]

Order: Charadriiformes   Family: Jacanidae

The jacanas are a group of waders in the family Jacanidae which are found throughout the tropics. They are identifiable by their huge feet and claws which enable them to walk on floating vegetation in the shallow lakes that are their preferred habitat. One species has been recorded in Colombia.

Sandpipers and allies[edit]

Order: Charadriiformes   Family: Scolopacidae

Scolopacidae is a large diverse family of small to medium-sized shorebirds including the sandpipers, curlews, godwits, shanks, tattlers, woodcocks, snipes, dowitchers, and phalaropes. The majority of these species eat small invertebrates picked out of the mud or soil. Variation in length of legs and bills enables multiple species to feed in the same habitat, particularly on the coast, without direct competition for food. Thirty-six species have been recorded in Colombia.

Skuas and jaegers[edit]

Order: Charadriiformes   Family: Stercorariidae

The family Stercorariidae are, in general, medium to large birds, typically with gray or brown plumage, often with white markings on the wings. They nest on the ground in temperate and arctic regions and are long-distance migrants. Five species have been recorded in Colombia.

Gulls, terns, and skimmers[edit]

Order: Charadriiformes   Family: Laridae

Laridae is a family of medium to large seabirds and includesgulls, terns, and skimmers. Gulls are typically gray or white, often with black markings on the head or wings. They have webbed feet. Terns are a group of generally medium to large seabirds typically with grey or white plumage, often with black markings on the head. Most terns hunt fish by diving but some pick insects off the surface of fresh water. Terns are generally long-lived birds, with several species known to live in excess of 30 years. Skimmers are a small family of tropical tern-like birds. They have an elongated lower mandible which they use to feed by flying low over the water surface and skimming the water for small fish. Thirty-six species have been recorded in Colombia.

Pigeons and doves[edit]

Order: Columbiformes   Family: Columbidae

Pigeons and doves are stout-bodied birds with short necks and short slender bills with a fleshy cere. Thirty-eight species have been recorded in Colombia.

Hoatzin[edit]

Order: Opisthocomiformes   Family: Opisthocomidae

The hoatzin is pheasant-sized, but much slimmer. It has a long tail and neck, but a small head with an unfeathered blue face and red eyes which are topped by a spiky crest. It is a weak flier which is found in the swamps of the Amazon and Orinoco rivers.

Cuckoos[edit]

Order: Cuculiformes   Family: Cuculidae

The family Cuculidae includes cuckoos, roadrunners, and anis. These birds are of variable size with slender bodies, long tails and strong legs. Twenty-one species have been recorded in Colombia.

Barn-owls[edit]

Order: Strigiformes   Family: Tytonidae

Barn-owls are medium to large owls with large heads and characteristic heart-shaped faces. They have long strong legs with powerful talons. One species has been recorded in Colombia.

Owls[edit]

Order: Strigiformes   Family: Strigidae

The typical owls are small to large solitary nocturnal birds of prey. They have large forward-facing eyes and ears, a hawk-like beak and a conspicuous circle of feathers around each eye called a facial disk. Twenty-six species have been recorded in Colombia.

Nightjars and allies[edit]

Order: Caprimulgiformes   Family: Caprimulgidae

Nightjars are medium-sized nocturnal birds that usually nest on the ground. They have long wings, short legs, and very short bills. Most have small feet, of little use for walking, and long pointed wings. Their soft plumage is camouflaged to resemble bark or leaves. Twenty-two species have been recorded in Colombia.

Potoos[edit]

Order: Caprimulgiformes   Family: Nyctibiidae
(The SACC places potoos in their own order, Nyctibiiformes)[3]

The potoos (sometimes called poor-me-ones) are large near passerine birds related to the nightjars and frogmouths. They are nocturnal insectivores which lack the bristles around the mouth found in the true nightjars. Five species have been recorded in Colombia.

Oilbird[edit]

Order: Caprimulgiformes   Family: Steatornithidae
(The SACC places the oilbird in its own order, Steatornithiformes)[3]

The oilbird is a slim, long-winged bird related to the nightjars. It is nocturnal and a specialist feeder on the fruit of the oil palm.

Swifts[edit]

Order: Apodiformes   Family: Apodidae
(The SACC places swifts in their own order, Apodiformes)[3]

Swifts are small birds which spend the majority of their lives flying. These birds have very short legs and never settle voluntarily on the ground, perching instead only on vertical surfaces. Many swifts have long swept-back wings which resemble a crescent or boomerang. Eighteen species have been recorded in Colombia.

Hummingbirds[edit]

Order: Apodiformes   Family: Trochilidae
(The SACC places hummingbirds in their own order, Trochiliformes)[3]

Hummingbirds are small birds capable of hovering in mid-air due to the rapid flapping of their wings. They are the only birds that can fly backwards. Colombia has the greatest diversity of hummingbirds of any country on earth. One hundred sixty-three "Clements" species and five more listed by Donegan but not by Clements have been recorded in the country.

Trogons[edit]

Order: Trogoniformes   Family: Trogonidae

The family Trogonidae includes trogons and quetzals. Found in tropical woodlands worldwide, they feed on insects and fruit, and their broad bills and weak legs reflect their diet and arboreal habits. Although their flight is fast, they are reluctant to fly any distance. Trogons have soft, often colorful, feathers with distinctive male and female plumage. Fifteen species have been recorded in Colombia, the largest number in any country.

Motmots[edit]

Order: Coraciiformes   Family: Momotidae

The motmots have colorful plumage and long, graduated tails which they display by waggling back and forth. In most of the species, the barbs near the ends of the two longest (central) tail feathers are weak and fall off, leaving a length of bare shaft and creating a racket-shaped tail. Six species have been recorded in Colombia.

Kingfishers[edit]

Order: Coraciiformes   Family: Alcedinidae

Kingfishers are medium-sized birds with large heads, long, pointed bills, short legs, and stubby tails. Six species have been recorded in Colombia.

Puffbirds[edit]

Order: Galbuliformes   Family: Bucconidae

The puffbirds are related to the jacamars and have the same range, but lack the iridescent colors of that family. They are mainly brown, rufous, or gray, with large heads and flattened bills with hooked tips. The loose abundant plumage and short tails makes them look stout and puffy, giving rise to the English common name of the family. Twenty-four "Clements" species, one "Donegan" species, and one species found in another source have been recorded in Colombia.

Jacamars[edit]

Order: Galbuliformes   Family: Galbulidae

The jacamars are near passerine birds from tropical South America, with a range that extends up to Mexico. They feed on insects caught on the wing, and are glossy, elegant birds with long bills and tails. In appearance and behavior they resemble the Old World bee-eaters, although they are more closely related to puffbirds. Fourteen species that have been recorded in Colombia.

New World barbets[edit]

Order: Piciformes   Family: Capitonidae

The barbets are plump birds with short necks and large heads. They get their name from the bristles which fringe their heavy bills. Most species are brightly colored. Eight species have been recorded in Colombia.

Toucan-barbets[edit]

Order: Piciformes   Family: Semnornithidae

The toucan-barbets are birds of montane forests in the Neotropics. They are highly social and non-migratory.

Toucans[edit]

Order: Piciformes   Family: Ramphastidae

Toucans are near passerine birds from the Neotropics. They are brightly marked and have enormous colorful bills which in some species amount to half their body length. Twenty-two species have been recorded in Colombia, the largest number of toucans of any country.

Woodpeckers[edit]

Order: Piciformes   Family: Picidae

Woodpeckers are small to medium-sized birds with chisel-like beaks, short legs, stiff tails, and long tongues used for capturing insects. Some species have feet with two toes pointing forward and two backward, while several species have only three toes. Many woodpeckers have the habit of tapping noisily on tree trunks with their beaks. Forty-two "Clements" species and one "Donegan" species have been recorded in Colombia.

Falcons and caracaras[edit]

Order: Falconiformes   Family: Falconidae

Falconidae is a family of diurnal birds of prey. They differ from hawks, eagles, and kites in that they kill with their beaks instead of their talons. Eighteen species have been recorded in Colombia.

New World and African parrots[edit]

Order: Psittaciformes   Family: Psittacidae

Parrots are small to large birds with a characteristic curved beak. Their upper mandibles have slight mobility in the joint with the skull and they have a generally erect stance. All parrots are zygodactyl, having the four toes on each foot placed two at the front and two to the back. Fifty-five species species have been recorded in Colombia.

Sapayoa[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Sapayoidae

The sapayoa is the only member of its family, and is found in the lowland rainforests of Panama and north-western South America. It is usually seen in pairs or mixed-species flocks.

  • Sapayoa, Sapayoa aenigma (Donegan calls this species broad-billed sapayoa)

Typical antbirds[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Thamnophilidae

The antbirds are a large family of small passerine birds of subtropical and tropical Central and South America. They are forest birds which tend to feed on insects at or near the ground. A sizable minority of them specialize in following columns of army ants to eat small invertebrates that leave their hiding places to flee from the ants. Many species lack bright color, with brown, black, and white being the dominant tones. One hundred fourteen species have been recorded in Colombia.

Gnateaters[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Conopophagidae

The gnateaters are round, short-tailed, and long-legged birds, which are closely related to the antbirds. Four species have been recorded in Colombia.

Antpittas[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Grallariidae

Antpittas resemble the true pittas with strong, longish legs, very short tails, and stout bills. Twenty-seven species have been recorded in Colombia.

Tapaculos[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Rhinocryptidae

The tapaculos are small suboscine passeriform birds with numerous species in South and Central America. They are terrestrial species that fly only poorly on their short wings. They have strong legs, well-suited to their habitat of grassland or forest undergrowth. The tail is cocked and pointed towards the head. Nineteen species have been recorded in Colombia.

Antthrushes[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Formicariidae

The ground antbirds are a group comprising the antthrushes and antpittas. Antthrushes resemble small rails while antpittas resemble the true pittas with strong, longish legs, very short tails, and stout bills. Eight species have been recorded in Colombia.

Ovenbirds and woodcreepers[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Furnariidae

Ovenbirds comprise a large family of small sub-oscine passerine bird species found in Central and South America. They are a diverse group of insectivores which gets its name from the elaborate "oven-like" clay nests built by some species, although others build stick nests or nest in tunnels or clefts in rock. The woodcreepers are brownish birds which maintain an upright vertical posture, supported by their stiff tail vanes. They feed mainly on insects taken from tree trunks. One hundred nine "Clements" and four additional "Donegan" species have been recorded in Colombia.

Tyrant flycatchers[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Tyrannidae

Tyrant flycatchers are passerine birds which occur throughout North and South America. They superficially resemble the Old World flycatchers, but are more robust and have stronger bills. They do not have the sophisticated vocal capabilities of the songbirds. Most, but not all, have plain coloring. As the name implies, most are insectivorous. Two hundred eight "Clements" and two "Donegan" species have been recorded in Colombia.

Sharpbill[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Oxyruncidae

The sharpbill is a small bird of dense forests in Central and South America. It feeds mostly on fruit but also eats insects.

Cotingas[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Cotingidae

The cotingas are birds of forests or forest edges in tropical South America. Comparatively little is known about this diverse group, although all have broad bills with hooked tips, rounded wings, and strong legs. The males of many of the species are brightly colored or decorated with plumes or wattles. Thirty-four species have been recorded in Colombia.

Manakins[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Pipridae

The manakins are a family of subtropical and tropical mainland Central and South America, and Trinidad and Tobago. They are compact forest birds, the males typically being brightly colored, although the females of most species are duller and usually green-plumaged. Manakins feed on small fruits, berries and insects. Twenty-one species (including the piprites) have been recorded in Colombia.

Tityras and allies[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Tityridae

Tityridae are suboscine passerine birds found in forest and woodland in the Neotropics. The species in this family were formerly spread over the families Tyrannidae, Pipridae, and Cotingidae. They are small to medium-sized birds. They do not have the sophisticated vocal capabilities of the songbirds. Most, but not all, have plain coloring. Twenty "Clements" and one "Donegan" species have been recorded in Colombia. In addition, as noted in Pipridae, Donegan places wing-barred piprites in this family.

Vireos[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Vireonidae

The vireos are a group of small to medium-sized passerine birds restricted to the New World. They are typically greenish in color and resemble wood warblers apart from their heavier bills. Twenty-two "Clements" and one "Donegan" species have been recorded in Colombia.

Crows, jays, and magpies[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Corvidae

The family Corvidae includes crows, ravens, jays, choughs, magpies, treepies, nutcrackers, and ground jays. Corvids are above average in size among the Passeriformes, and some of the larger species show high levels of intelligence. Seven species have been recorded in Colombia.

Larks[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Alaudidae

Larks are small terrestrial birds with often extravagant songs and display flights. Most larks are fairly dull in appearance. Their food is insects and seeds. One species has been recorded in Colombia.

Swallows[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Hirundinidae

The family Hirundinidae is adapted to aerial feeding. They have a slender streamlined body, long pointed wings, and a short bill with a wide gape. The feet are adapted to perching rather than walking, and the front toes are partially joined at the base. Twenty-one species have been recorded in Colombia.

Wrens[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Troglodytidae

The wrens are mainly small and inconspicuous except for their loud songs. These birds have short wings and thin down-turned bills. Several species often hold their tails upright. All are insectivorous. Colombia has the greatest diversity of wrens on earth; thirty-four species have been recorded in the country.

Gnatcatchers[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Polioptilidae

These dainty birds resemble Old World warblers in their build and habits, moving restlessly through the foliage seeking insects. The gnatcatchers and gnatwrens are mainly soft bluish gray in color and have the typical insectivore's long sharp bill. They are birds of fairly open woodland or scrub, which nest in bushes or trees. Six species have been recorded in Colombia.

Dippers[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Cinclidae

Dippers are a group of perching birds whose habitat includes aquatic environments in the Americas, Europe, and Asia. They are named for their bobbing or dipping movements. One species has been recorded in Colombia.

Donacobius[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Donacobiidae

The black-capped donacobius is found in wet habitats from Panama across northern South America and east of the Andes to Argentina and Paraguay.

Thrushes and allies[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Turdidae

The thrushes are a group of passerine birds that occur mainly in the Old World. They are plump, soft plumaged, small to medium-sized insectivores or sometimes omnivores, often feeding on the ground. Many have attractive songs. Twenty-nine species have been recorded in Colombia.

Mockingbirds and thrashers[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Mimidae

The mimids are a family of passerine birds that includes thrashers, mockingbirds, tremblers, and the New World catbirds. These birds are notable for their vocalizations, especially their ability to mimic a wide variety of birds and other sounds heard outdoors. Their coloring tends towards dull-grays and browns. Two species have been recorded in Colombia.

Wagtails and pipits[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Motacillidae

Motacillidae is a family of small passerine birds with medium to long tails. They include the wagtails, longclaws, and pipits. They are slender ground feeding insectivores of open country. Three species have been recorded in Colombia.

Waxwings[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Bombycillidae

The waxwings are a group of birds with soft silky plumage and unique red tips to some of the wing feathers. In the Bohemian and cedar waxwings, these tips look like sealing wax and give the group its name. These are arboreal birds of northern forests. They live on insects in summer and berries in winter. One species has been recorded in Colombia.

Rosy thrush-tanager[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Rhodinocichlidae

New World warblers[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Parulidae

The New World warblers are a group of small, often colorful, passerine birds restricted to the New World. Most are arboreal, but some are terrestrial. Most members of this family are insectivores. Fifty-seven species have been recorded in Colombia.

Tanagers and allies[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Thraupidae

The tanagers are a large group of small to medium-sized passerine birds restricted to the New World, mainly in the tropics. Many species are brightly colored. They are seed eaters, but their preference tends towards fruit and nectar. Most have short, rounded wings. Colombia has the greatest diversity of tanagers of any country. One hundred seventy-three species have been recorded there.

New World sparrows[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Passerellidae

Until 2017, these species were considered part of the family Emberizidae.[2] Most of the species are known as sparrows, but these birds are not closely related to the Old World sparrows which are in the family Passeridae. Many of these have distinctive head patterns. Thirty-eight "Clements" and one "Donegan" species have been recorded in Colombia.

Mitrospingid tanagers[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Mitrospingidae

The members of this small family were previously included in Thraupidae (tanagers). They were placed in this new family in 2017.[2]

  • Dusky-faced tanager, Mitrospingus cassinii (The SACC considers this species to be incertae sedis)

Cardinals and allies[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Cardinalidae

The cardinals are a family of robust, seed-eating birds with strong bills. They are typically associated with open woodland. The sexes usually have distinct plumages. Twenty-five species have been recorded in Colombia.

Troupials and allies[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Icteridae

The icterids are a group of small to medium-sized, often colorful, passerine birds restricted to the New World and include the grackles, New World blackbirds, and New World orioles. Most species have black as the predominant plumage color, often enlivened by yellow, orange, or red. Forty-one species have been recorded in Colombia; this is the greatest number of icterids in any country.

Finches, euphonias, and allies[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Fringillidae

Finches are seed-eating passerine birds, that are small to moderately large and have a strong beak, usually conical and in some species very large. All have twelve tail feathers and nine primaries. These birds have a bouncing flight with alternating bouts of flapping and gliding on closed wings, and most sing well. Twenty-two species have been recorded in Colombia.

Old World sparrows[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Passeridae

Sparrows are small passerine birds. In general, sparrows tend to be small, plump, brown or gray birds with short tails and short powerful beaks. Sparrows are seed eaters, but they also consume small insects. One species has been recorded in Colombia.

Waxbills and allies[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Estrildidae

The members of this family are small passerine birds native to the Old World tropics. They are gregarious and often colonial seed eaters with short thick but pointed bills. They are all similar in structure and habits, but have wide variation in plumage colors and patterns. Two species have been recorded in Colombia.

  • Tricolored munia, Lonchura malacca (I)
  • Java sparrow, Lonchura oryzivora (I) (Donegan categorizes this species as "escaped but not introduced")

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Neither Donegan nor Clements list this recent split as occurring in Colombia. However, there are several eBird sightings from the southwest of the country (http://ebird.org/ebird/map/wespuf1?neg=true&env.minX=&env.minY=&env.maxX=&env.maxY=&zh=false&gp=false&ev=Z&mr=1-12&bmo=1&emo=12&yr=all&byr=1900&eyr=2017 retrieved 2 January 2017).
  2. ^ The former emerald toucanet, A. prasinus was split by Clements in 2017, and both resulting species occur in Colombia. The SACC and Donnegan lists do not reflect the split.
  3. ^ Clements and the SACC have split Epinecrophylla haematonota into three species. One retains the original name and the other two are E. amazonica and E. pyrrhonota (SACC Proposal 589A). Clements calls them, respectively, "rufous-backed", "Madeira", and "fulvous-throated" antwrens. The SACC has not assigned English names (Proposal 589X) so the split has not been implemented and the SACC list includes only E. haematonota with the pre-split name "stipple-throated antwren". Donegan's list includes only E. pyrrhonota but also retains the English name "stipple-throated antwren" for it.
  4. ^ This new species has been recognized by Clements but has not yet been evaluated by the SACC or Donegan)
  5. ^ Clements moved this species to its own family from Thraupidae (tanagers) in 2017. The SACC considers it to be incertae sedis.)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Donegan, Thomas, Juan Carlos Verhelst, Paul Salaman, Oswaldo Cortes, David Caro, and Alonso Quevedo. Checklist of the Birds of Colombia 2015 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/308015655_Checklist_of_the_Birds_of_Colombia_2015_-_with_footnotes_to_all_differing_taxonomic_treatments_of_IOC_AOU-SACC_and_BirdLifeHBW2014_and_all_ProAves_papers_on_occurrencestatus_Listado_de_Aves_de_Colombia
  2. ^ a b c Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, D. Roberson, T. A. Fredericks, B. L. Sullivan, and C. L. Wood. 2017. The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: v2017. Downloaded from http://www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/download/ retrieved 18 August 2017
  3. ^ a b c d e Remsen, J. V., Jr., J. I. Areta, C. D. Cadena, S. Claramunt, A. Jaramillo, J. F. Pacheco, J. Pérez-Emán, M. B. Robbins, F. G. Stiles, D. F. Stotz, and K. J. Zimmer. Version 17 November 2016. A classification of the bird species of South America. American Ornithologists' Union. http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm retrieved 23 April 2017
  4. ^ Species lists of birds for South American countries and territories: Colombia. Version 2 November 2016. http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCCountryLists.htm Retrieved 7 November 2016

See also[edit]

External links[edit]