Cola

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Cola
Glass of Cola.jpg
A glass of cola served with ice cubes
TypeSoft drink
ManufacturerVarious
Country of origin United States
IntroducedMay 8, 1886; 136 years ago (1886-05-08),[1][2] as Coca-Cola
ColorCaramel (with certain exceptions such as Zevia Cola and Kola Román)
FlavorCola (Kola nut, citrus, cinnamon and vanilla)

Cola is a carbonated soft drink flavored with vanilla, cinnamon, citrus oils and other flavorings. Cola became popular worldwide after the American pharmacist John Stith Pemberton invented Coca-Cola, a trademarked brand, in 1886, which was imitated by other manufacturers. Most colas contain caffeine originally from the kola nut, leading to the drink's name, though other sources have since been used. The Pemberton cola drink also contained a coca plant extract.[1][3] His non-alcoholic recipe was inspired by the coca wine of pharmacist Angelo Mariani, created in 1863.[3][4]

Most modern colas have a dark caramel color, and are sweetened with sugar and/or high-fructose corn syrup. They come in numerous different brands.[5] with Coca-Cola and Pepsi the most popular. These two companies have been competing since the 1890s, a rivalry that has intensified since the 1980s.[6][7]

Flavorings[edit]

The primary modern flavorings in a cola drink are citrus oils (from orange, lime, and lemon peels), cinnamon, vanilla, and an acidic flavorant.[8][9] Manufacturers of cola drinks add trace flavorings to create distinctive tastes for each brand. Trace flavorings may include a wide variety of ingredients, such as spices like nutmeg or coriander. Acidity is often provided by phosphoric acid, sometimes accompanied by citric or other isolated acids. Coca-Cola's recipe is maintained as a corporate trade secret.

A variety of different sweeteners may be used in cola, often influenced by local agricultural policy. High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is predominantly used in the United States and Canada due to the lower cost of government-subsidized corn. In Europe, however, HFCS is subject to production quotas designed to encourage the production of sugar; sugar is thus preferentially used to sweeten sodas.[10] In addition, stevia or an artificial sweetener may be used; "sugar-free" or "diet" colas typically contain artificial sweeteners only.

In Japan, there is a burgeoning craft cola industry, with small-scale local production methods and highly unique cola recipes using locally-sourced fruits, herbs and spices.[11]

Clear cola[edit]

In the 1940s, Coca-Cola produced White Coke at the request of Marshal of the Soviet Union Georgy Zhukov.[12][13]

Clear colas were again produced during the Clear Craze of the early 1990s. Brands included Crystal Pepsi, Tab Clear, and 7 Up Ice Cola. Crystal Pepsi has been repeatedly reintroduced in the 2010s.

In Denmark, a popular clear cola was made by the Cooperative FDB in 1976. It was especially known for being the "Hippie Cola" because of the focus of the harmful effects the color additive could have on children and the boycott of multinational brands. It was inspired by a campaign on harmful additives in Denmark by the Environmental-Organisation NOAH, an independent Danish division of Friends of the Earth. This was followed up with a variety of sodas without artificial coloring.[14] Today many organic colas are available in Denmark, but, for nostalgic reasons, clear cola has still maintained its popularity to a certain degree.[15]

In June 2018, Coca-Cola introduced Coca-Cola Clear in Japan.[16][17][18]

Health effects[edit]

A 2007 study found that consumption of colas, both those with natural sweetening and those with artificial sweetening, was associated with increased risk of chronic kidney disease. The phosphoric acid used in colas was thought to be a possible cause.[19]

One 2005 study indicated soda and sweetened drinks are the main source of calories in the American diet and that of those who drink more sweetened drinks, obesity rates were higher.[20] Most nutritionists advise that Coca-Cola and other soft drinks can be harmful if consumed excessively, particularly to young children whose soft drink consumption competes with, rather than complements, a balanced diet. Studies have shown that regular soft drink users have a lower intake of calcium, magnesium, vitamin C, riboflavin, and vitamin A.[21]

The drink has also aroused criticism for its use of caffeine, which can cause physical dependence (caffeine dependence),[22] and can reduce sleep quality.[23] A link has been shown between long-term regular cola intake and osteoporosis in older women (but not men).[24] This was thought to be due to the presence of phosphoric acid, and the risk for women was found to be greater for sugared and caffeinated colas than diet and decaffeinated variants, with a higher intake of cola correlating with lower bone density.

Many soft drinks in North America are sweetened mostly or entirely with high-fructose corn syrup, rather than sugar. Some nutritionists caution against consumption of corn syrup because it may aggravate obesity and type-2 diabetes more than cane sugar.[25]

Regional brands[edit]

Asia[edit]

  • Air Koryo Cocoa Honeydew, a 'Coca Cola-style product' manufactured by the national airline in North Korea[26]
  • Amrat Cola, popular in Pakistan
  • Big /Real/Royal Cola, popular in Indonesia, Thailand, Nigeria and throughout South America
  • Bovonto, popular in South India
  • Campa Cola, India's most popular brand prior to the reintroduction of Coca-Cola and Pepsi to the Indian market in 1991
  • Mojo by Akij Group, popular in Bangladesh
  • Est Cola, a local brand in Thailand
  • Future Cola, a local brand in China
  • KIK Cola, a local brand in Sri Lanka[27]
  • Laoshan Cola, a local brand in China
  • Mecca-Cola, sold in the Middle East, North Africa, as well as parts of Europe
  • MyCola, a local brand in Sri Lanka[28]
  • Pakola, popular in Pakistan
  • Cola Next, a local brand in Pakistan
  • Parsi Cola, popular in Iran
  • Red Bull Cola, popular in Thailand
  • Terelj Cola, sold in Mongolia.[29]
  • Thums Up, popular in India
  • Topsia Cola, popular in Iran
  • Karwanchi Cola, popular in Iraq
  • Zamzam Cola, popular in Iran and parts of the Arab world
  • Zesto Cola, popular in the Philippines

Europe[edit]

Bottles of Berry Cola, a soft drink produced in Indre, France

North America[edit]

A small glass bottle of Coca-Cola, the first cola

South America[edit]

Oceania[edit]

  • LA Ice Cola is an Australian cola owned by Tru Blu Beverages, similar to Coca-Cola and Pepsi, its rivals.
  • Billson's produces a Heritage Cola, inspired by recipes dating back to the Temperance movement in Australia.

Defunct brands[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "The 132nd Anniversary of the Day Soda Pop Was Invented - the Happy Daze Blog takes an amusing look at wacky holidays, weird holidays, and happy holidays found in every month, and tells how to celebrate them". Archived from the original on March 27, 2019. Retrieved December 3, 2018.
  2. ^ "History of Coca-Cola · InterExchange". Archived from the original on March 27, 2019. Retrieved March 16, 2019.
  3. ^ a b "Coca Wine". Cocaine.org. Retrieved September 29, 2013.
  4. ^ 최재원 (April 2015). "코카콜라의 스토리텔링을 통한 감성마케팅 응용". 마케팅 (in Korean). 49 (4): 19–28. Retrieved 2021-04-04.
  5. ^ 김덕호 (November 2002). "2차 세계대전과 코카콜라의 전지구화(Globalization)". 미국사연구 (in Korean). 16: 219–249. Retrieved 2021-04-04.
  6. ^ Kim Bhasin (January 1, 2013). "COKE VS. PEPSI: The Story Behind The Neverending 'Cola Wars'". Business Insider. Retrieved November 11, 2015.
  7. ^ "1975: Cola wars heat up with launch of Pepsi Challenge". The Drum. Retrieved 2020-08-29.
  8. ^ DeNeefe, Janet (March 13, 2008). "The Exotic Romance of Tamarind". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved September 29, 2013.
  9. ^ "Cola 2". Sparror.cubecinema.com. Retrieved September 29, 2013.
  10. ^ M. Ataman Aksoy; John C. Beghin, eds. (2005). "Sugar Policies: An Opportunity for Change". Global Agricultural Trade and Developing Countries. World Bank Publications. p. 329. ISBN 0-8213-5863-4.
  11. ^ Wallin, Lisa "Japanese Craft Cola is the Beverage You Didn’t Know You Needed", Japanese Food Guide
  12. ^ 김덕호 (May 2005). "냉전 초기 코카콜라와 미국 문화산업의 세계화". 미국사연구 (in Korean). 21: 105–140. Retrieved 2021-04-04.
  13. ^ Braswell, Sean (April 23, 2015). "Coke made especially for a communist". Ozy. Retrieved May 25, 2018.
  14. ^ Samvirke. "Samvirke - Rød sodavand - uden farve!". classic.samvirke.dk. Retrieved September 14, 2018.
  15. ^ "Husker du? Kult-colaen vender endelig tilbage". BT (in Danish). 8 November 2016. Archived from the original on 2016-11-09. Retrieved September 14, 2018.
  16. ^ 김덕호 (November 2006). "미국화인가 세계화인가 :코카콜라를 통해서 본 글로벌리즘". 미국사연구 (in Korean). 24: 171–206. Retrieved 2021-04-04.
  17. ^ "Coca-Cola Clear launches in Japan". beveragedaily.com. Archived from the original on 2020-08-14. Retrieved September 14, 2018.
  18. ^ "Coca-Cola Pulls a Pepsi and Launches Clear Coke". esquire. June 6, 2018. Archived from the original on 2018-06-08. Retrieved September 14, 2018.
  19. ^ Tina M. Saldana; Olga Basso; Rebecca Darden; Dale P. Sandler (2007). "Carbonated beverages and chronic kidney disease". Epidemiology. 18 (4): 501–6. doi:10.1097/EDE.0b013e3180646338. PMC 3433753. PMID 17525693.
  20. ^ "Preliminary Data Suggest That Soda And Sweet Drinks Are The Main Source Of Calories In American Diet". Sciencedaily.com. May 27, 2005. Retrieved July 2, 2011.
  21. ^ Jacobson, Michael F. (2005). "Liquid Candy: How Soft Drinks are Harming Americans' Health", pp. 5–6. Center for Science in the Public Interest. Retrieved October 13, 2010.
  22. ^ Center for Science in the Public Interest (1997). "Label Caffeine Content of Foods, Scientists Tell FDA." Retrieved June 10, 2005. Archived July 24, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
  23. ^ O’Callaghan, Frances; Muurlink, Olav; Reid, Natasha (2018-12-07). "Effects of caffeine on sleep quality and daytime functioning". Risk Management and Healthcare Policy. 11: 263–271. doi:10.2147/RMHP.S156404. ISSN 1179-1594. PMC 6292246. PMID 30573997.
  24. ^ Tucker KL, Morita K, Qiao N, Hannan MT, Cupples LA, Kiel DP (October 1, 2006). "Colas, but not other carbonated beverages, are associated with low bone mineral density in older women: The Framingham Osteoporosis Study". American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 84 (4): 936–942. doi:10.1093/ajcn/84.4.936. PMID 17023723.
  25. ^ "Single food ingredient the cause of obesity ? New study has industry up in arms". (April 26, 2004). FoodNavigator.com. Retrieved February 27, 2007.
  26. ^ "Air Koryo showcases expanded soft drink range at Rason Trade Fair | NK News". 31 August 2017.
  27. ^ "Elephant House KIK Cola - Lankan to the Last Drop". Archived from the original on December 17, 2021. Retrieved December 17, 2021.
  28. ^ "MyCola". Archived from the original on December 17, 2021. Retrieved December 17, 2021.
  29. ^ "Terelj - Silver Quality Award 2021 from Monde Selection".
  30. ^ "Le Breizh Cola sera intégralement produit en Bretagne". Ouest France (in French). Archived from the original on 2017-07-24. Retrieved 11 October 2017.
  31. ^ Davidoff, Victor (2022-11-03). "Are Western Brands as Serious About Withdrawing From Russia as They Appear?". The Moscow Times. Retrieved 2022-11-03.
  32. ^ "Sortiment". Privatbrauerei Hofmühl (in German). Retrieved 2021-04-05.
  33. ^ Sørensen, Nils Arne; Petersen, Klaus (November 2012). "Corporate Capitalism or Coca-Colonisation? Economic Interests, Cultural Concerns, Tax Policies and Coca-Cola in Denmark from 1945 to the Early 1960s". Contemporary European History. 21 (4): 597–617. doi:10.1017/S0960777312000392. ISSN 0960-7773. S2CID 163347256.
  34. ^ "LOCKWOODS-Cola-330mL-Great Britain". CanMuseum.com. CanMuseum.com. Retrieved July 21, 2018.
  35. ^ "LOCKWOODS-Cola (diet)-326mL-Great Britain". CanMuseum.com. CanMuseum.com. Retrieved July 21, 2018.
  36. ^ "Drink Ritchie – Traditional Belgian Lemonade". Retrieved 2022-07-01.
  37. ^ "Sky Cola". SkyCola.
  38. ^ "Ajegroup" (in Spanish). Ajegroup. Archived from the original on 2007-01-04. Retrieved September 29, 2013.
  39. ^ "Grupo Perú Cola - Hoy el Perú sabe mejor" (in Spanish). Donjorge.com.pe. Archived from the original on March 4, 2018. Retrieved September 29, 2013.

External links[edit]