List of psychoactive plants

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Salvia divinorum, a dissociative hallucinogenic sage

A list of plants that are used as hallucinogens. Some of them have been used entheogenically for millennia. The plants are listed according to the substances they contain.


Cannabis plant

Cannabis (Marijuana) is a popular psychoactive plant that is often used medically and recreationally. Cannabis is also unique in that it contains a psychoactive substance, THC, which contains no nitrogen and is not an indole, tryptamine, phenethylamine, anticholinergic (deliriant), or a dissociative drug. Cannabis plants tend to vary, with different strains producing dynamic balances of cannabinoids (THC, CBD, etc.) that cause different strains to produce markedly different effects, popular strains often being hybrids of both Cannabis sativa and Cannabis indica. Some universities and research firms currently study the medicinal effects of cannabis. Many jurisdictions have laws regulating or prohibiting the sale and use of medical and recreational cannabis.


DMT Molecule in 2D
DMT Molecule in 3D

Many of the psychedelic plants contain dimethyltryptamine (DMT), which is either snorted (Virola, Yopo snuffs), smoked, or drunk with MAOIs (Ayahuasca). It cannot simply be eaten as it is not orally active without an MAOI and it needs to be extremely concentrated to be smokable.


Species, Alkaloid content, where given, refers to dried material


  • Acer saccharinum (Silver Maple Tree) was found to contain the indole alkaloid gramine (not active and extremely toxic) 0.05% in the leaves, so it is possible that other members of this plant family contain active compounds.[1]



Fabaceae (Leguminosae)[edit]

1,2,3,4-Tetrahydro-6-methoxy-2,9-dimethyl-beta-carboline, Plant,[47] 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydro-6-methoxy-2-methyl-beta-carboline, Plant,[44] 5-Methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine, Bark,[44] 5-Methoxy-N-methyltryptamine, Bark,[44] Bufotenin, plant,[44] beans,[43] Bufotenin N-oxide, Fruit,[44] beans,[43] N,N-Dimethyltryptamine-oxide, Fruit[44][48]

Caesalpinioideae subfamily[edit]





Poaceae (Gramineae)[edit]

Some Graminae (grass) species contain gramine, which can cause brain damage, other organ damage, central nervous system damage and death in sheep.[69]



  • Punica granatum "DMT in root cortex;"[63] The dried stem and root bark of the tree contain about 0.4-0.9% alkaloids.[73]





Species, Alkaloid Content (Fresh) - Alkaloid Content (Dried)

  • Coryphantha contains various PhEAs alkaloids including Macromerine Coryphanthine MethOxy-Candicine Corypalmine NMetCorypalmine and like compounds. [78] [79]
Macromerine meta(ortho(CH3O)2)C6H3-CH(OH)-CH2N(CH3)2 , m(o(CH3O)2)C6H3-CH[O(-)]-CH2N(+)(CH3)3
p(-)O-C6H5-CH(H,OH,OCH3)CH2N(+)(CH3)3 and C6H5-CH[O(-)]-CH2N(+)(CH3)3
Coryphanthine C6H5-CH(OCH3)-CH2N(+)(CH3)3 , MeO-Candicine paraCH3O-C6H4-CH2CH2-N(+)(CH3)3


Harmaline, a Beta-carboline

Beta-carbolines are "reversible" MAO-A inhibitors. They are found in some plants used to make Ayahuasca. In high doses the harmala alkaloids are somewhat hallucinogenic on their own. β-carboline is a benzodiazepine receptor inverse agonist and can therefore have convulsive, anxiogenic and memory enhancing effects.[91]



























Plants containing other psychoactive substances[edit]



Salvinorin A structure.svg
Salvinorin A
Salvia divinorum - Herba de Maria.jpg

Salvia divinorum

Salvinorin A, 0.89-3.87 mg/g, also Salvinorin B and Salvinorin C[101]
Catha edulis.jpg

Catha edulis

Foeniculum vulgare.JPG

Foeniculum vulgare


Justicia pectoralis

Old Rimu in Kaitoke Park.jpg

Laurelia novae-zelandiae

Tunera diffusa 2.jpg

Turnera diffusa

Sweetbay Magnolia Magnolia virginiana Comparison 4400px.jpg

Magnolia virginiana

Bulbocapnine skeletal.svg
Corydalis ambigua.jpg

Corydalis solida, Corydalis cava

Bulbocapnine, Nantenine, Tetrahydropalmatine
Kavalactone General Structure.PNG
Starr 040318-0058 Piper methysticum.jpg

Piper methysticum


Lagochilus inebrians

Lagochilin is thought to be responsible for the sedative, hypotensive and hemostatic effects of this plant.
Tagetes lemmonii flower.jpg

Tagetes lucida

Anethole, Chavicol, Coumarin, Estragole, Isorhamnetin, Methyleugenol, Quercitin
Lactuca virosa - Köhler–s Medizinal-Pflanzen-213.jpg

Lactuca virosa

Glaucium flavum03.jpg

Glaucium flavum


Galbulimima belgraveana

Galbulimima belgraveana is rich in alkaloids and twenty-eight alkaloids have been isolated. Himbacine, himbeline, himandravine, himgravine, himbosine, himandridine, himandrine, G.B. 1, G. B. 2, G. B. 3, G. B. 4, G. B. 5, G. B. 6, G. B. 7, G. B. 8, G. B. 9, G. B. 10, G. B. 11, G. B. 12, himgaline, himbadine, G. B. 13, himgrine, G. B. 14, G. B. 15, G. B. 16, G. B. 17 and G. B. 18.

Zornia latifolia

Zornia latifolia, is mentioned in Food of the Gods as "an hallucinogenic substitute for cannabis". It's nicknamed Maconha brava because locals use it as a cannabis substitute.

Argemone mexicana

Used by Chinese residents of Mexico during the early 20th century as a legal substitute for opium and currently smoked as a marijuana substitute.
Starr 050107-2974 Argyreia nervosa.jpg

Argyreia nervosa (Hawaiian Baby Woodrose)

Seeds contain high amounts of LSA (also known as d-lysergic acid amide, d-lysergamide, ergine, and LA-111), often 50-150X the amounts found in Ipomoea violacea.

Tabernanthe iboga

Ibogaine in root bark[104]

Tabernanthe orientalis

Ibogaine in root leaves[104]

Tabernanthe pubescens

Ibogaine and similar alkaloids[104]

Tabernaemontana sp.

Confederate Jasmine, Star Jasmine (Trachelospermum jasminoides).jpg

Trachelospermum jasminoides

Nymphaea caerulea.jpg

Nymphaea caerulea

Recent studies have shown Nymphaea caerulea to have psychedelic properties, and may have been used as a sacrament in ancient Egypt and certain ancient South American cultures. Dosages of 5 to 10 grams of the flowers induces slight stimulation, a shift in thought processes, enhanced visual perception, and mild closed-eye visuals. Nymphaea caerulea is related to, and possesses similar activity as Nelumbo nucifera, the Sacred Lotus. Both Nymphaea caerulea and Nelumbo nucifera contain the alkaloids nuciferine and apomorphine, which have been recently isolated by independent labs.[citation needed]

These psychoactive effects make Nymphaea caerulea a likely candidate (among several) for the lotus plant eaten by the mythical Lotophagi in Homer's Odyssey.

Used in aromatherapy, Nymphaea caerulea is purported to have a "divine" essence, bringing euphoria, heightened awareness and tranquility.[citation needed]

Other sources cite anti-spasmodic and sedative, purifying and calming properties.

Leonurine structure.png
Leonotis leonurus flower.jpg

Leonotis leonurus

Both leaves and flowers (where most concentrated) contain Leonurine. (Effects reminiscent of marijuana)
Leonurine structure.png
Leonotis nepetifolia1.jpg

Leonotis nepetifolia

Both leaves and flowers (where most concentrated) contain Leonurine. (Effects reminiscent of marijuana)
Active Chemical Unknown
Calea zacatechichi cutting.jpg

Calea zacatechichi

Produces vivid dreams after smoking. It is also employed by the Chontal people as a medicinal herb against gastrointestinal disorders, and is used as an appetizer, cathartic anti-dysentery remedy, and as a fever-reducing agent. Its psychedelic properties do not become apparent until the user is asleep.

Silene capensis

Produces vivid dreams after smoking.


Ipomoea tricolor-1.jpg Ipomoea tricolor & Ipomoea violacea
D-lysergic acid amide and lysergic acid amides in the seeds; up to 0.12% total[106]
Rivea corymbosa
Seeds contain D-lysergic acid amide, lysergol, and turbicoryn; lysergic acid alkaloids up to 0.03%[107]
Some Mirabilis sp. (Actually in Nyctaginaceae family)
LSA[citation needed]

Acoraceae family:

Apocynaceae family:

Aquifoliaceae family:

  • Ilex guayusa, which is used as an additive to some versions of Ayahuasca. According to the Ecuadorian indigenous, it is also slightly hallucinogenic on its own, when drunk in high enough quantities.

Asteraceae family:

Euphorbiaceae family:

Loganaceae family:

Lythraceae family:

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External links[edit]