List of psychoactive plants

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Salvia divinorum, a dissociative hallucinogenic sage

A list of plants that are used as hallucinogens. Some of them have been used entheogenically for millennia. The plants are listed according to the substances they contain.

Cannabis[edit]

Cannabis plant

Cannabis (Marijuana) is a popular psychoactive plant that is often used medically and recreationally. The psychoactive substance in cannabis, THC, is unique in that it contains no nitrogen and is not an indole, tryptamine, phenethylamine, anticholinergic (deliriant), or a dissociative drug. Cannabis plants tend to vary, with different strains producing dynamic balances of cannabinoids (THC, CBD, etc.) yielding markedly different effects. Popular strains are often hybrids of Cannabis sativa and Cannabis indica.

Some universities and research firms currently study the medicinal effects of cannabis. Many jurisdictions have laws regulating or prohibiting the sale and use of medical and recreational cannabis.

Tryptamines[edit]

DMT Molecule in 2D
DMT Molecule in 3D

Many of the psychedelic plants contain dimethyltryptamine (DMT), which is either snorted (Virola, Yopo snuffs), smoked, or drunk with MAOIs (Ayahuasca). It cannot simply be eaten as it is not orally active without an MAOI and it needs to be extremely concentrated to be smokable.

Acanthaceae[edit]

Species, Alkaloid content, where given, refers to dried material

Aceraceae[edit]

  • Acer saccharinum (Silver Maple Tree) was found to contain the indole alkaloid gramine (not active and extremely toxic) 0.05% in the leaves, so it is possible that other members of this plant family contain active compounds.[1]

Aizoaceae[edit]

Apocynaceae[edit]

Fabaceae (Leguminosae)[edit]

1,2,3,4-Tetrahydro-6-methoxy-2,9-dimethyl-beta-carboline, Plant,[47] 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydro-6-methoxy-2-methyl-beta-carboline, Plant,[44] 5-Methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine, Bark,[44] 5-Methoxy-N-methyltryptamine, Bark,[44] Bufotenin, plant,[44] beans,[43] Bufotenin N-oxide, Fruit,[44] beans,[43] N,N-Dimethyltryptamine-oxide, Fruit[44][48]

Caesalpinioideae subfamily[edit]

Malpighiaceae[edit]

Myristicaceae[edit]

Ochnaceae[edit]

Ochnaceae[edit]

Poaceae (Gramineae)[edit]

Some Graminae (grass) species contain gramine, which can cause brain damage, other organ damage, central nervous system damage and death in sheep.[69]

Polygonaceae[edit]

Punicaceae[edit]

  • Punica granatum "DMT in root cortex;"[63] The dried stem and root bark of the tree contain about 0.4-0.9% alkaloids.[73]

Rubiaceae[edit]

Rutaceae[76][77][edit]

Urticaceae[edit]

Phenethylamines[edit]

Species, Alkaloid Content (Fresh) - Alkaloid Content (Dried)

  • Coryphantha contains various PhEAs alkaloids including Macromerine Coryphanthine MethOxy-Candicine Corypalmine NMetCorypalmine and like compounds. [78] [79]
Macromerine meta(ortho(CH3O)2)C6H3-CH(OH)-CH2N(CH3)2 , m(o(CH3O)2)C6H3-CH[O(-)]-CH2N(+)(CH3)3
p(-)O-C6H5-CH(H,OH,OCH3)CH2N(+)(CH3)3 and C6H5-CH[O(-)]-CH2N(+)(CH3)3
Coryphanthine C6H5-CH(OCH3)-CH2N(+)(CH3)3 , MeO-Candicine paraCH3O-C6H4-CH2CH2-N(+)(CH3)3

Beta-carbolines[edit]

Harmaline, a Beta-carboline

Beta-carbolines are "reversible" MAO-A inhibitors. They are found in some plants used to make Ayahuasca. In high doses the harmala alkaloids are somewhat hallucinogenic on their own. β-carboline is a benzodiazepine receptor inverse agonist and can therefore have convulsive, anxiogenic and memory enhancing effects.[91]

Apocynaceae[edit]

Bignoniaceae[edit]

Calycanthaceae[edit]

Chenopodiaceae[edit]

Combretaceae[edit]

Cyperaceae[edit]

Elaeagnaceae[edit]

Gramineae[edit]

Lauraceae[edit]

Leguminosae[edit]

Loganiaceae[edit]

Malpighiaceae[edit]

Myristicaceae[edit]

Ochnaceae[edit]

Palmae[edit]

Papaveraceae[edit]

Passifloraceae[edit]

Polygonaceae[edit]

Rubiaceae[edit]

Rutaceae[edit]

Sapotaceae[edit]

Simaroubaceae[edit]

Solanaceae[edit]

Symplocaceae[edit]

Tiliaceae[edit]

Zygophyllaceae[edit]

Plants containing other psychoactive substances[edit]

Substance
Plant Comment
Acorus calamus Asarone
Alchornea floribunda Yohimbine
Areca catechu Areca nut
Unknown
Stachelmohn.JPG

Argemone mexicana

Used by Chinese residents of Mexico during the early 20th century as a legal substitute for opium and currently smoked as a marijuana substitute.
Ergine.png
Starr 050107-2974 Argyreia nervosa.jpg

Argyreia nervosa (Hawaiian Baby Woodrose)

Seeds contain high amounts of ergine (also known as LSA, lysergamide, or lysergic acid amide), often 50-150X the amounts found in Ipomoea violacea.
Artemisia absinthium Additive to absinthe. Also called "wormwood"
Atropa belladonna Deadly nightshade
Tropane alkaloids
Brugmansia Angel's trumpets
Unknown
Calea zacatechichi cutting.jpg

Calea zacatechichi

Produces vivid dreams after smoking. It is also employed by the Chontal people as a medicinal herb against gastrointestinal disorders, and is used as an appetizer, cathartic anti-dysentery remedy, and as a fever-reducing agent. Its psychedelic properties do not become apparent until the user is asleep.
S-Cathinone.svg
Catha edulis.jpg

Catha edulis

Khat[101]
Catharanthus roseus Catharanthus roseus is (perhaps unpleasantly) "hallucinogenic."[102]
Unknown
Cestrum nocturnum Night-blooming jasmine
Unknown
Coleus-1.jpg

Coleus

Unknown
Bulbocapnine skeletal.svg
Corydalis ambigua.jpg

Corydalis solida, cava

Bulbocapnine, Nantenine, Tetrahydropalmatine
Tropane alkaloids
Datura Thorn apple, devil's trumpets, loco weed, Jimson weed
Dermatophyllum Mescal bean
Unknown
Desfontainia spinosa Causes visions[103]
Ephedra sinica Ephedra
Coca (Erythroxylum coca) Widely used illegal stimulant, produces hallucination in overdose, native to South America
Unknown
Fittonia albivenis Nerve or mosaic plant
Unknown
Foeniculum vulgare.JPG

Foeniculum vulgare

Unknown
Himbacine.svg
Galbulimima belgraveana Galbulimima belgraveana is rich in alkaloids and twenty-eight alkaloids have been isolated including himbacine.
Glaucine.png
Glaucium flavum03.jpg

Glaucium flavum

Glaucine
Unknown
Heimia myrtifolia Auditory
Unknown
Heimia salicifolia Auditory[104][104]
Hippobroma longiflora Star of Bethlehem
Humulus lupulus Hops
Hypericum perforatum Saint John's wort
Tropane alkaloids
Hyoscyamus niger Henbane
Unknown
Ilex guayusa Ilex guayusa is used as an additive to some versions of Ayahuasca. According to the Ecuadorian indigenous, it is also slightly hallucinogenic on its own, when drunk in high enough quantities.
Ipomoea tricolor-1.jpg
Ipomoea tricolor & Ipomoea violacea
Ergine in seeds; up to 0.12% total[105]
Unknown
Justicia pectoralis Unknown
Lactuca virosa - Köhler–s Medizinal-Pflanzen-213.jpg

Lactuca virosa

Lactucarium
Lagochilin.png
Lagochilus inebrians Lagochilin is thought to be responsible for the sedative, hypotensive and hemostatic effects of this plant.
Pukateine.png
Old Rimu in Kaitoke Park.jpg

Laurelia novae-zelandiae

Pukateine
Leonurine structure.png
Leonotis leonurus flower.jpg

Leonotis leonurus

Both leaves and flowers (where most concentrated) contain Leonurine. (Effects reminiscent of marijuana)
Leonurine structure.png
Leonotis nepetifolia1.jpg

Leonotis nepetifolia

Both leaves and flowers (where most concentrated) contain Leonurine. (Effects reminiscent of marijuana)
Unknown
Sweetbay Magnolia Magnolia virginiana Comparison 4400px.jpg

Magnolia virginiana

[106]
Tropane alkaloids
Mandragora officinarum Mandrake
Ergine
Some Mirabilis spp. Possibly contains ergine[citation needed]
Mitragyna speciosa Kratom
Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans)
Nelumbo nucifera Sacred lotus
Nepeta cataria Catnip
Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) Can cause hallucination in very large doses
Aporphine.svg
Nymphaea caerulea.jpg

Nymphaea caerulea

Blue lotus or lily. Recent studies have shown Nymphaea caerulea to have psychedelic properties, and may have been used as a sacrament in ancient Egypt and certain ancient South American cultures. Dosages of 5 to 10 grams of the flowers induces slight stimulation, a shift in thought processes, enhanced visual perception, and mild closed-eye visuals. Nymphaea caerulea is related to, and possesses similar activity as Nelumbo nucifera, the Sacred Lotus. Both Nymphaea caerulea and Nelumbo nucifera contain the alkaloids nuciferine and apomorphine, which have been recently isolated by independent labs.[citation needed]

These psychoactive effects make Nymphaea caerulea a likely candidate (among several) for the lotus plant eaten by the mythical Lotophagi in Homer's Odyssey.

Used in aromatherapy, Nymphaea caerulea is purported to have a "divine" essence, bringing euphoria, heightened awareness and tranquility.[citation needed]

Other sources cite anti-spasmodic and sedative, purifying and calming properties.

Heliamine
Pachycereus pringlei Largest cactus in the world. Heliamine bears some similarities to mescaline
Opium (Papaver somniferum) Widely used analgesic, native to the Old World
Passiflora Passion flower
Pausinystalia johimbe Yohimbe
Unknown
Pedicularis densiflora Indian warrior
Kavalactone General Structure.PNG
Starr 040318-0058 Piper methysticum.jpg

Piper methysticum

Kavalactones
Ergine
Rivea corymbosa Seeds contain ergine, lysergol, and turbicoryn; lysergic acid alkaloids up to 0.03%[107]
Salvinorin A structure.svg
Salvia divinorum - Herba de Maria.jpg

Salvia divinorum

Salvinorin A, 0.89-3.87 mg/g, also Salvinorin B and Salvinorin C[108]
Scutellaria Skullcaps
Unknown
Silene-capensis.jpg

Silene capensis

Produces vivid dreams after smoking.
Unknown
Tagetes lemmonii flower.jpg

Tagetes lucida

Anethole, Chavicol, Coumarin, Estragole, Isorhamnetin, Methyleugenol, Quercitin
Ibogaine.png
Iboga.jpg

Tabernanthe iboga

Ibogaine in root bark[109]
Ibogaine.png

Tabernanthe orientalis

Ibogaine in root leaves[109]
Ibogaine.png

Tabernanthe pubescens

Ibogaine and similar alkaloids[109]
Ibogaine.png

Tabernaemontana sp.

Ibogaine[109]
Ibogaine.png
Confederate Jasmine, Star Jasmine (Trachelospermum jasminoides).jpg

Trachelospermum jasminoides

Ibogaine[110]
Damianin
Tunera diffusa 2.jpg

Turnera diffusa

Damianin
Valeriana officinalis Valerian
Vinca minor Vincamine
Unknown
Zornia latifolia Zornia latifolia is mentioned in Food of the Gods as "an hallucinogenic substitute for cannabis". It is nicknamed Maconha brava because locals use it as a cannabis substitute.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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Bibliography[edit]

  • Al Zarouni, Yousif (2015). The Effects of Khat (Catha Edulis). London: Yousif Al Zarouni. 

External links[edit]