Modern architecture

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This article is about modern movement architecture. For architecture in the present day, see contemporary architecture.
Contrasts in modern architecture, as shown by adjacent high-rises in Chicago, Illinois. 330 North Wabash (also known as the AMA Center, or IBM Plaza) (right), by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, is a later example of the clean rectilinear lines and glass of the International Style, whereas Marina City, (left), by his student Bertrand Goldberg, reflects a more sculptural Mid-Century Modern aesthetic.

Modern architecture or modernist architecture is a term applied to a group of styles of architecture which emerged in the first half of the 20th century and became dominant after World War II. It was based upon new technologies of construction, particularly the use of glass, steel and reinforced concrete; and upon a rejection of the traditional neoclassical architecture and Beaux-Arts styles that were popular in the 19th century. [1]

Modern architecture continued a dominant architectural style for institutional and corporate buildings into the 21st century. Modernism eventually generated reactions, most notably Postmodernism which sought to preserve pre-modern elements, while "Neo-modernism" has emerged as a reaction to Post-modernism.

Notable architects important to the history and development of the modernist movement include Frank Lloyd Wright, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Le Corbusier, Walter Gropius, Konstantin Melnikov, Erich Mendelsohn, Joseph Eichler, Richard Neutra, Louis Sullivan, Gerrit Rietveld, Bruno Taut, Gunnar Asplund, Arne Jacobsen, Oscar Niemeyer and Alvar Aalto.


The Salk Institute complex in La Jolla, California, by architect Louis Kahn.

Common themes of modern architecture include:

  • the notion that "Form follows function", a dictum originally expressed by Frank Lloyd Wright's early mentor Louis Sullivan, meaning that the result of design should derive directly from its purpose
  • simplicity and clarity of forms and elimination of "unnecessary detail"
  • materials at 90 degrees to each other
  • visual expression of structure (as opposed to the hiding of structural elements)
  • the related concept of "Truth to materials", meaning that the true nature or natural appearance of a material ought to be seen rather than concealed or altered to represent something else
  • use of industrially-produced materials; adoption of the machine aesthetic
  • particularly in International Style modernism, a visual emphasis on horizontal and vertical lines


The Crystal Palace, 1851, was one of the first buildings to have vast amounts of glass supported by structural metal, foreshadowing trends in Modernist architecture.

There are multiple lenses through which the evolution of modern architecture may be viewed. Some historians see it as a social matter, closely tied to the project of Modernity and thus the Enlightenment. Modern architecture developed, in their opinion, as a result of social and political revolutions.[2] Others see Modern architecture as primarily driven by technological and engineering developments. Still other historians regard Modernism as a matter of taste, a reaction against eclecticism and the lavish stylistic excesses of Victorian and Edwardian architecture.

With the Industrial Revolution, the availability of newly-available building materials such as iron, steel, and sheet glass drove the invention of new building techniques. In 1796, Shrewsbury mill owner Charles Bage first used his 'fireproof' design, which relied on cast iron and brick with flag stone floors. Such construction greatly strengthened the structure of mills, which enabled them to accommodate much bigger machines. Due to poor knowledge of iron's properties as a construction material, a number of early mills collapsed. It was not until the early 1830s that Eaton Hodgkinson introduced the section beam, leading to widespread use of iron construction. This kind of austere industrial architecture utterly transformed the landscape of northern Britain, leading to the description of places like Manchester and parts of West Yorkshire as "Dark satanic mills". The Crystal Palace by Joseph Paxton at the Great Exhibition of 1851 was an early example of iron and glass construction, followed in 1864 by the first glass and metal curtain wall. A further development was that of the steel-framed skyscraper in Chicago around 1890 by William Le Baron Jenney and Louis Sullivan.

Early modernism in Europe (1900-1914)[edit]

At the end of the 19th century, a few architects began to challenge the traditional Beaux Arts and Neoclassical styles that dominated architecture in Europe and the United States. The Glasgow School of Art 1896-99) designed by Charles Rennie MacIntosh, had a facade dominated by large vertical bays of windows.[3] The Art Nouveau style was launched in the 1890s by Victor Horta in Belgium and Hector Guimard in France; it introduced new styles of decoration, based on vegetal and floral forms. In Barcelona, Antonio Gaudi conceived architecture as a form of sculpture; the facade of the Casa Battlo in Barcelona (1904-1907) had no straight lines; it was encrusted with colorful mosaics of stone and ceramic tiles [4]

Architects also began to experiment with new materials and techniques, which gave them greater freedom to create new forms. In 1903-1904 in Paris Auguste Perret and Henri Sauvage began to use reinforced concrete, previously only used for industrial structures, to build apartment buildings.[5] Reinforced concrete, which could be molded into any shape, and which could create enormous spaces without the need of supporting pillars, replaced stone and brick as the primary material for modernist architects. The first concrete apartment buildings by Perret and Sauvage were covered with ceramic tiles, but in 1905 Perret built the first concrete parking garage on 51 rue de Ponthieu in Paris; here the concrete was left bare, and the space between the concrete was filled with glass windows. Henri Sauvage added another construction innovation in an apartment building on Rue Vavin in Paris (1912-1914); the reinforced concrete building was in steps, with each floor set back from the floor below, creating a series of terraces. Between 1910 and 1913, Auguste Perret built the Théâtre des Champs-Élysées, a masterpiece of reinforced concrete construction, with Art Deco sculptural bas-reliefs on he facade by Antoine Bourdelle. Because of the concrete construction, no columns blocked the spectator's view of the stage. [6]

Otto Wagner, in Vienna, was another pioneer of the new style. In his book Moderne Arkchtekture (1895) he had called for a more rationalist style of architecture, based on "modern life". He designed a stylized ornamental metro station at Karlsplatz in Vienna (1888-89), then an ornamental Art Nouveau residence, Majolika House (1898), before moving to a much more geometric and simplified style, without ornament, in the Austrian Postal Savings Bank (1904-1906). Wagner declared his intention to express the function of the building in its exterior. The reinforced concrete exterior was covered with plaques of marble attached with bolts of polished aluminum. The interior was purely functional and spare, a large open space of steel, glass and concrete where the only decoration was the structure itself. [7].

The Viennese architect Adolf Loos also began removing any ornament from his buildings. His Steiner House, in Vienna (1910), was an example of what he called rationalist architecture; it had a simple stucco rectangual facade with square windows and no ornament. . The fame of the new movement, which became known as the Vienna Secession spread beyond Austria. Josef Hoffmann, a student of Wagner, constructed a landmark of early modernist architecture, the Palais Stoclet, in Brussels, in 1906-1911. This residence, built of brick covered with Norwegian marble, was composed of geometric blocks, wings and a tower. A large pool in front of the house reflected its cubic forms. The interior was decorated with paintings by Gustav Klimt and other artists, and the architect even designed clothing for the family to match the architecture.[8]

In Germany, a modernist industrial movement, Deutscher Werkbund (German Work Federation) had been created in Munich in 1907 by Hermann Muthesius, a prominent architectural commentator. Its goal was to bring together designers and industrialists, to turn out well-designed, high quality products, and in the process to invent a new type of architecture. [9] The organization originally included twelve architects and twelve business firms, but quickly expanded. The architects include Peter Behrens, Theodor Fischer (who served as its first president), Josef Hoffmann and Richard Riemerschmid. [10] In 1909 Behrens designed one of the earliest and most influential industrial buildings in the modernist style, the AEG turbine factory, a functional monument of steel and concrete. In 1911-1913, Adolf Meyer and Walter Gropius, who had both worked for Behrens, built another revolutionary industrial plant, the Fagus factory in Alfeld an der Leine, a building without ornament where every construction element was on display. The Werkbund organized a major exposition of modernist design in Cologne just a few weeks before the outbreak of the First World War in August 1914. For the 1914 Cologne exhibition, Bruno Taut built a revolutionary glass pavilion.[11].

Early American modernism (1900-1914)[edit]

Frank Lloyd Wright was a highly original and independent American architect who refused to be categorized in any one architectural movement. Like Le Corbusier and Mies Van der Rohe, he had no formal architectural training. In 1887-93 he worked in the Chicago office of Louis Sullivan, who pioneered the first tall steel-frame office buildings in Chicago, and who famously stated "form follows function." [12] Wright set out to break all the traditional rules. Wright was particularly famous for his Prairie Houses, including the Winslow House in River Forest, Illinois(1893-94),;Arthur Heurtley House (1902) and Robie House (1909); sprawling, geometric residences without decoration, with strong horizontal lines which seemed to grow out of the earth, and which echoed the wide flat spaces of the American prairie. His Larkin Building (1904-1906) in Buffalo, New York, Unity Temple (1905) in Oak Park, Illinois and Unity Temple had highly original forms and no connection with historical precedents. [13]

The Birth of the skyscraper[edit]

Main article: Early skyscrapers

At the end of the 19th century, the first skyscrapers began to appear in the United States. They were a response to the shortage of land and high cost of real estate in the center of the fast-growing American cities, and the availability of new technologies, including fireproof steel frames and improvements in the safety elevator invented by Elisha Otis in 1852. The first steel-framed "skyscraper", The Home Insurance Building in Chicago, was ten stories high. It was designed by William Le Baron Jenney in 1883, and was briefly the tallest building in the world. It was surpassed by the Home Insurance Building of Louis Sullivan in Buffalo, New York. sullivan built another monumental new structure, the Carson, Pirie, Scott and Company Building, in the heart of Chicago in 1904-06. While these buildings were revolutionary in their steel frames and height, the designs of their facades were in the more traditional neo-renaissance, Neo-Gothic and Beaux-Arts architecture. The Woolworth Building, designed by Cass Gilbert, was completed in 1912, and was the tallest building in the world until the completion of the Chrysler Building in 1929. Its exterior was in the Neo-Gothic style, complete with decorative buttresses, arches and spires, which caused it be be nicknamed the "Cathedral of Commerce." [14]

The Rise of Modernism (1919-1930)[edit]

After the first World War, a prolonged struggle began between architects who favored the more traditional styles of neo-classicism and the Beaux-Arts architecture style, and the modernists, led by Le Corbusier and Robert Mallet-Stevens in France, Walter Gropius and Mies Van Der Rohe in Germany, and Konstantin Melnikov in the new Soviet Union, who wanted only pure forms and the elimination of any decoration. Art Deco architects such as Auguste Perret and Henri Sauvage often made a compromise between the two, combining modernist forms and stylized decoration.

Le Corbusier and Mallet-Stevens[edit]

The dominant figure in the rise of modernism in France was Charles-Édouard Jeanneret, a Swiss-French architect who in 1920 took the name Le Corbusier. In 1920 he co-founded a journal called 'L'Espirit Nouveau and energetically promoted architecture that was functional, pure, and free of any decoration or historical associations. He was also a passionate advocate of a new urbanism, based on planned cities. In 1922 he presented a design of a city for three million people, whose inhabitants lived in identical sixty-story tall skyscrapers surrounded by open parkland. He designed modular houses, which would be mass-produced on the same plan and assembled into apartment blocks, neighborhoods and cities. In 1923 he published "Toward an Architecture", with his famous slogan, "a machine is a house to live in." [15] He tirelessly promoted his ideas through slogans, articles, books, conferences, and participation in Expositions.

To illustrate his ideas, in the 1920s he built a series of houses and villas in and around Paris. They were all built according to a common system, based upon the use of reinforced concrete, and of reinforced concrete pylons in the interior which supported the structure, allowing glass curtain walls on the facade and open floor plans, independent of the structure. They were always white, and had no ornament or decoration on the outside or inside. The best-known of these houses was the Villa Savoye, built in 1928-1931 in the Paris suburb of Poissy. An elegant white box wrapped with a ribbon of glass windows around on the facade, with living space that opened upon an interior garden and countryside around, raised up by a row of white pylons in the center of a large lawn, it became an icon of modernist architecture.[16]

The Bauhaus and the German Werkbund[edit]

Main article: Bauhaus

In Germany, two important modernist movements appeared after the first World War, The Bauhaus was a school organized Weimar in 1919 under the direction of Walter Gropius. Gropius was the son of the official state architect of Berlin, who studied before the war with Peter Behrens, and designed the modernist Fagus turbine factory. The Bauhaus was a fusion of the prewar Academy of Arts and the school of technology. In 1926 it was transferred from Weimar to Dessau; Gropius designed the new school and student dormitories in the new, purely functional modernist style he was encouraging. The school brought together modernists in all fields; the faculty included the modernist painters Vasily Kandinsky Joseph Albers and Paul Klee, and the designer Marcel Breuer.

Gropius became an important theorist of modernism, writing ‘’The Idea and Construction’’ in 1923. He was an advocate of standardization in architecture, and the mass construction of rationally-designed apartment blocks for factory workers. In 1928 he was commissioned by the Siemens company to build apartment for workers in the suburbs of Berlin, and in 1929 the proposed the construction of clusters of slender eight to ten story high rise apartment towers for workers.

While Gropius was active at the Bauhaus, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe led the modernist architectural movement in Berlin. Inspired by the De Stijl movement in the Netherlands, he build clusters of concrete summer houses and proposed a project for a glass office tower. He became the vice president of the German ‘’Werkbund’’, and became the head of the Bauhaus from 1930t to 1932. proposing a wide variety of modernist plans for urban reconstruction. His most famous modernist work was the German pavilion for the 1929 international exposition in Barcelona. It was a work of pure modernism, with glass and concrete walls and clean, horizontal lines. Though it was only a temporary structure, and was torn down in 1930, it became, along with Le Corbusier’s Villa Savoye, one of best-known landmarks of modernist architecture. A reconstructed version now stands on the original site in Barcelona. [17]

When the Nazis came to power in Germany, they viewed the Bauhaus as a training ground for communists, and closed the school in 1932. Gropius left Germany and went to England, then to the United States. He and Marel Breuer where he and Marcel Breuer both joined the faculty of the Harvard Graduate School of Design, and became the teachers of a generation of American postwar architects. In 1937 Mies Van der Rohe also moved to the United States,he became one of the most famous designers of postwar American skyscrapers. [17]


Expressionism, which appeared in Germany between 1910 and 1925, was a counter-movement against the strictly functional architecture of the Bauhaus and Werkbund. Its advocates, including Bruno Taut, Hans Poelzig, Fritz Hoger and Erich Mendelsohn, wanted to create architecture that was poetic, expressive, and optimistic. Mendelsohn (who rejected the term) designed churches, silos, observatories and factories which were highly imaginative, but were never built. In 1920, he finally was able to construct one of his works in the city of Potsdam; an observatory and research center called the Einsteinium, named in tribute to Albert Einstein. It was supposed to be built of reinforced concrete, but because of technical problems it was finally built of traditional materials covered with plaster. His sculptural form, very different from the austere rectangular forms of the Bauhaus, first won him commissions to build movie theaters and retail stores. His Mossehaus in Berlin was an early model for the streamline moderne style. Fritz Höger was another notable Expressionist architect of the period. His Chilehaus was built as the headquarters of a shipping company, and was modeled after a giant steamship, a triangual building with a sharply pointed bow. It was constructed of dark brick, and used external piers to express its vertical structure. Its external decoration borrowed from Gothic cathedrals, as did its internal arcades. Hans Poelzig was another notable expressionist architect. In 1919 he built the Großes Schauspielhaus, an immense theater in Berlin, seating five thousand spectators for theater impresario Max Reinhardt. It featured elongated shapes like stalagmites hanging down from its gigantic dome, and lights on massive columns in its foyer. He also constructed the IG Farben building, a massive corporate headquarters, now the main building of Goethe University in Frankfurt. Bruno Taut specialized in building large scale apartment complexes for working-class Berliners. He built twelve thousand individual units, sometimes in buildings with unusual shapes, such as a giant horseshoe. Unlike most other modernists, he used bright exterior colors to give his buildings more life.[18]

Making notable use of sculptural forms and the novel use of concrete as artistic elements, examples include Rudolf Steiner's Second Goetheanum, built from 1926 near Basel, Switzerland and the Einsteinturm in Potsdam, Germany. The style was characterised by an early-modernist adoption of novel materials, formal innovation, and very unusual massing, sometimes inspired by natural biomorphic forms, sometimes by the new technical possibilities offered by the mass production of brick, steel and especially glass. Many expressionist architects fought in World War I and their experiences, combined with the political turmoil and social upheaval that followed the German Revolution of 1919, resulted in a utopian outlook and a romantic socialist agenda.[19] Economic conditions severely limited the number of built commissions between 1914 and the mid-1920s,[20] resulting in many of the most important expressionist works remaining as projects on paper, such as Bruno Taut's Alpine Architecture and Hermann Finsterlin's Formspiels. Ephemeral exhibition buildings were numerous and highly significant during this period. Scenography for theatre and films provided another outlet for the expressionist imagination,[21] and provided supplemental incomes for designers attempting to challenge conventions in a harsh economic climate. A particular type, using bricks to create its forms (rather than concrete) is known as Brick Expressionism.

Russian Constructivism[edit]

After the Russian Revolution of 1917, Russian avant-garde artists and architects began searching for a new Soviet style which could replace traditional neoclassicism. The new architectural movements were closely tied with the literary and artistic movements of the period, the futurism of poet Vladimir Mayakovskiy, the Suprematism of painter Kasimir Malevich, and the colorful Rayonism of painter Mikhail Larionov. The most most startling design that emerged was the tower proposed by painter and sculptor Vladimir Tatlin for the Moscow meeting of the Third Communist International in 1920: he proposed two interlaced towers of of metal four hundred meters high, with four geometric volumes suspended from cables. The movement of Russian Constructivist architecture was launched in 1921 by a group of artists led by Aleksandr Rodchenko. Their manifesto proclaimed that their goal was to find the "communist expression of material structures." Soviet architects began to construct workers' clubs, communal apartment houses, and communal kitchens for feeding whole neighborhoods. [22]

One of the first prominent constructivist architects to emerge in Moscow was Konstantin Melnikov,the number of working clubs - including Rusakov Workers' Club (1928) - and his own living house, Melnikov House (1929) near Arbat Street in Moscow. Melnikov traveled to Paris in 1925 where he built the Soviet Pavilion for the International Exhibition of Modern Decorative and Industrial Arts in Paris in 1925; it was a highly geometric vertical construction of glass and steel crossed by a diagonal stairway, and crowned with a hammer and sickle. The leading group of constructivist architects, led by Vesnin brothers and Moisei Ginzburg, was publishing the 'Contemporary Architecture' journal. This group created several major constructivist projects in the wake of the First Five Year Plan - including colossal Dnieper Hydroelectric Station (1932) - and made an attempt to start the standardization of living blocks with Ginzburg's Narkomfin building. A number of architects from the pre-Soviet period also took up the constructivist style. The most famous example was Lenin's Mausoleum in Moscow (1924), by Alexey Shchusev (1924)[23]

The main centers of constructivist architecture were Moscow and Leningrad; however, during the industrialization lots of constructivist buildings were erected in provincial cities. The regional industrial centers, including Ekaterinburg, Kharkiv or Ivanovo, were rebuilt in the constructivist manner; some cities, like Magnitogorsk or Zaporizhia, were constructed anew (the so-called socgorod, or 'socialist city').

The style fell markedly out of favor in the 1930s, replaced by the more grandiose nationalist styles that Stalin favored. Constructivist architects and even Le Corbusier projects for the new Palace of the Soviets from 1931 to 1933, but the winner was an early Stalinist building in the style termed Postconstructivism. The last major Russian constructivist building, by Boris Iofan, was built for the Paris World Exhibition (1937), where it faced the pavilion of Nazi Germany by Hitler's architect Albert Speer. [24]

Modernism becomes a movement - the CIAM (1928)[edit]

By the late 1920s, modernism had become an important movement in Europe. Architecture, which previously had been predominantly national, began to become international. They architects traveled, met each other, and shared ideas. Several modernists, including Le Corbusier, had participated in the competition for the headquarters of the League of Nations in 1927. In the same year, the German Werkbund organized an architectural exposition at the Weissenhof Estate Stuttgart. Seventeen leading modernist architects in Europe were invited to design twenty-one houses; Le Corbusier, and Mies Van der Rohe played a major part. In 1927 Le Corbusier, Pierre Chareau and others proposed the foundation of an international conference to establish the basis for a common style. The first meeting of the Congrès Internationaux d'Architecture Moderne or International Congresses of Modern Architects (CIAM), was held in a chateau on Lake Leman in Switzerland June 26-28, 1928. Those attending included Le Corbusier, Robert Mallet-Stevens, Auguste Perret, Pierre Chareau and Tony Garnier from France; Victor Bourgeois from Belgium; Walter Gropius, Erich Mendelsohn, Ernst May and Mies Van der Rohe from Germany; Josef Frank from Austria; Mart Stam and Gerrit Rietveld from the Netherlands,and Adolf Loos from Czechoslovakia. A delegation of Soviet architects was invited to attend, but they were unable to obtain visas. Later members included Josep Lluís Sert of Spain and Alvar Aalto of Finland. No one attended from the United States. A second meeting was organized in 1930 in Brussels by Victor Bourgeois on the topic "Rational methods for groups of habitations". A third meeting, on "The functional city", was scheduled for Moscow in 1932, but was cancelled at the last minute. Instead the delegates held their meeting on a cruise ship traveling between Marseille and Athens. On board, they together drafted a text on how modern cities should be organized. The text, called The Athens Charter, after considerable editing by Corbusier and others, was finally published in 1957 and became an influential text for city planners in the 1950s and 1960s. The group met once more in Paris in 1937 to discuss public housing and was scheduled to meet in the United States in 1939, but the meeting was cancelled because of the war. The legacy of the CIAM was a roughly common style and doctrine which helped define modern architecture in Europe and the United States after World War II. [25].

Art Deco[edit]

Main article: Art Deco

The Art Deco architectural style (called Style Moderne in France), was modern, but it was not modernist; it had many features of modernism, including the use of reinforced concrete, glass, steel, chrome, and it rejected traditional historical models, such as the Beaux-Arts style and Neo-classicism; but, unlike the modernist styles of Le Corbusier and Mies Van der Rohe, it made lavish use of decoration and color. It reveled in the symbols of modernity; lightning flashes, sunrises, and zig-zags. Art Deco had begun in France before World War I and spread through Europe; in the 1920s and 1930s it became a highly popular style in the United States, South America, India, China, Australia and Japan. In Europe, Art Deco was particularly popular for department stores and movie theaters. The style reached its peak in Europe at the International Exhibition of Modern Decorative and Industrial Arts in 1925, which featured art deco pavilions and decoration from twenty countries. Only two pavilions were purely modernist; the Esprit Nouveau pavilion of Le Corbusier, which represented his idea for a mass=produced housing unit, and the pavilion of the USSR, by Konstantin Melnikov in a flamboyantly futurist style. [26]

Later French landmarks in the Art Deco style included the Rex Theater in Paris, La Samaritaine department store by Henri Sauvage ((1926–28) and the Social and Economic Council building in Paris (1937–38) by Auguste Perret, and the Palais de Tokyo and Palais de Chaillot, both built by collectives of architects for the 1937 Paris Exposition Internationale des Arts et Techniques dans la Vie Moderne. .[27]

American Art Deco; the skyscraper style (1919-1932)[edit]

Main articles: Art Deco and Streamline Moderne

In the late 1920s and early 1930s, an exuberant American variant of Art Deco appeared in the Chrysler Building, Empire State Building and Rockefeller Center in New York Ciy. The first skyscrapers in Chicago and New York had been designed in a neo-gothic or neoclassical style, but these buildings were very different; they combined modern materials and technology (stainless steel, concrete, aluminum, chrome-plated steel) with Art Deco geometry; stylized zig-zags, lightning flashes, fountains, sunrises, and, at the top of the Chrysler building, Art Deco "gargoyles" in the form of stainless steel radiator ornaments. The interiors of these new buildings, sometimes termed Cathedrals of Commerce", were lavishly decorated in bright contrasting colors, with geometric patterns variously influenced by Egyptian and Mayan pyramids, African textile patterns, and European cathedrals, Frank Lloyd Wright himself experimented with Mayan Revival,in the concrete cube-based Ennis House of 1924 in Los Angeles. The style appeared in the late 1920s and 1930s in all major American cities. The style was used most often in office buildings, but it also appeared in the enormous movie palaces that were built in large cities when sound films were introduced. [28]

The streamline style[edit]

The beginning of the Great Depression in 1929 brought an end to lavishly-decorated Art Deco architecture and a temporary halt to the construction of new skyscrapers. It also brought in a new style, called "Streamline Moderne" or sometimes just Streamline. This style, sometimes modeled after for the form of ocean liners, featured rounded corners, strong horizontal lines, and often nautical features, such as superstructures and steel railings. It was associated with modernity and especially with transportation; the style was often used for new airport terminals, train and bus stations, and for gas stations and diners built along the growing American highway system. In the 1930s the style was used not only in buildings, but in railroad locomotives, and even refrigerators and vacuum cleaners. It both borrowed from industrial design and influenced it. [29]

More restrained forms with national imagery were adopted. In the United States, it took the form of "Stripped Classicism" (alternatively, "PWA Moderne" or "WPA Moderne") a stark version of the Neoclassicism of Federal buildings earlier in the century.[30] It application ranged in scale from local post-offices to the Pentagon. At the same time (as noted above), the rise in nationalism was reflected in the Stalinist architecture of the Soviet Union, Fascist architecture of Italy, and Nazi architecture of Germany, what historian Kenneth Frampton termed the "New Tradition".[31] To a less political extent, such an idea of modernized tradition could also be seen in contemporaneous Mycenaean Revival architecture.

During and following World War II, this broad branch of modern architecture declined, with the rise of the International Style and other mid-century architecture.

American modernism - Frank Lloyd Wright, Rudolph Schindler, Richard Neutra (1919-1939)[edit]

During the 1920s and 1930s, Frank Lloyd Wright resolutely refused to associate himself with any architectural movements. He considered his architecture to to be entirely and uniquely own. unique and his own. Between 1916 and 1922He broke away entirely from his earlier prairie house style, and worked instead in houses decorated with textured blocks of cement; what became known as his "Mayan style," after the pyramids of the ancient Mayan civilization. He experimented for a time with modular mass-produced housing. He identified his architecture as "Usonian", a combination of USA, "utopian" and "organic social order." civilization. His business was severely affected by the beginning of the Great Depression that began in 1929; he had fewer wealthy clients who wanted to experiment. Between 1928 and 1935, he built only two buildings; ; a hotel near Chandler, Arizona; and the most famous of all his residences, Fallingwater, (1934-37), a vacation house in Pennsylvania for Edgar J. Kaufman: it was a remarkable structure of concrete slabs suspended over a waterfall, perfectly uniting architecture and nature. [32]

Wartime innovation[edit]

Quonset hut en route to Japan

World War II (1939–1945) and its aftermath was a major factor in driving innovation in building technology, and in turn, architectural possibilities.[30][33] The wartime industrial demands resulting in a supply shortage (of such things as steel and other metals), in turn leading to the adoption of new materials, and advancement or novel use of old ones. Similarly, surplus postwar industrial capacity accelerated the use of new materials and techniques, particular architectural aluminium (as a result of advances made in its use in aircraft, etc., during the war).[33] At the same time, there was a rapid demand for structures during the war (such as military and governmental facilities) as well as for housing after the war.

These factors encouraged experiments with prefabricated building. Though examples of prefabrication have existed since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, with notable examples during the Interwar period such as the diner, the semi-circular metal Nissen hut of World War I revived as the Quonset hut, the post-war enameled-steel Lustron house (1947–1950), and Buckminster Fuller's experimental aluminum Dymaxion House.[34]

International Style (1945-1960)[edit]

The Seagram Building, New York City, 1958, by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, is regarded as one of the finest examples of the functionalist aesthetic and a masterpiece of corporate modernism.

In 1932 (prior to World War II), the International Exhibition of Modern Architecture was held at the Museum of Modern Art in New York City. Philip Johnson and collaborator Henry-Russell Hitchcock drew together many distinct threads and trends in architecture, identified them as stylistically similar and having a common purpose, and consolidated them into the International style. This was a turning point. However, for the remainder of the Interwar period, the Moderne styles overshadowed this movement.

With the labeling of modernist art and architecture in Germany as degenerate, followed by World War II, important figures of the Bauhaus and New Objectivity fled to the United States: Marcel Breuer and Walter Gropius went to the Harvard Graduate School of Design (the former becoming part of a group known as the "Harvard Five"), Ludwig Mies van der Rohe to Chicago, with others going to Black Mountain College. Still others fled to British Palestine, contributing to the design of the White City of Tel Aviv.

While high-style modernist architectural design never became dominant in single-dwelling residential buildings in the United States, in institutional and commercial architecture Modernism became the pre-eminent, and in the schools (for leaders of the architectural profession) the only acceptable, design solution from about 1932 to about 1984.[citation needed]

Architects who worked in the International style wanted to break with architectural tradition and design simple, unornamented buildings. The most commonly used materials are glass for the facade (usually a curtain wall), steel for exterior support, and concrete for the floors and interior supports; floor plans were functional and logical. The style became most evident in the design of skyscrapers. Perhaps its most famous manifestations include the United Nations headquarters (Le Corbusier, Oscar Niemeyer, Sir Howard Robertson), the Seagram Building and the Toronto-Dominion Centre (Ludwig Mies van der Rohe), and Lever House (Skidmore, Owings & Merrill).

In the United States, a prominent early residential example was the Lovell House in Los Angeles, designed by Austrian expatriate Richard Neutra in the 1920s. Other examples include the Case Study Houses. Commissioned between 1945 and 1966, the twenty or so homes that were built primarily in and around Los Angeles, designed by architects such as Neutra and Americans Charles and Ray Eames (the Eames House) have attracted hundreds of thousands of visitors since their completion, and have influenced many architects over the years, notably the British architect, Michael Manser, whose domestic work is best exemplified by Capel Manor House in Kent. These and other Modern residences tend to focus on humanizing the otherwise harsh ideal, making them more livable and ultimately more appealing to real people. Many of these designs use a similar tactic: blurring the line between indoor and outdoor spaces.[35] This is achieved by embracing "the box" while at the same time dissolving it into the background with minimal structure and large glass walls, as was particularly the case with the Farnsworth House by Mies van der Rohe and the Glass House by Philip Johnson, the later part of a set of residences by the "Harvard Five" in New Canaan, Connecticut. Some critics claim that these spaces remain too cold and static for the average person to function, however. The materials utilized in a large number of Modern homes are not hidden behind a softening facade. While this may make them somewhat less desirable for the general public, most modernist architects see this as a necessary and pivotal tenet of Modernism: uncluttered and purely Minimal design.[citation needed]

Urban design and mass housing[edit]

"Horseshoe Estate", Berlin (1925–1933), by Bruno Taut and Martin Wagner
National Congress of Brazil, by Oscar Niemeyer, in the modernist-designed city of Brasília.
See also: Urban renewal

During the interwar period high-quality architecture was built on a large scale in some growing European cities including Berlin, Frankfurt, Vienna, and Rotterdam for broad sections of the population, including poorer people. In particular the Berlin housing estates built before the beginning of National Socialism set standards worldwide. They are seen right up to today as a major political and organisational achievement and therefore have been added to the UNESCO World heritage list in 2008.[36]

As a result of the economically difficult situation during the Weimar Republic, housing construction, which up to that time had been mainly privately financed and profit-oriented, had found itself at a dead end. Inflation was on the up and for citizens on low incomes decent housing was becoming increasingly unaffordable.

Consequently, the search was on to find new models for state-initiated housing construction, which could then be implemented with a passion from 1920 on following the creation of Greater Berlin and the accompanying reform of local and regional government. The requirements for the type of flats to be built and the facilities they were to have were clearly defined, and the city was divided into different building zones. Following some basic ideas of the Garden city movement two- to three-storey housing estates that were well integrated into the landscape of the suburbs of the city were planned. The first large estate of this type with more than 2,000 residential units was the so-called Hufeisensiedlung (Horseshoe Estate) designed by Bruno Taut in Berlin.

After World War II the Congrès Internationaux d'Architecture Moderne (CIAM) was a force in shaping modernist urban planning, and consequently the design of cities and the structures within, from 1928 to 1959. Its 1933 meeting resulted in the basis of what became the Athens Charter, which would drive urban planning practice for much of the mid-20th century. Following its principles, in the late 1950s the entirely-new city of Brasília was built as a new capital for Brazil, designed by Lucio Costa, with prominent works for it designed by Oscar Niemeyer. Le Corbusier applied CIAM's principles in his design for the city of Chandigarh in India.

The devastation that WWII wrought in Europe, Asia, and the Pacific and subsequent post-war housing shortages resulted in a vast building and rebuilding of cities, with a variety of techniques employed for the creation of mass-housing. One attempt to solve this was by using the Tower block. In the Eastern Bloc, mass housing took the form of prefabricated panel buildings, such as the Plattenbau of East Germany, Khrushchyovka of Russia and the Panelák of Czechoslovakia.

Mid-Century reactions [edit]

Saint John's Abbey Church, Collegeville, Minnesota, United States, by Marcel Breuer, 1958-1961
Further information: Mid-Century modern

As the International Style took hold, others architects reacted to or strayed from its purely functionalist forms, while at the same time retaining highly modernist characteristics. Eero Saarinen, Alvar Aalto and Oscar Niemeyer were three of the most prolific architects and designers in this movement, which has influenced contemporary modernism.

TWA Terminal, John F. Kennedy Airport, New York, 1962, by Eero Saarinen
Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts
Central Library of UNAM, in Mexico City, 1950-1956, showing the detailed artwork of plastic integration.

Le Corbusier once described buildings as "machines for living", but people are not machines and it was suggested that they do not want to live in machines.[citation needed] During the middle of the century, some architects began experimenting in organic forms that they felt were more human and accessible. Mid-century modernism, or organic modernism, was very popular, due to its democratic and playful nature. Expressionist exploration of form was revived, such as in the Sydney Opera House in Australia by Jørn Utzon. Eero Saarinen invoked suggestions of flight in his designs for the terminal at Dulles International Airport outside of Washington, D.C, or the TWA Terminal in New York, both finished in 1962.[37] The Mission 66 project of the United States National Park Service was also built during this time.

Contributing to these expressions were structural advances that enabled new forms to be possible or desirable. Félix Candela, a Spanish expatriate living in Mexico, and Italian engineer Pier Luigi Nervi, made particular strides in the use of reinforced concrete and concrete shell construction. In 1954, Buckminster Fuller patented the geodesic dome.

Another stylistic reaction was "New Formalism" (or "Neo-Formalism", sometimes shortened to "Formalism").[37][38] Like the pre-war "Stripped Classicism", "New Formalism" blended elements of classicism (at their most abstracted levels) with modernist designs.[39] Characteristics drawing on classicism include rigid symmetry, use of columns and colonnades or arcades, and use of high-end materials (such as marble or granite), yet works in this vein also characteristically use the flat roofs common with the International Style.[37][39] Architects working in this mode included Edward Durrell Stone, Minoru Yamasaki, and some of the middle-period work of Philip Johnson, with examples in the United States including the Kennedy Center (1971) and the National Museum of American History (1964) in Washington, D.C., and the Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts (mid-1960s) in New York.[37][39]

The Theme Building and control tower in Los Angeles International Airport.

Arising shortly after the end of World War II, a particular set of stylistic tendencies in the United States during this time is known as Googie (or "populuxe"), derived from futuristic visions inspired by the imagery of the Atomic Age and Space Age, with motifs such as atomic orbital patterns and "flying saucers", respectively, such as in the Space Needle in Seattle. Though the style was unique to the United States, similar iconography can be seen in the Atomium in Brussels.

A distinctly Mexican take on modernism, "plastic integration", was a syncretization of Mexican artistic traditions (such as muralism) with International Style forms,[40] and can be seen in the later works of Luis Barragán and Juan O'Gorman, epitomized by the Ciudad Universitaria of UNAM in Mexico City.[41]

Brutalism and monumentality[edit]

The National Assembly Building of Bangladesh by Louis Kahn; compare its "weightiness" with works above.

Architects such as Louis Kahn, Paul Rudolph, Marcel Breuer, I.M. Pei and others responded to the "light" glass curtain walls advocated by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, by creating architecture with an emphasis on more substantial materials, such as concrete and brick, and creating works with a "monumental" quality. "Brutalism" is a term derived from the use of "Béton brut" ("raw concrete"), unadorned, often with the mold marks remaining, though as a stylistic tendency, Brutalism would ultimately be applied more broadly to include the use of other materials such as brickwork in a similar fashion. The term was first used in architecture by Le Corbusier.

Late 20th-century reactions and movements[edit]

High-tech architecture[edit]

Further information: High-tech architecture

High-tech architecture, also known as Late Modernism or Structural Expressionism, is an architectural style that emerged in the 1970s, incorporating elements of high-tech industry and technology into building design. High-tech architecture appeared as a revamped modernism, an extension of those previous ideas helped by even more technological advances. This category serves as a bridge between modernism and post-modernism, however there remain gray areas as to where one category ends and the other begins. In the 1980s, high-tech architecture became more difficult to distinguish from post-modern architecture. Some of its themes and ideas were later absorbed into the style of neo-futurism art and architectural movement.

Postmodern architecture[edit]

The Sony Tower (formerly AT&T building) in New York City, 1984, by Philip Johnson, illustrating a Postmodern spin on the boxy office towers that preceded it with the inclusion of a classical broken pediment on the top.

Modern architecture met with some criticism, which began in the 1960s on the grounds that it seemed universal, elitist, and lacked meaning. Siegfried Giedion in the 1961 introduction to his evolving text, Space, Time and Architecture (first written in 1941), began "At the moment a certain confusion exists in contemporary architecture, as in painting; a kind of pause, even a kind of exhaustion." At the Metropolitan Museum of Art, a 1961 symposium discussed the question "Modern Architecture: Death or Metamorphosis?"

The Kaleida Health Gates Vascular Institute in Buffalo, New York, illustrates a cube like design wrapped with modern accents.

The loss of traditionalist structures to make way for new modernist construction, especially via the Urban Renewal movement, led to further criticism, particularly the demolition of New York Penn Station in 1963. That same year, controversy materialized around the Pan Am Building that loomed over Grand Central Terminal, taking advantage of the modernist real estate concept of "air rights",[42] In criticism by Ada Louise Huxtable and Douglass Haskell it was seen to "sever" the Park Avenue streetscape and "tarnish" the reputations of its consortium of architects: Walter Gropius, Pietro Belluschi and the builders Emery Roth & Sons. The proposal for a tower over the terminal itself resulted in the landmark U.S. Supreme Court case Penn Central Transportation Co. v. New York City, upholding the city's landmark laws. Alongside these preservation efforts came the increasing respectability and fashionability of more traditional styles.

Architects explored Postmodern architecture which offered a blend of some pre-modern elements, and deliberately sought to move away from rectilinear designs, towards more eclectic styles. Even Philip Johnson came to admit that he was "bored with the box." By the 1980s, postmodern architecture appeared to trend over modernism.

High Postmodern aesthetics lacked traction and by the mid-1990s, a new surge of modern architecture once again established international pre-eminence. As part of this revival, much of the criticism of the modernists was re-evaluated; and a modernistic style once again dominates in institutional and commercial contemporary practice. Although modern and postmodern design compete with a revival of traditional architectural design in commercial and institutional architecture; residential design continues to be dominated by a traditional aesthetic.

Neomodern architecture[edit]

Further information: Neomodern

Neomodernism is a reaction to Postmodernism and its embrace of pre-modern elements of design. Examples of modern architecture in the 21st century include One World Trade Center (2013) in New York City and Tour First (2011), the tallest office building in the Paris metropolitan area. Emporis named Chicago's Modern Aqua Tower (2009) its skyscraper of the year.[43]

Neofuturistic architecture[edit]

Further information: Neo-Futurism

Neo-futurism is a departure from post-modernism connected with an idealistic belief in a better future. Neofuturist urbanists, architects, designers and artists believe in cities releasing emotions, driven by eco-sustainability and ethical values and implementing new materials and new technologies[44] to provide a better quality of life for residents.[45] Pioneered from early 60s and late 70s by Finnish American architect Eero Saarinen;[46][47] American architect Adrian Wilson[48] and Charles Luckman;[49][50] Danish architects Henning Larsen[51] and Jørn Utzon;[52] the architectural movement was later named Neo-Futurism by French architect Denis Laming. He designed all of the buildings in Futuroscope, whose Kinemax is the flagship building.[53] In the early 21st century, Neo-Futurism has been relaunched in December 2006 by innovation designer Vito Di Bari with the futuristic vision for the city of Milan[54] at the time of the Universal Expo 2015 included in the candidature presented to BIE (Bureau of International Expositions)[55] and envisioning "the convergence of art, cutting edge technologies and ethical values", later defined by Spanish architect Santiago Calatrava as "a fusion of architecture, art and engineering"[56] and by Danish architect Bjarke Ingels as "a pragmatic utopian architecture that takes on the creation of socially and environmentally perfect places."[57] Architects working in this mode include Pritzker Architecture Prize Iraqi-British architect Zaha Hadid[58][59][60] and Japanese Ryue Nishizawa;[61] Lubetkin Prize Winner British Thomas Heatherwick,[62][63] Spanish architects Santiago Calatrava,[64][65][66] Fermín Vázquez,[67] and Enric Massip-Bosch[68] and artists such as Indian sculptor Anish Kapoor,[69][70] Italian large-scale buildings artist Mario Arlati and Dutch kinetic sculptor Theo Jansen.[71]

New Urbanism and New Classical Architecture[edit]

Concurrently, the recent movements of New Urbanism and New Classical Architecture promote a sustainable approach towards construction, that appreciates and develops smart growth, architectural tradition and classical design.[72][73] This in contrast to modernist and globally uniform architecture, as well as leaning against solitary housing estates and suburban sprawl.[74] Both trends started in the 1980s. The Driehaus Architecture Prize is an award that recognizes efforts in New Urbanism and New Classical Architecture, and is endowed with a prize money twice as high as that of the modernist Pritzker Prize.[75]

Examples of contemporary modern architecture[edit]


In 2007, the Sydney Opera House by Jørn Utzon was listed as a World Heritage Site.

Several works or collections of modern architecture have been designated by UNESCO as World Heritage Sites. In addition to the early experiments associated with Art Nouveau, these include a number of the structures mentioned above in this article: the Rietveld Schröder House in Utrecht, the Bauhaus structures in Weimar and Dessau, the Berlin Modernism Housing Estates, the White City of Tel Aviv, the city of Brasilia, the Ciudad Universitaria of UNAM in Mexico City and the University City of Caracas in Venezuela, and the Sydney Opera House.

Private organizations such as Docomomo International, the World Monuments Fund, and the Recent Past Preservation Network are working to safeguard and document imperiled Modern architecture. In 2006, the World Monuments Fund launched Modernism at Risk, an advocacy and conservation program.

Following the destruction caused by Hurricane Katrina, Modern structures in New Orleans have been increasingly slated for demolition. Plans are underway to demolish many of the city's Modern public schools, as well as large portions of the city's Civic Plaza. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) funds will contribute to razing the State Office Building and State Supreme Court Building, both designed by the collaborating architectural firms of August Perez and Associates; Goldstein, Parham and Labouisse; and Favrot, Reed, Mathes and Bergman. The New Orleans Recovery School District has proposed demolitions of schools designed by Charles R. Colbert, Curtis and Davis, and Ricciuti Associates. The 1959 Lawrence and Saunders building for the New Orleans International Longshoremen's Association Local 1419 is currently threatened with demolition although the union supports its conservation.

See also[edit]


Notes and Citations[edit]

  1. ^ Tietz 1999, pp. 6-10.
  2. ^ Crouch, Christopher. 2000. "Modernism in Art Design and Architecture", New York: St. Martins Press. ISBN 0-312-21830-3 (cloth) ISBN 0-312-21832-X (pbk)
  3. ^ Bony 2012, p. 27.
  4. ^ Bony 2012, p. 33.
  5. ^ Poisson, pp. 318-319.
  6. ^ Poisson 2009, p. 318.
  7. ^ Bony, p. 36.
  8. ^ Bony 2012, p. 38.
  9. ^ Lucius Burckhardt (1987) . The Werkbund. ? : Hyperion Press. ISBN. Frederic J. Schwartz (1996). The Werkbund: Design Theory and Mass Culture Before the First World War. New Haven, Conn. : Yale University Press. ISBN.
  10. ^ Mark Jarzombek. "Joseph August Lux: Werkbund Promoter, Historian of a Lost Modernity," Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 63/1 (June 2004): 202–219.
  11. ^ Tietz 1999, p. 19.
  12. ^ Tietz 1999, p. 16.
  13. ^ Bony 2012, pp. 62-63.
  14. ^ Burchard and Brown 1966, p. 83.
  15. ^ Le Corbusier, Vers une architecture", (1923), Flammarion edition (1995), pages XVIII-XIX
  16. ^ Bony 2012, p. 83.
  17. ^ a b Bony 2012, pp. 93-95.
  18. ^ Tietz 1999, pp. 26-27.
  19. ^ Jencks, p. 59
  20. ^ Sharp, p. 68
  21. ^ Pehnt, p. 163
  22. ^ Bony 2012, pp. 86-87.
  23. ^ "Alexey Shchusev (1873-1949)". Retrieved 2015-08-16. 
  24. ^ Udovički-Selb, Danilo (2012-01-01). "Facing Hitler's Pavilion: The Uses of Modernity in the Soviet Pavilion at the 1937 Paris International Exhibition". Journal of Contemporary History. 47 (1): 13–47. doi:10.1177/0022009411422369. ISSN 0022-0094. 
  25. ^ Bony 2012, pp. 84-85.
  26. ^ Anwas, Victor, Art Deco (1992), Harry N. Abrams Inc., ISBN 0-8109-1926-5
  27. ^ Poisson, Michel, 1000 Immeubles et Monuments de Paris (2009), Parigramme, pages 318-319 and 300-01
  28. ^ Duncan.
  29. ^ Ducher 2014, p. 204.
  30. ^ a b "Growth, Efficiency, and Modernism" (PDF). U.S. General Services Administration. 2006 [2003]. p. 27. Retrieved March 2011.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  31. ^ Frampton, Kenneth (1980). Modern Architecture: A Critical History (3rd ed.). Thames and Hudson. pp. 210–218. ISBN 0-500-20257-5. 
  32. ^ Bony 2012, p. 99.
  33. ^ a b Thomas C. Jester, ed. (1995). Twentieth-Century Building Materials. McGraw-Hill. pp. 41–42, 48–49. ISBN 0-07-032573-1. 
  34. ^ Thomas C. Jester, ed. (1995). Twentieth-Century Building Materials. McGraw-Hill. p. 259. ISBN 0-07-032573-1. 
  35. ^ [1] Archived July 21, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
  36. ^ Berlin Modernism Housing Estates. Inscription on the UNESCO World Heritage List; German/English; Editor: Berlin Monument Authority - ISBN 978-3-03768-000-1
  37. ^ a b c d "Growth, Efficiency, and Modernism" (PDF). U.S. General Services Administration. 2006 [2003]. pp. 16, 34. Retrieved March 2011.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  38. ^ Handlin, David P. (2004) [1985]. American Architecture. Thames & Hudson. pp. 247–248. ISBN 0-500-20373-3. 
  39. ^ a b c "New Formalism". Performing Arts Center of Los Angeles County. Retrieved March 2011.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help); excerpting from HABS documentation: "Los Angeles Music Center". Historic American Building Survey. 
  40. ^ "Plastic Integration". Patrimonio Cultural de la Humanidad (Website). UNAM. Retrieved March 2011.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  41. ^ "Central University City Campus of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM)". World Heritage List. UNESCO. Retrieved March 2011.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  42. ^ Meredith L. Clausen, 2005. The Pan Am building and the shattering of the Modernist Dream (Cambridge: MIT Press) (On-line analytical review)
  43. ^ "Aqua Named 2009 Skyscraper of the Year". NBC Chicago. Retrieved 25 September 2015. 
  44. ^ Hal Foster (1987). "Neo-Futurism: Architecture and Technology". Architectural Association School of Architecture. Retrieved 2015-09-27. 
  45. ^ "Neofuturism Architecture And Technology, SCI-Arc Media Archive". 1987-10-05. Retrieved 2014-01-25. 
  46. ^ Rory Stott (31 August 2015). "Eero Saarinen - ArchDaily". Retrieved 25 September 2015. 
  47. ^ "Eero Saarinen's TWA Terminal To Become A Luxury Hotel". Co.Design. Retrieved 25 September 2015. 
  48. ^ "Adrian Wilson". Architectural Digest. Retrieved 25 September 2015. 
  49. ^ "Airports: A Century of Architecture: Hugh Pearman: 9780810950122: Books". Retrieved 2015-09-27. 
  50. ^ "December 2012 Newsletter" (PDF). Retrieved 2015-09-27. 
  51. ^ "Opera Cake: Neo-Futurism at Danish Royal Opera". Retrieved 25 September 2015. 
  52. ^ "Sydney Opera House, Sydney -". Retrieved 25 September 2015. 
  53. ^ "Denis Laming Architectes". Retrieved 25 September 2015. 
  54. ^ "Expo 2015: Innovation Design by Vito Di Bari". YouTube. Retrieved 2014-01-25
  55. ^ [2] Archived December 25, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
  56. ^ "Santiago Calatrava. Complete Works 1979-2009. TASCHEN Books". Retrieved 2015-09-27. 
  57. ^ "Yes is More. TASCHEN Books". Retrieved 2015-09-27. 
  58. ^ October, Pinar (2013-10-13). "Dubai's Futuristic Floating Building by Zaha Hadid". My Modern Met. Retrieved 2015-09-27. 
  59. ^ "15 Most Futuristic Architecture Projects of Zaha Hadid". 2013-03-14. Retrieved 2015-09-27. 
  60. ^ "Zaha Hadid Uses Hologram To Reveal Futuristic Design Of Miami'S One Thousand Museum Tower". 2013-11-27. Archived from the original on February 2, 2014. 
  61. ^ "Futuristic student centre opens doors - SWI". 2010-02-22. Retrieved 2015-09-27. 
  62. ^ "Thomas Heatherwick / Conran Foundation Collection : - Design/Designer Information". Retrieved 25 September 2015. 
  63. ^ "Thomas Heatherwick Designs a Futuristic Learning Hub for Nanyang University in Singapore Nanyang University Learning Hub Thomas Heatherwick – Inhabitat - Sustainable Design Innovation, Eco Architecture, Green Building". 2013-07-21. Retrieved 2015-09-27. 
  64. ^ "Futuristic architecture, santiago calatrava, future architecture, modern building, white interior". Retrieved 25 September 2015. 
  65. ^ "Clashot: earn money taking photos with your phone". Retrieved 25 September 2015. 
  66. ^ "Futurism and Santiago Calatrava". Retrieved 25 September 2015. 
  67. ^ [3] Archived February 4, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.
  68. ^ "Culture For Friends - Torre Diagonal Zerozero: A Futuristic Landmark In Barcelona". Retrieved 2015-09-27. 
  69. ^ Turner, Yvonne K (2012-03-12). "Yvonne K Turner Studio work and Degree show: Anish Kapoor The ultimate City Futurist". Retrieved 2015-09-27. 
  70. ^ "Three futuristic views inside Anish Kapoor at the Grand Palais". OLENSKA BLOG. Retrieved 25 September 2015. 
  71. ^ "Theo Jansen: Art In The Form of Science". BOZ UX. Retrieved 2015-09-27. 
  72. ^ "The Charter of the New Urbanism". Retrieved 25 September 2015. 
  73. ^ "Beauty, Humanism, Continuity between Past and Future". Traditional Architecture Group. Retrieved 23 March 2014. 
  74. ^ Issue Brief: Smart-Growth: Building Livable Communities. American Institute of Architects. Retrieved on 2014-03-23.
  75. ^ "Driehaus Prize". Together, the $200,000 Driehaus Prize and the $50,000 Reed Award represent the most significant recognition for classicism in the contemporary built environment.. Notre Dame School of Architecture. Retrieved 23 March 2014. 


  • Bony, Anne (2012). L'Architecture Moderne (in French). Larousse. ISBN 978-2-03-587641-6. 
  • Burchard, John; Bush-Brown, Albert (1966). The Architecture of America- A Social and Cultural History. Atlantic, Little and Brown. 
  • Duncan, Alastair (1988). Art déco. Thames & Hudson. ISBN 2-87811-003-X. 
  • Ducher, Rpbert (2014). La charactéristique des styles (in French). Flammarion. ISBN 978-2-0813-4383-2. 
  • Journel, Guillemette Morel (2015). Le Corbusier- Construire la Vie Moderne (in French). Editions du Patrimoine: Centre des Monument Nationaux. ISBN 978-2-7577-0419-6. 
  • Le Corbusier (1925). L'Art décoratif d'aujourdhui (in French). G. Crés et Cie. 
  • Le Corbusier (1923). Vers use architecture (in French). Flammarion (1995). ISBN 978-2-0812-1744-7. 
  • Poisson, Michel (2009). 1000 Immeubles et monuments de Paris (in French). Parigramme. ISBN 978-2-84096-539-8. 
  • Tietz, Jurgen (1999). THe Story of Architecture of the 20th century. Konemann. ISBN 3-8290-2045-7. 

External links[edit]