|Country of origin||United States|
|Introduced||May 8, 1886 as Coca-Cola,|
|Color||Caramel (with certain exceptions such as Zevia Cola and Kola Román)|
|Flavor||Cola (kola nut, citrus, cinnamon and vanilla)|
Cola is a carbonated soft drink flavored with vanilla, cinnamon, citrus oils and other flavorings. Cola became popular worldwide after pharmacist John Pemberton invented Coca-Cola, a trademarked brand, in 1886—which was later imitated by other manufacturers. Most colas contain caffeine, which was originally sourced from the kola nut, leading to the drink's name, though other sources are now also used. The original cola drink by Pemberton contained caffeine from coca leaves as well. His non-alcoholic recipe was inspired by the coca wine of pharmacist Angelo Mariani, created in 1863.
Most modern colas are made a dark color using caramel color, and are sweetened with sugar and/or high-fructose corn syrup. They now come in numerous different brands. Among them, the most popular are Coca-Cola and Pepsi. These two companies have been competing since the 1890s, but their rivalry has intensified since the 1980s.
The primary modern flavoring ingredients in a cola drink are citrus oils (from orange, lime, and lemon peels), cinnamon, vanilla, and an acidic flavorant. Manufacturers of cola drinks add trace flavorings to create distinctively different tastes for each brand. Trace flavorings may include a wide variety of ingredients, such as spices like nutmeg or coriander, but the base flavorings that most people identify with a cola taste remain citrus, vanilla and cinnamon. Acidity is often provided by phosphoric acid, sometimes accompanied by citric or other isolated acids. Coca-Cola's recipe is maintained as a corporate trade secret.
A variety of different sweeteners may be added to cola, often partly dependent on local agricultural policy. High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is predominantly used in the United States and Canada due to the lower cost of government-subsidized corn. In Europe, however, HFCS is subject to production quotas designed to encourage the production of sugar; sugar is thus typically used to sweeten sodas. In addition, stevia or an artificial sweetener may be used; "sugar-free" or "diet" colas typically contain artificial sweeteners only.
In Japan, there is a burgeoning craft cola industry, with small-scale local production methods and highly unique cola recipes using locally-sourced fruits, herbs and spices.
In Denmark, a popular clear cola was made by the Cooperative FDB in 1976. It was especially known for being the "Hippie Cola" because of the focus of the harmful effects the color additive could have on children and the boycott of multinational brands. It was inspired by a campaign on harmful additives in Denmark by the Environmental-Organisation NOAH, an independent Danish division of Friends of the Earth. This was followed up with a variety of sodas without artificial coloring. Today many organic colas are available in Denmark, but, for nostalgic reasons, clear cola has still maintained its popularity to a certain degree.
A 2007 study found that consumption of colas, both those with natural sweetening and those with artificial sweetening, was associated with increased risk of chronic kidney disease. The phosphoric acid used in colas was thought to be a possible cause.
One 2005 study indicated soda and sweetened drinks are the main source of calories in the American diet and that of those who drink more sweetened drinks, obesity rates were higher. Most nutritionists advise that Coca-Cola and other soft drinks can be harmful if consumed excessively, particularly to young children whose soft drink consumption competes with, rather than complements, a balanced diet. Studies have shown that regular soft drink users have a lower intake of calcium, magnesium, vitamin C, riboflavin, and vitamin A.
The drink has also aroused criticism for its use of caffeine, which can cause physical dependence (caffeine dependence), and can reduce sleep quality. A link has been shown between long-term regular cola intake and osteoporosis in older women (but not men). This was thought to be due to the presence of phosphoric acid, and the risk for women was found to be greater for sugared and caffeinated colas than diet and decaffeinated variants, with a higher intake of cola correlating with lower bone density.
Many soft drinks in North America are sweetened mostly or entirely with high-fructose corn syrup, rather than sugar. Some nutritionists caution against consumption of corn syrup because it may aggravate obesity and type-2 diabetes more than cane sugar.
- Amrat Cola, popular in Pakistan
- Big Cola, popular in Indonesia
- Bovonto, popular in South India
- Campa Cola, India's most popular brand prior to the reintroduction of Coca-Cola and Pepsi to the Indian market in 1991
- Mojo by Akij Group, popular in Bangladesh
- Cola Turka is a local brand in Turkey
- Est Cola, a local brand in Thailand
- Future Cola, a local brand in China
- Laoshan Cola, a local brand in China
- Mecca Cola, sold in the Middle East, North Africa, as well as parts of Europe
- Pakola, popular in Pakistan
- Parsi Cola, popular in Iran
- Red Bull Cola, popular in Thailand
- Thums Up, popular in India
- Topsia Cola, popular in Iran
- Zamzam Cola, popular in Iran and parts of the Arab world
- Zesto Cola, popular in the Philippines
- Pop Cola, a Romanian brand with a retro Pop art design was launched in December 2019 and produced by Merlin's, a successful beverage Romanian company.
- Pablo Cola, a Swedish brand with a Mexican style was relaunched in with the idea of making a cola selection that have a local touch of Sweden.
- Afri-Cola, a German brand, was relaunched in April 2006 with the original formulation with the higher caffeine content.
- Baikal, a cola-like drink popular in Russia
- Barr Cola made by A.G. Barr (the makers of the popular Irn-Bru drink) in the United Kingdom
- Breizh Cola is a local brand from Brittany (France).
- Brisa Cola is a local brand from Madeira, Portugal and produced by Empresa de Cervejas da Madeira.
- Cadet-Cola, an Irish brand
- Cockta is a local brand from former Yugoslavia, which does not contain any caffeine or phosphoric acid.
- Corsica Cola is a regional cola distributed by the Corsican brewery Pietra.
- Cuba Cola is a brand from Sweden.
- Evoca Cola is a cola made with mineral water made by Evoca Drinks.
- Fentimans Curiosity Cola, is an upmarket botanically brewed cola produced by Fentimans, from the UK.
- Freeway Cola, a cola soft drink from Germany, produced as a private label for Lidl.
- Fritz-Kola, a cola soft drink from Hamburg, Germany, uses the highest possible concentration of caffeine for beverages allowed by German law.[clarification needed]
- Golf Cola is a local cola brand from Serbia produced by Knjaz Miloš.
- Grans Cola is a local brand from Sandefjord, Norway, by Grans Bryggeri. Sold exclusively at REMA 1000 in Norway.
- Green Cola is a brand from Greece that is available also in Germany, Spain, Cyprus, the Baltic states, Romania, the Middle East, Slovenia etc.
- Hay Cola is a local brand from Armenia, which began production in 1996.
- Hofmuhl Cola is a local brand from Bavaria, made by a regional brewery.
- Jolly Cola, which had a 40% share of the cola drink market in Denmark from the mid-1960s to the late 1980s.
- Karma Cola, fair trade cola from the UK.
- Kofola is the primary rival to Coca-Cola and Pepsi in Czechia and Slovakia, and does not contain phosphoric acid.
- LOCKWOODS Cola, a UK cola brand introduced in the 1960s produced by Lockwoods Foods Limited at their canning factory site in Long Sutton, England, the drink is not on the market anymore, it was sold nationally and also exported.
- Planet Cola, a brand sold at Auchan.
- Polo-Cockta, a Polish brand.
- Red Bull Cola has been available throughout Europe since 2008.
- Sinalco cola is a German cola brand sold and produced in Europe
- Siup! Cola, a Polish brand.
- Sky Cola, a Bosnian brand since 2002 made by water-bottling company Sarajevski kiseljak
- Sky Cola, a Croatian brand since 2002 made by water-bottling company Jamnica
- Tøyen-Cola is a brand from Norway.
- Ubuntu Cola is a fair trade cola from the United Kingdom available in parts of Western Europe.
- Virgin Cola was popular in South Africa and Western Europe in the 1990s but has waned in availability.
- Vita-Cola is a German cola brand with a distinct citrus flavor; nowadays it is mostly sold in eastern Germany.
- XL Cola was a Swedish cola brand introduced in 1985, but the drink is not at the market anymore.
- Mole Cola is an Italian cola sold in Italy it is also occasionally sold in France in stores called Noz only.
- Coca-Cola, often referred to simply as Coke, is produced and manufactured by The Coca-Cola Company. It is one of the most popular cola brands in North America and worldwide, as well as being the original cola.
- Pepsi, produced and manufactured by PepsiCo, is also one of the most popular cola brands in North America and worldwide. Pepsi is the main competitor and rival of Coca-Cola.
- RC Cola, short for Royal Crown Cola, is now produced by the Dr Pepper Snapple Group
- Cott produces many house brand beverages as well as its own line of products, most notably its Black Cherry and Bubba cola.
- The Double Cola Company, Double Cola
- Faygo Cola is distributed in the Eastern United States and can be found in some regions of Canada.
- Fentimans Curiosity Cola, originating from the United Kingdom in 1905, now sold across Europe and North America
- Jarritos Cola is a brand of cola from Mexico, native to Mexico and widely distributed to Latino residents of the United States.
- Jolt Cola is sold by Wet Planet Beverages of Rochester, New York.
- Jones Soda also makes a cola using cane sugar.
- Polar Beverages of Worcester, MA produces its own brand of cola under the Polar name.
- Red Bull Cola was available in the United States from 2008 to 2011.
- Shasta Cola, produced by Shasta
- TuKola and Tropicola are brands from Cuba (also sold widely in Italy).
- Zevia Cola is a zero calorie soft drink sweetened with Stevia combined with Monk Fruit and Erythritol.
- Inca Kola, created by Lindley bottler to compete with Coca-Cola. Still the best selling cola in Perú.
- Big Cola, a cola produced by Peruvian company Ajegroup which operates in 14 countries in Latin America.
- Perú Cola, created by Peruvian bottler Embotelladora Don Jorge S.A.C. to compete with Coca-Cola and Kola Real.
- Kola Román, a cola that was invented in the city of Cartagena, Colombia in 1865 by Don Carlos Román.
- LA Ice Cola is an Australian cola owned by Tru Blu Beverages, similar to Coca-Cola and Pepsi, its rivals.
- Cola chicken
- Open-source cola – a soft drink whose recipe is publicly published
- List of brand name soft drinks products
- List of soft drink flavors
- List of soft drink producers
- List of soft drinks by country
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on March 27, 2019. Retrieved December 3, 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on March 27, 2019. Retrieved March 16, 2019.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Coca Wine". Cocaine.org. Retrieved September 29, 2013.
- 최재원 (April 2015). "코카콜라의 스토리텔링을 통한 감성마케팅 응용". 마케팅 (in Korean). Retrieved 2021-04-04.
- 김덕호 (November 2002). "2차 세계대전과 코카콜라의 전지구화(Globalization)". 미국사연구 (in Korean). Retrieved 2021-04-04.
- 송지성; 조은이 (June 2001). "코카콜라 브렌드에 나타난 커뮤니케이션 전략". 한국디자인문화학회지 (in Korean). Retrieved 2021-04-04.
- DeNeefe, Janet (March 13, 2008). "The Exotic Romance of Tamarind". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved September 29, 2013.
- "Cola 2". Sparror.cubecinema.com. Retrieved September 29, 2013.
- M. Ataman Aksoy; John C. Beghin, eds. (2005). "Sugar Policies: An Opportunity for Change". Global Agricultural Trade and Developing Countries. World Bank Publications. p. 329. ISBN 0-8213-5863-4.
- Wallin, Lisa "Japanese Craft Cola is the Beverage You Didn’t Know You Needed", Japanese Food Guide
- 김덕호 (May 2005). "냉전 초기 코카콜라와 미국 문화산업의 세계화". 미국사연구 (in Korean). Retrieved 2021-04-04.
- Braswell, Sean (April 23, 2015). "Coke made especially for a communist". Ozy. Retrieved May 25, 2018.
- Samvirke. "Samvirke - Rød sodavand - uden farve!". classic.samvirke.dk. Retrieved September 14, 2018.
- "Husker du? Kult-colaen vender endelig tilbage". Retrieved September 14, 2018.
- 김덕호 (November 2006). "미국화인가 세계화인가 :코카콜라를 통해서 본 글로벌리즘". 미국사연구 (in Korean). Retrieved 2021-04-04.
- "Coca-Cola Clear launches in Japan". Retrieved September 14, 2018.
- "Coca-Cola Pulls a Pepsi and Launches Clear Coke". June 6, 2018. Retrieved September 14, 2018.
- Tina M. Saldana; Olga Basso; Rebecca Darden; Dale P. Sandler (2007). "Carbonated beverages and chronic kidney disease". Epidemiology. 18 (4): 501–6. doi:10.1097/EDE.0b013e3180646338. PMC 3433753. PMID 17525693.
- "Preliminary Data Suggest That Soda And Sweet Drinks Are The Main Source Of Calories In American Diet". Sciencedaily.com. May 27, 2005. Retrieved July 2, 2011.
- Jacobson, Michael F. (2005). "Liquid Candy: How Soft Drinks are Harming Americans' Health", pp. 5–6. Center for Science in the Public Interest. Retrieved October 13, 2010.
- Center for Science in the Public Interest (1997). "Label Caffeine Content of Foods, Scientists Tell FDA." Retrieved June 10, 2005. Archived July 24, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
- O’Callaghan, Frances; Muurlink, Olav; Reid, Natasha (2018-12-07). "Effects of caffeine on sleep quality and daytime functioning". Risk Management and Healthcare Policy. 11: 263–271. doi:10.2147/RMHP.S156404. ISSN 1179-1594. PMC 6292246. PMID 30573997.
- Tucker KL, Morita K, Qiao N, Hannan MT, Cupples LA, Kiel DP (October 1, 2006). "Colas, but not other carbonated beverages, are associated with low bone mineral density in older women: The Framingham Osteoporosis Study". American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 84 (4): 936–942. doi:10.1093/ajcn/84.4.936. PMID 17023723.
- "Single food ingredient the cause of obesity ? New study has industry up in arms". (April 26, 2004). FoodNavigator.com. Retrieved February 27, 2007.
- "Le Breizh Cola sera intégralement produit en Bretagne". Ouest France. Retrieved 11 October 2017.
- "Sortiment". Privatbrauerei Hofmühl (in German). Retrieved 2021-04-05.
- Sørensen, Nils Arne; Petersen, Klaus (November 2012). "Corporate Capitalism or Coca-Colonisation? Economic Interests, Cultural Concerns, Tax Policies and Coca-Cola in Denmark from 1945 to the Early 1960s". Contemporary European History. 21 (4): 597–617. doi:10.1017/S0960777312000392. ISSN 0960-7773.
- "LOCKWOODS-Cola-330mL-Great Britain". CanMuseum.com. CanMuseum.com. Retrieved July 21, 2018.
- "LOCKWOODS-Cola (diet)-326mL-Great Britain". CanMuseum.com. CanMuseum.com. Retrieved July 21, 2018.
- "Sky Cola". SkyCola.
- "Ajegroup". Ajegroup. Retrieved September 29, 2013.
- "Grupo Perú Cola - Hoy el Perú sabe mejor" (in Spanish). Donjorge.com.pe. Archived from the original on March 4, 2018. Retrieved September 29, 2013.
|Look up cola in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
- Cola and Mentos mints trick
- OpenCola recipe (originally published by Cory Doctorow)
- Straight Dope article about caffeine levels on soft drinks