|First appearance||As Robin:|
Detective Comics #38 (April 1940)
Tales of the Teen Titans #44 (July 1984)
Robin #0 (October 1994)
Nightwing: The Target #1 (September 2001)
As Agent 37:
Grayson #1 (July 2014)
|Created by||Bill Finger |
Jerry Robinson (illustrator)
|Full name||Richard John Grayson|
|Team affiliations||Justice League|
Richard John Grayson is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics, commonly in association with Batman. Created by writer Bill Finger and artist Bob Kane, he first appeared in Detective Comics #38 in April 1940 as the original incarnation of Robin. In Tales of the Teen Titans #44 (July 1984) the character retires his role as Robin and assumes the superhero persona of Nightwing, created by Marv Wolfman and artist George Pérez.
The youngest in a family of acrobats known as the "Flying Graysons", Richard watches a mafia boss named Tony Zucco kill his parents in order to extort money from the circus that employed them. After the tragic murder, Batman (Bruce Wayne) takes Richard (Dick) in as his legal ward (retconned as an adopted son in some cases) and trains him to become his crime-fighting partner Robin. He is written by many authors as the first son of Batman. As well as being Batman's crime-fighting partner, Dick establishes himself as the leader of the Teen Titans, a team of teenage superheroes. As a young man, he retires as Robin and takes on his own superhero identity to assert his independence, becoming Nightwing. As Nightwing, he continues to lead the Teen Titans and later the Outsiders. In the first volume of his eponymous series (1996–2009), he becomes the protector of Blüdhaven, Gotham's economically troubled neighboring city, the locale the character is most closely associated with. He has also been depicted as protecting the streets of New York, Chicago, and Gotham City over the years.
Dick Grayson has taken on the identity of Batman on a few occasions. In the aftermath of "Batman: Knightfall", Grayson was not offered the role of Batman while the original was recovering from a broken back as Bruce felt that Nightwing is a hero in his own right and not Batman's understudy, but after the events of the Zero Hour miniseries later that year, he replaces Bruce Wayne as Batman, beginning in Robin #0 (1994) and extending throughout the Batman: Prodigal storyline in 1995. Dick again assumes the mantle following the events of "Batman R.I.P." (2008) and Final Crisis (2008–2009). As Batman, Dick moves to Gotham City following his mentor's apparent death and partners with the fifth Robin, Damian Wayne. On Bruce's return, both men maintained the Batman identity until 2011, when Dick returned to the Nightwing identity with DC's The New 52 continuity reboot. In a 2014 comic story, Dick is forced to abandon the Nightwing identity after being unmasked on TV and faking his death, setting up Tim Seeley's Grayson comic book, Dick becomes Agent 37, Batman's mole in the nefarious spy organization Spyral. Following the conclusion of the Grayson series, and the restoration of his secret identity in the series' final issue, Dick returns to being Nightwing as part of the DC Rebirth relaunch in 2016.
Dick Grayson has appeared as Robin (Batman’s sidekick) in several other media adaptations: the 1943 serial played by Douglas Croft, the 1949 serial played by Johnny Duncan, the 1966–1968 live action Batman television series and its motion picture portrayed by Burt Ward, played by Chris O'Donnell in the 1995 film Batman Forever and its 1997 sequel Batman & Robin. He stars on the Titans television series for the new DC streaming service played by Brenton Thwaites. Loren Lester voiced the character as Robin in Batman: The Animated Series and later as Nightwing's first screen adaptation in The New Batman Adventures. In May 2011, IGN ranked Dick Grayson #11 on their list of the "Top 100 Super Heroes of All Time". In 2013, ComicsAlliance ranked Grayson as Nightwing as #1 on their list of the "50 Sexiest Male Characters in Comics".
- 1 Publication history
- 2 Skills, abilities, and resources
- 3 Other versions
- 4 In other media
- 4.1 Television
- 4.2 Film
- 4.3 Video games
- 4.4 Radio
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 External links
Robin the Boy Wonder
The character was first introduced in Detective Comics #38 (1940) by Batman creators Bill Finger and Bob Kane. Robin's debut was an effort to get younger readers to enjoy Batman. The name "Robin, The Boy Wonder" and the medieval look of the original costume are inspired by the legendary hero Robin Hood, as well as the red-breasted American robin, which parallels the "winged" motif of Batman. He was born on the first day of spring, son of John Grayson and Mary Grayson, a young aerialist couple.
In his first appearance, Dick Grayson is a circus acrobat, and, with his parents, one of the "Flying Graysons". While preparing for a performance, Dick overhears two gangsters attempting to extort protection money from the circus owner. The owner refuses, so the gangsters sabotage the trapeze wires with acid. During the next performance, the trapeze from which Dick's parents are swinging snaps, sending them to their deaths. Before he can go to the police, Batman appears to him and warns him that the two gangsters work for Tony Zucco, a very powerful crime boss, and that revealing his knowledge could lead to his death. When Batman recounts the murder of his own parents, Dick asks to become his aide. After extensive training, Dick becomes Robin. They start by disrupting Zucco's gambling and extortion rackets. They then successfully bait the riled Zucco into visiting a construction site, where they capture him.
Robin's origin has a thematic connection to Batman's in that both see their parents killed by criminals, creating an urge to battle the criminal element. Bruce sees a chance to direct the anger and rage that Dick feels in a way that he himself cannot, thus creating a father/son bond and understanding between the two. Throughout the 1940s and 1950s, DC Comics portrayed Batman and Robin as a team, deeming them the "Dynamic Duo", rarely publishing a Batman story without his sidekick; stories entirely devoted to Robin appeared in Star-Spangled Comics from 1947 through 1952.
The character history of the Earth-Two Robin accordingly adopts all of the earliest stories featuring the character from the 1940s and 1950s, while the adventures of the mainstream Robin (who lived on "Earth-One") begin later in time and with certain elements of his origin retold. Both were depicted as separate, though parallel, individuals living in their respective universes, with the "older" Earth-Two character eventually reaching death in Crisis on Infinite Earths.
1964's The Brave and the Bold #54 introduces a junior version of the Justice League of America. This team is led by the modern-day Robin, residing on Earth-One, and was joined by two other teenage sidekicks, Aqualad (sidekick of Aquaman) and Kid Flash (sidekick of the Flash), to stop the menace of Mr. Twister.
Later, the three sidekicks join forces with Speedy and Wonder Girl in order to free their mentors in the JLA from mind-controlled thrall. They decide to become a real team: the Teen Titans. By virtue of the tactical skills gleaned from Batman, Robin is swiftly recognized as leader before the Titans disband some years later.
In 1969, still in the Pre-Crisis continuity, writer Dennis O'Neil and artist Neal Adams return Batman to his darker roots. One part of this effort is writing Robin out of the series by sending Dick Grayson to Hudson University and into a separate strip in the back of Detective Comics. The by-now Teen Wonder appears only sporadically in Batman stories of the 1970s as well as in a short-lived revival of The Teen Titans.
In 1980, Grayson once again takes up the role of leader of the Teen Titans, now featured in the monthly series The New Teen Titans, which became one of DC Comics's most beloved series of the era. During his leadership of the Titans, however, he had a falling out with Batman, leading to an estrangement that would last for many years.
In the post-Crisis on Infinite Earths continuity, the maturing Dick Grayson grows weary of his role as Batman's young sidekick. He renames himself Nightwing, recalling his adventure in the Kryptonian city of Kandor, where he and Batman meet the local hero of the same name. He maintains this identity during his role in the Teen Titans, and occasionally returns to assist Batman and his successors as Robin in the form of Jason Todd and Tim Drake, Tim in particular becoming a younger brother figure to him.
When Bruce's back is broken by Bane during the Knightfall story arc, Bruce selects Jean-Paul Valley as his replacement as Batman as he does not want to burden Dick with the role and fears that Dick may go after Bane in revenge. However, when Valley proves to be too unstable to be Batman, Bruce undergoes a rigorous recovery and training program with the aid of Doctor Shondra Kinsolving and Lady Shiva to restore him to full health, defeating Valley with Dick and Tim's aid. However, feeling that he needs to re-evaluate Batman and his mission after Valley's defeat, Bruce leaves Gotham once again, after appointing Dick as his successor during the "Prodigal" story arc. While acting as Batman, Dick is left with a clearer idea of the psychological stresses Bruce must endure in the role, as well as facing some of Bruce's newer enemies — such as Killer Croc, the Ventriloquist and the Ratcatcher — while settling his own long-standing issues with Two-Face.
Miniseries and afterward
In Nightwing: Alfred's Return #1 (1995), Dick Grayson travels to England to find Alfred Pennyworth who had resigned from Bruce Wayne's service following the events of the KnightSaga. Before returning to Gotham City together, they prevent an attempted coup d'état against the British government that involves destroying the Channel Tunnel under the English Channel.
Later on, with the Nightwing miniseries (September to December 1995, written by Dennis O'Neil with Greg Land as artist), Dick briefly considers retiring from being Nightwing forever before family papers uncovered by Alfred reveal a possible link between the murder of the Flying Graysons and the Crown Prince of Kravia. Journeying to Kravia, Nightwing helps to topple the murderous Kravian leader and prevent an ethnic cleansing, while learning his parents' true connection to the Prince; they witnessed the original Prince being killed and replaced with an impostor who became as bad as his predecessor (although Zucco killed the Graysons before the conspirators could do anything about it). In the aftermath, Dick returns to his role as Nightwing, recognizing that, for all his problems with Bruce, Bruce never made him become Robin or join his crusade, accepting that he imitated Bruce's example because Bruce was worthy of imitation.
In 1996, following the success of the miniseries, DC Comics launched a monthly solo series featuring Nightwing (written by Chuck Dixon, with art by Scott McDaniel), in which he patrols Gotham City's neighboring municipality of Blüdhaven, relocating there to investigate a series of murders and remaining as he recognized that the city needed protection. He remains the city's guardian for some time, facing foes such as Blockbuster and new villains such as Torque, and even becomes a police officer so that he can make an impact on the city's criminal activity in both parts of his life. Later, Grayson divides his duties between Bludhaven and Gotham after a devastating earthquake and the subsequent decision to declare Gotham a No Man's Land, Grayson occasionally assisting his mentor and other members of Bat-Family in maintaining and restoring order in Gotham until it is fully rebuilt. When the Justice League vanished into the past fighting ancient sorceress Gamemnae, Nightwing was selected as the leader of the reserve League created by an emergency program Batman had established in the event of his League being defeated, Batman describing Nightwing as the only person he could have picked to lead the new team.
Eventually, the original League are restored, and Nightwing departs along with some of his League-although others remain as some of the original team take a leave of absence-although Batman notes that his leadership of the League proves that he is ready for more responsibilities. However, the death of Blockbuster prompts Nightwing to leave Bludhaven due to his crisis of conscience; Blockbuster was killed by vigilante Tarantula and Nightwing did not stop it even when he had the chance to do so. While Nightwing returns to Gotham to heal after assisting Batman in dealing with a series of gang wars, Blüdhaven is destroyed by the Secret Society of Super-Villains when they drop Chemo on it.
During the battle of Metropolis, Grayson suffers a near-fatal injury from Alexander Luthor, Jr. when he shields Wayne from Luthor's attack. Originally, the editors at DC intended to have Grayson killed in Infinite Crisis as Newsarama revealed from the DC Panel at WizardWorld Philadelphia:
It was again explained that Nightwing was originally intended to die in Infinite Crisis, and that you can see the arc that was supposed to end with his death in the series. After long discussions, the death edict was finally reversed, but the decision was made that, if they were going to be keeping him, he would have to be changed. The next arc of the ongoing series will further explain the changes, it was said.
After spending some time away with Bruce and Tim to heal and rebuild after their harsh times prior to the Crisis, Dick relocates to New York, but has trouble finding work as both Dick Grayson and Nightwing. During the Batman R.I.P. storyline, Nightwing is ambushed by the International Club of Villains. He is later seen being held in Arkham Asylum, where one of the surgeons, in reality also the civilian identity of ICoV member Le Bossu, arranged for Nightwing to be admitted under the name of Pierrot Lunaire (another ICoV member) and be kept both heavily drugged and regularly beaten by staff to subdue him. Scheduled for an experimental lobotomy by Le Bossu himself, he manages to free himself and come to Batman's aid for the finale of the story arc.
Following the events of Batman's apparent death during the Final Crisis, Nightwing has closed down shop in New York so as to return to Gotham, where after the events of "Battle for the Cowl", he assumes the identity of Batman, with Damian Wayne, Bruce Wayne's biological son, as the new Robin.
The new team of Batman and Robin is the focus of Grant Morrison and Frank Quitely's Batman and Robin series. Their dynamic reverses the classic dynamic of Bruce and Dick, by having a lighter and friendlier Batman paired with a more intense and dark Robin. Over time, Dick's experience as the Dark Knight would harden his personality as his mentor.
During this period, Dick Grayson as Batman also features as a member of the Justice League in a short-lived run by writer James Robinson. After an intense confrontation with the Club of Villains and the mysterious Doctor Simon Hurt (who has established fake evidence that he is actually Bruce's father Thomas Wayne), Hurt is defeated when Bruce returns to the present. However, Bruce leaves Dick to continue to act as Batman in Gotham with Damian as his partner while he sets up the new 'Batman Incorporated' program, Bruce publicly identifying himself as Batman's financial backer to justify a global Batman-themed operation where he funds multiple other vigilantes.
The New 52 (2011–2016)
Dick Grayson is re-established as Nightwing following DC's Flashpoint crossover event, after which the publisher relaunched all of its titles and made alterations to its continuity as part of an initiative called The New 52. In the new status quo, Bruce Wayne is once again the only Batman, and Dick, like the other members of the adoptive family, is a few years younger. Dick, despite being 19 is drawn a bit shorter than in his pre-relaunch frame. This is likely due to adding believability to his acrobat past. According to various interviews it is stated that Dick was adopted at 16, as opposed to 12. This is due to the DCNU's timeline existing for five years. Dick Grayson is shown in flashbacks as Robin with a revamped version of the Robin costume in Nightwing (vol. 3) #0 (November 2012) and Batman and Robin Annual (vol. 2) #2 (March 2014).
In his civilian identity he is attacked by an assassin named Saiko who insists that he is the fiercest killer in Gotham. The series Batman Incorporated relaunches with a second volume, continuing its story while taking into account the New 52's continuity changes; Dick is now depicted as Nightwing, and not as Batman, but the change is not addressed in the comic itself. In Nightwing, Dick inherits the deed to the circus from a dying C. C. Haly and begins a relationship with his childhood friend acrobat Raya Vestri. Saiko tortures Haly for information on Nightwing's secret identity, and the old man dies in Dick's arms after telling him the circus holds a terrible secret. Investigating leads, he tracks down a supervillain named Feedback, who used to be a childhood friend, but does not learn anything. Following Haly's clues, he finds a mysterious Book of Names in the circus that has his name on the last page. Later the circus announces they will be doing a memorial show on the anniversary of the night Dick's parents were murdered, and Saiko attacks by detonating a massive explosion.
It is then revealed that the circus has been training assassins for years, and Saiko was a childhood friend using Raya as an accomplice. Grayson had been selected to become a new Talon for the Court of Owls, but when Batman adopted him, Saiko took his place. The killer plummets to his death and Raya turns herself in. Returning to the Batcave, Bruce reveals to Dick that the current Talon is his great-grandfather William Cobb. During the Night of the Owls event Dick faces Cobb, who was revived while protecting Mayor Hady. Following the event, Dick decided to keep Haly's Circus in Gotham and plans to invest in turning an abandoned amusement park into their new location without Bruce's money. He works with Sonia Branch, the daughter of Tony Zucco, the crime boss who murdered Dick's parents, into getting a loan for this plan by investing his entire trust fund despite being a high-risk due to Saiko's recent attack. The problems arise because of the guilt Sonia feels towards her father's actions  and many members of the circus are afraid for their lives because of the previous disasters and accuse Dick Grayson of being a flake, making it hard for those who choose to stay.
The "Death of the Family" crossover event across the Batman-related comic books led to a major shift in Nightwing's status quo. During the storyline, one of Dick's friends Jimmy Clark, who worked as a circus clown, was murdered by the Joker because Joker felt like Jimmy was a knockoff of him. Nightwing later discovers Joker broke Raya out of prison, infected her with his Joker venom and has forced her to fight him while wearing a makeshift Nightwing costume. The toxin eventually killed Raya, though Nightwing tried in vain with an anti-toxin to save her. Nightwing then discovered that Joker left a message on Raya's abdomen that he was targeting Haly's Circus next. However upon arriving there, Joker unveils his plan to burn the circus to the ground and then infects Nightwing with his gas that not only causes him to experience hallucinations of Jimmy and Raya, but he is soon attacked by the other members of Haly's Circus that were also affected by the toxin allowing Joker to capture him.
In the aftermath, Haly's Circus is gone, with Dick broke as a result for having lost his investment. While the other circus members survived since Joker used a different Joker venom on them, they blame Dick and decide to leave after Raya and Jimmy's funeral, though deep down they know it is not his fault. Dick becomes bitter from his loss. After he used excessive force to bring down some criminals that tried to plunder valuables from the remains of the circus, Damian, having been monitoring him, is able to talk some sense into Nightwing, which helps him recover.
Nightwing is later deeply affected by the death of Damian following his murder at the hands of Damian's clone, the Heretic, in Batman Incorporated. With Damian's death and potential resurrection becoming an obsession of Batman's, Dick is shunned by Bruce when he tries to tell him to move on, in Batman and Nightwing (a retitled Batman & Robin #23).
Later, the Nightwing series changes its setting to Chicago, Illinois. Sonia Branch reveals to Dick an e-mail that indicates that her father Zucco is still alive. After giving the address to Red Robin to try and track down who sent it, Robin uncovers that Zucco is residing in Chicago. Nightwing moves to Chicago in order to find and arrest Zucco, who is now living under the assumed identity of Billy Lester, an assistant to the mayor. Soon after arriving in Chicago, Dick meets his new roommates, a photojournalist named Michael and a computer specialist named Joey. After leaving the apartment to meet with Johnny Spade, a borderline criminal who steals and sells information, their meeting is interrupted by the police. A short chase results in the accidental destruction of a newly rebuilt subway. Meanwhile, a criminal hacker called the Prankster tortures, maims and kills criminal con men who are untouchable by the police.
The Chicago story is later abruptly ended by Nightwing's role in a larger company-wide crossover event. After the Crime Syndicate invade Earth Prime at the conclusion of the "Trinity War" Justice League storyline and defeat the Justice League, the DC crossover story Forever Evil depicts Nightwing's capture by the Crime Syndicate, who expose his secret identity to the world. Following their escape from the Syndicate, Batman and Catwoman decide to rescue him. He then is invited by Owlman to help defeat the Crime Syndicate, which he accepts. Nightwing is severely beaten by Ultraman and is attached to a device from a parallel world known as the Murder Machine, which is controlled by his heart rate and is reportedly impossible to escape from alive. When Batman and Lex Luthor arrive to free him, Lex stops his heart in order to fool the system so he can disarm it. However, Batman, enraged over what Lex has done, attacks him. Luthor explains it is not too late to save Grayson. In an uncharacteristically heroic moment, Luthor injects Grayson's heart with adrenaline, which successfully revives Grayson. Cyborg enters, having defeated Grid, and Grayson joins Batman, Cyborg and Catwoman in freeing the Justice League from the Firestorm Matrix. After the defeat of the Syndicate, Grayson is seen with Batman in the Batcave. Batman tells him that he has to send him on the most dangerous mission he could possibly undertake.
The Nightwing title concluded in April 2014 at issue #30, and was replaced with a new title, Grayson, which depicts Dick having given up his life as Nightwing at age 22 and going undercover as an agent of the Spyral organization where the former Batwoman Kathy Kane works. Written by Tim Seeley and former CIA counter-terrorism officer Tom King, the career change for Dick Grayson comes from the urging of Batman himself, who convinces him to remain dead to the world. Seeley stated that the series will be "leaning into" Grayson's sex symbol status. The character's look also is redesigned with no mask, but a blue-and-black outfit calling back to his pre-New 52 Nightwing counterpart with an addition of a "G" on his chest, said to be reminiscent of the Robin "R".
In the "Agent of Spyral" storyline, Dick (known as Agent 37) is enlisted by Mister Minos, the director of Spyral, after having been chosen by Helena Bertinelli to serve as a new candidate. However, Dick serves as a mole under Batman due to their agenda of unmasking heroes by collecting the Paragon organs, organs in which contains the DNA of the Justice League and bestows meta-bioweapons the ability to use their powers. He assists Spyral's agenda to know more about Minos and his endgame, resulting in Spyral attaining most of the scattered organs. In a later story arc, Minos betrays Spyral and attempts to leak its secrets. To his surprise he finds the new Agent Zero, who reveals that she, along with the upper echelon of Spyral, had used Minos to attract Dick into Spyral and kills Minos as he has outlived his life full of humor.
During Batman and Robin Eternal, Grayson finds himself working with various other members of the Bat-Family-during the time when Bruce Wayne is amnesiac after his resurrection-against the ruthless villain known only as 'Mother', who, it is revealed, briefly met with Batman early in Grayson's career as Robin, believing that he shared her views on using trauma to make people stronger. Mother intends to trigger a global collapse with the reasoning that the survivors will rebuild a stronger world after being broken by tragedy and without the hindrance of parents to force their ideals on them, but Grayson and the rest of the Family are able to defeat her, Dick affirming that Batman helps the Robins become their own people who can avoid the mistakes he made in dealing with his own trauma rather than Mother's belief that she and Batman each teach people to use their trauma to define themselves. At the conclusion of the storyline, Dick meets with the restored Batman, assuring Bruce that, unlike Mother, he never forced his ideals on them, but simply gave them all an example that they chose to emulate while avoiding following it so exactly that they became like him.
When the Court of Owls plant a bomb inside Damian Wayne, they are able to blackmail Dick into officially joining their organization, although all sides are aware that Grayson intends to try and use his new position against them. The Grayson series ended at issue #20, where in the final issue, it was revealed that all knowledge of Dick's identity was erased from most of the world with one of Spyral's satellites, allowing Dick to resume his superhero activities as Nightwing once again.
Starting with the DC Rebirth relaunch in 2016, Dick returned to being Nightwing with his black and blue costume, his Spyral contacts having wiped all global evidence of his dual identity and the bomb removed from Damian. He uses his new skills and expertise in espionage moving forward. Nightwing is prominently featured in two Rebirth books: the fourth volume of Nightwing, his own solo book, and Titans, where Dick teams up with the other original Teen Titans after Wally West returns to the universe; through Wally, Dick remembers events of his life prior to Flashpoint and The New 52. After the Titans are forcibly disbanded by the Justice League, Dick creates a new Titans team after the rupture of the Source Wall consisting of Donna Troy, Raven, Steel (Natasha Irons), Beast Boy, and Miss Martian.
In his solo book, Dick is paired with a vigilante named Raptor and the two plan to bring down the Court of Owls from the inside. Barbara criticizes Dick's willingness to trust him and does not agree with his methods. Though Raptor seemed willing to play by Dick's rules of not killing, he tricks Dick into agreeing to a plan that results in the deaths of all of the Parliament of Owls in Sydney. After knocking Dick out, Raptor goes to Gotham and kidnaps Bruce during a conference. Nightwing confronts him alone in the ruins of a circus in Paris. Raptor reveals that he grew up in the circus as a child and fell in love with Dick's mother, Mary, as they stole from the rich and powerful in Paris. Raptor watched over Dick in the shadows as he grew up, and developed a hatred for Bruce Wayne as he represented everything he and Mary were against and felt it was dishonoring her memory to have Dick raised by him. Dick defeats Raptor and rescues Bruce in time.
After joining forces with the pre-Flashpoint Superman to defeat the latest attack of Doctor Destiny, Dick contemplates checking out Bludhaven, based on Superman's reference to how the pre-Flashpoint Grayson acted as the city's guardian for a time, and ultimately decides to go there. While there he meets a supervillain rehabilitation group called the Run-Offs, all of which were villains he and Batman defeated in the past. He finds that most of them are being framed for crimes around the area and works with them to find the true culprits. After solving the case and clearing their names, Dick begins dating their leader Shawn Tsang, known as the former criminal the Defacer. Shawn is kidnapped by Professor Pyg after Dick discovers she might be pregnant with his child, and he teams up with Damian to track Pyg down and rescue her. After Shawn is revealed not to be pregnant, she ultimately breaks up with Dick, who focuses his efforts on taking down criminals such as Blockbuster, the returning Raptor, the Judge, and Wyrm.
During one of his nightly patrols with Batman, Nightwing is shot by KGBeast and nearly killed. As a result, he suffered from severe memory loss and attempted to build a new life in Bludhaven. He changed his name to Ric, gave up being Nightwing, and became a taxi driver that frequently went to bars. With Bludhaven suffering from an increase in crime from the vigilante's absence, a detective named Sapienza comes across Dick's abandoned hideout in the subway and decides to become the new Nightwing. Sapienza recruits a team of his friends in law enforcement to help him, and together they make a team of Nightwings using Dick Grayson's old uniforms. In addition to Sapienza, the team consists of Malcolm Hutch, the deputy chief in the Bludhaven fire department, Zak Edwards, vice of the 10th precinct, and Colleen Edwards, detective of the 14th precinct.
Skills, abilities, and resources
Dick Grayson is a prodigious natural athlete, expert acrobat, and aerialist possessing a peak level of agility and acrobatic skills. At a very young age, he trained in acrobats as a stage performer with his parents, and he is regarded as the greatest acrobat in the DC Universe. He is the only human on Earth who can do the quadruple somersault (formerly one of three, the other two being his parents). Grayson is trained in several martial arts disciplines and was rigorously trained by his mentor, Batman, in various skills, such as escapology, criminology, fencing, stealth, disguise, and numerous other combat/non-combat disciplines. Dick Grayson is 5' 10" (1.78 m) and 175 lbs (79 kg). He is shown to have natural skill in reading the body motion of others like that of Cassandra Cain and Lady Shiva as shown in the previous continuity. He is able to anticipate and predict one's next action and detect if someone is lying. Like Batman, he also possesses a will strong enough to withstand even telepathic attacks. He is also a master of espionage, his skills even further shown as a spy within the tremendously powerful intelligence organization Spyral.
As Nightwing, Grayson is a master in various forms of unarmed combat, such as Aikido, Boxing, Capoeira, Eskrima, Hapkido, Jeet Kune Do, Judo, Jujutsu, Karate, Ninjutsu, Sambo, Savate, Shaolin Kung Fu, and Taekwondo, and is armed with twin Eskrima sticks made from an unbreakable polymer. He also carries several dozen modified batarangs (called wing-dings) along with de-cel jumplines and gas capsules.
Having had the finest education as Bruce Wayne's ward, he is fluent in Spanish, Russian, Mandarin, Cantonese, the alien language of Tamaran, conversant in American Sign Language, French, Italian, Persian, and Kikuyu. He is also a brilliant and experienced strategist with superlative leadership skills, having served as leader to the Titans, the Outsiders, and even the Justice League. Additionally, Dick's interpersonal skills and efforts to remain in contact with other heroes makes him a master at rallying, unifying, and inspiring the superhero community, a skill in which he has surpassed his mentor; when the pre-Flashpoint Superman received the praise of the New 52 Nightwing, Superman noted that, in any reality, it is high praise to be vouched for by Dick Grayson.
Besides his resources as Bruce Wayne's adopted son and heir, Dick's parents also left him a trust fund which Lucius Fox turned into a small fortune. Although it is not comparable to Bruce Wayne's wealth, it has been enough to maintain his Nightwing equipment, purchase the rights to Haly's Circus (saving Dick's former home from financial troubles), and secretly buy his former Blüdhaven apartment building at 1013 Parkthorne Avenue.
Dick Grayson's Robin costume alluded to the American robin and Robin Hood. The cape was alternately depicted as yellow or green. The costume also featured crakow-style shoes, which some artists would discard from the portrayal.
Dick Grayson's Nightwing costume was made of a version of the Nomex fire-resistant, triple-weave Kevlar-lined material. It was an excellent protection against damage, and was also insulated against electricity. Specifically tailored to his style of fighting, Nightwing's costume had fewer body-armor inlays than Batman, anticipating a decreased need for shock absorption and an increased capacity for motion. Against opponents both fast and strong, Nightwing had supplemental body-armor overlays he could attach to his gauntlets, boots, shoulders, and mask. Instead of a black cape to keep him hidden, which Grayson dislikes wearing, the suit was light sensitive, darkening when there was more light in the area. The mask, in the form of his symbol, was fixed in place with spirit gum, and included a built-in radio transmitter/receiver and Starlite night vision lenses. The third costume, with its stylized blue "wing" across his shoulders and extending to his hands, coloring his two middle fingers, over a black bodysuit, made its first appearance in Nightwing: Ties That Bind #2 (October 1995), and was designed by the cover artist Brian Stelfreeze. His suit was also equipped with wings that allow him to glide in the air or fly.
As Batman, his Batsuit featured a lighter cape to accommodate his more acrobatic fighting style and a utility belt with a bat-shaped buckle. He also developed "para-capes" for his and Damian's costumes which gave them the ability to glide. Grayson is noticeably shorter than Bruce Wayne.
Post-Flashpoint with his return to Nightwing, Dick wore a similar suit, albeit with the blue "wing" being red throughout the New 52. Previously in the New 52's continuity as Nightwing, he formerly owned an armored suit which was blue and yellow, resembling a modern take of his previous first costume in the previous continuity and another that was an armored suit that sported a red bat symbol, in which is currently being used by Jason Todd though slightly modified for Jason's taste. Formerly before having to leave the Nightwing mantle post Forever Evil, his suit was made up of sturdy but flexible material that not only suited his strength in speed and acrobatics, but also was durable enough to take bullets from machine guns. His former costume was a stylized red "wing" across his shoulders and extending to his hands, coloring his two middle fingers, over a black torso and legs. He also has gauntlets much like Batman's own suit. Nightwing's costume is tailored specifically to his unique style of crime-fighting. He also has variants of his costume in which one of his stylized red "wings" reach only to his shoulders, another to his wrists, and one in which has hip and finger stripes.
Some versions of Dick's story as Nightwing do not make clear whether the public at large knows that the first Robin is now Nightwing, or whether he is simply an entirely new hero. A metafictional foreword (said to have been made by a future historian) to a trade paperback for "A Death In The Family" made the claim that the public at large always thought there was just one Robin. In versions that do address it, Dick and Bruce seem to want to spread the belief that Nightwing started his career as an adult, the better to hide their true identities. The series Grayson seems to indicate that the public does not know, as Midnighter did not think to study Robin's techniques in preparation for his fight with Grayson, an advantage the latter exploited.
During his time as Agent 37 for Spyral, Dick uses identity protection implants that ensure that cameras nor the memory of e.g. target persons can't capture his face. He also was incorporated with a pair hypnotic contacts which Dick used to mind control someone if they looked directly into his eye. Additionally he still carries a pair of Escrima Sticks. He was required to carry a gun as part of Spyral protocol.
Starting with Rebirth, Dick returns to being Nightwing, once again in black and blue. The "wing" is replaced by a thinner, v-shaped bird that starts and the chest and goes up to the shoulders and around to the back. His domino mask is now blue, instead of black. The shins and calves of his legs feature a big "swish" of blue. He wears a black leather strap and buckle on each of his forearms. The intention of this redesign is to harken back to the iconic black and blue look of the third Nightwing costume introduced in 1995, maintain the simplicity of the aforementioned iconic look, creating a more visible bird symbol, while also highlighting Dick's face with a lighter coloured mask and his legs which can allow for more dynamic art when he is in motion.
In the Amalgam Universe, Dick was combined with the Marvel character Moon Knight and became Moonwing. He was a S.H.I.E.L.D. agent who selected Jason Todd as his successor when he temporarily left S.H.I.E.L.D. to attend college. As Moonwing, Jason made a careless mistake, which resulted in a S.H.I.E.L.D. agent's death, causing him to be dismissed from S.H.I.E.L.D. Jason became furious and blamed his mentors. He was then caught in an explosion when the villain Hyena detonated a bomb intended to kill Director Bruce Wayne and the Dark Claw. Despite his body never being recovered, S.H.I.E.L.D. presumed he was dead, but he survived and his body was recovered by HYDRA, who replaced his damaged body parts with robotic parts, transforming him into Deathlok. He then participated in a coup to help Madame Cat overthrow the Supreme Leader of Hydra, Lex Luthor a.k.a. the Green Skull. Afterwards, he swore allegiance to her. Later, when S.H.I.E.L.D. agents launched an attack on HYDRA's base, Deathlok was sent to confront them, where he spotted his former mentor, Moonwing, and attacked him from behind. He then revealed that he has been waiting a long time to kill both Dick and Bruce. He then unmasked Moonwing and accused him and Bruce of abandoning him. He then began strangling Dick, but before he could kill him Colonel Nick Fury and Sergeant Joe Rock commandeered an aircraft and shot Deathlok several times in the back. Despite feeling sorry for Jason, Dick left Jason to die again so he could continue the attack on the HYDRA base.
Kingdom Come (Post-Infinite Crisis Earth 22)
In the Elseworlds mini-series Kingdom Come, a middle-aged Dick Grayson reclaims the Robin mantle as Red Robin and takeover his mentor's position on the Justice League. He also has a daughter, Nightstar (Mar'i Grayson), whom he fathered with Starfire. Nightstar aligns herself with Batman's Outsiders and romantically involves with his and Talia al Ghul's son, Ibn al Xu'ffasch. After Ibn and Mar'i marries, they have a daughter and son, and thus Dick and Bruce Wayne become in-laws and grandfathers of their respective progenies' children. Dick and Bruce reconcile at the end of the story.
JLA: The Nail and JLA: Another Nail
In the Elseworlds mini-series JLA: The Nail, Dick Grayson (as Robin), along with Barbara Gordon (as Batgirl), are tortured to death by the Joker with his Kryptonian gauntlets, driving Batman temporarily insane after he witnesses their ordeals and demise. The grief-stricken hero then kills the Joker for revenge. Later, in the sequel JLA: Another Nail, Dick returns as a spirit after the Joker escapes from Hell. He helps Batman defeat the villain once and for all, and seeing Dick is at peace after his death gives Batman the strength to move on.
The 2010 comic book limited series Batman Beyond features Terry McGinnis facing a new Hush. After ruling out Tim Drake as a suspect, Terry questions Dick Grayson who now runs an athletics training course after retiring as Nightwing due to sustaining severe gunshot wounds (including the loss of an eye) in a battle between the Joker and Batman. Though Dick gives an alibi, Hush later incapacitates Terry and removes his bandages to reveal the face of a youthful version of Dick with both eyes intact. It is later revealed that Hush is actually a clone of Grayson, created by Project Cadmus under the guidance of Amanda Waller in order to ensure that the world will always have a Batman. Hush later dies during a final confrontation with Terry, the real Dick Grayson, and a new Catwoman, after they thwart the villain's plan to destroy Gotham. He is told over the comlink with Bruce that he is still his heir but Dick rips off the connection still too hurt to talk to Bruce.
Dick later serves as a supporting character for the ongoing series. When a GCPD detective discovers Dick's past as Nightwing due to Hush's recent actions, Terry and Maxine "Max" Gibson attempt to convince the public otherwise by having Terry masquerade as his former identity while Max plants numerous false alibis for Dick throughout the internet. In the end, Dick partially admits the truth to Gotham without jeopardizing his allies' secrets, claiming he was a paid agent of Batman Inc., as the new Batman. The detective who threatened to expose Dick still plans to sue Dick but is "persuaded" not to by Terry.
It is revealed that, after the events in the Batman Beyond: Return of the Joker flashbacks and after what happened to Tim, Barbara gave up her Batgirl identity and broke off her relationship with Bruce, which Dick never knew about. Barbara resumed her relationship with Dick but was hesitant to confess to him that she had dated Bruce. Dick planned to propose to Barbara. Bruce himself ultimately confessed to their relationship after finding out that he had gotten Barbara pregnant; furthermore, he wanted to be involved in the life of their child. Barbara, however, unable to leave behind her vigilante life, fought a mugger and ultimately miscarried her child. These events, as well as her sense that she destroyed the bond between Dick and Bruce, caused Barbara's relationship with Dick to disintegrate and eventually led her to marry Sam Young. Losing Barbara caused Dick to become estranged from Bruce for his role. Later on, when Terry learns Bruce's impact on the former couple, he then sides with Grayson. In the parallel universe where the Justice Lords reside, Dick's counterpart is happily married to Barbara's and they had a son named after his father, John Grayson, together. Bruce's Justice Lord counterpart was happily married to Wonder Woman as well until her Justice Lord counterpart killed him. The events in the Justice Lords' world cause Dick envying of the life his counterpart leads with his wife. Terry also becomes friends with Dick's counterpart, helping him training his own into the new Batman in Justice Lords' world.
In the 2013 Digital Comic Batman Beyond 2.0 it is revealed that Terry has now left Bruce's employment since leaving high school and is now working for Grayson as Batman with Dick taking on the role of support for Terry. While Terry finds working with Dick easier than Bruce, Dick reminds Terry of his commitment to his family and to his education.
In the alternate timeline of the Flashpoint event, Dick Grayson and his parents are part of the Haley Circus acrobats, featured in a show alongside Boston Brand. In a vision that Doctor Fate gives Boston Brand, Boston is standing over Dick's body. Before the next show, Boston tries to convince Dick to perform solo. However, Dick tells him that family means too much to him. Dick poses the question that Boston's seeming fearlessness could stem from his insecurity of being alone. During the attack on Haley Circus by the Amazons, Dick's mother falls to the ground in the ensuing madness. When Dick, along with the circus, is running away from the Amazons, they are rescued by the Resistance member Vertigo. While they are hiding, Dick's father is fatally wounded by the Amazons. Boston tells him to leave his father but Dick refuses. Later, Dick's dying father makes Boston promise to protect his son. Afterwards, Dick and Boston run at the countryside looking for reinforcements, when they are soon caught in an explosion. Dick survived, but his friend Boston is killed. When he walks towards his friend's body, he is unaware of the fact that he walks through the ghost of Boston. Dick manages to kill the Amazons (including Starfire, who had joined with them) in a gasoline explosion. Meeting up with the Resistance, Dick becomes the new Doctor Fate. He is aided by the ghostly Boston, who lets him know that he is not alone.
Earth 2 (New 52)
On Earth 2, Dick Grayson is a journalist who is forced to live in a survival camp with his son John and his wife Barbara Gordon due to an invasion of Parademons. After the fatal shooting of his wife, the disappearance of his son, and the death of the second Batman, Dick becomes the third Batman of Earth 2 where he attempts to diminish crime following the end of Convergence. He is later reunited with John, who in turn becomes the new Robin of Earth 2. Later, Dick becomes wheelchair bound and adopts a new alias as Oracle while Helena Wayne becomes the fourth Batman with John fighting by her side as her Robin.
Injustice: Gods Among Us
In the alternate world of Injustice: Gods Among Us, Dick remains firmly aligned with Batman's views of law and order even as Superman begins a more forceful approach of ending crime. When he announces his plan to take away the inhabitants of Arkham Asylum, Dick joins Batman in going to stop him. Batman's biological son Damian, however, believes in Superman's cause and sides with him. During a skirmish at the asylum Damian inadvertently kills Dick by throwing his kali stick at him, causing Dick to fall over and break his neck when he lands on a rock positioned in just the wrong location. After this action, Batman and Damian's relationship as father and son ends, Bruce later proclaiming that Dick was his son and Damian lost the right to that title after Dick's loss. In the Year Two annual, Clayface takes the form of Dick to infiltrate Barbara Gordon's base for Superman, but is eventually discovered and stopped by Jim Gordon, Barbara, and the Birds of Prey. In the Year Three series Dick's spirit is called upon by the dying Deadman to replace him, allowing Dick to return to action as he investigates who the Spectre is after finding Jim Corrigan, under the influence of Joker Venom, in Arkham Asylum. Near the end of the series he has a talk with Bruce on how he has no regrets about his life despite the way it ended, declaring love for his adopted father. It is revealed in the annual that before his death he left the Titans to join the Justice League. After the explosion kills Beast Boy and Kid Flash he warns the Titans to stay out of anything to do with Superman. He also had romantic feelings for Starfire at one point, as she urges him to rejoin the Titans, but Dick insists that Batman needs him by his side. In chapter 14 of Year Five he returns to watch over Damian, who has been going through an identity crisis. As the youth goes on to fight several criminals at once Dick notes that while Damian has great skill he is reckless and arrogant, and is forced to intervene when Damian is overwhelmed. He leaves his old outfit with Damian and bemoans that Damian chose to leave Batman, as it has allowed him to fall for the dark influence Superman has.
Dick Grayson is first seen going off to college in a scene set in 1949, after working with Batman for almost ten years, going on to become a lawyer in New York. At some point between 1959 and 1969, Dick takes on the mantle of Batman with Bruce Wayne Jr. as Robin after Bruce is forced to retire due to old age. Dick is killed by the Joker's latest scheme in 1969, with Bruce Jr. taking Dick's costume so the legacy of Batman can live on, claiming that the Joker 'merely' killed Robin. In Superman/Batman: Generations 2, Dick's ghost begins haunting the Joker in 1975. With the help of Deadman, Doctor Occult, and the ghost of Alfred Pennyworth, Dick and Alfred go into the light, Alfred convincing Dick that tormenting the Joker can serve no purpose but to risk Dick's own soul, now that the Joker is so close to dying of natural causes.
Smallville: Season 11
In the comic book continuation of the television series Smallville, Dick is Barbara Gordon's boyfriend, who becomes her successor as Nightwing and Batman's replacement partner after she becomes a Blue Lantern. Unlike previous depictions, Dick was never Bruce Wayne's ward and protégé as Robin, and has made reference that he was a former circus acrobat-turned-police officer prior to becoming Batman's new partner, in the ranks of detectives within Gotham City Police Department.
Nightwing: The New Order
In this alternate reality, Nightwing ends an ongoing feud between super-powered beings by activating a device that depowers ninety percent of the super-powered population. This builds to a future where super-powers are outlawed and any super-powered being must take inhibitor medications or be contained and studied should the medications not work on them. Grayson's identity is exposed, but is honored as a hero by the public for eliminating super-powers to ensure the safety of the planet. He becomes the leader of a government task force known as The Crusaders and hunts down super-powered individuals. In his off time, he raises his and Starfire's son, Jake, who soon develops his mother's powers and puts Dick at odds with the system he helped create. After allying with the Titans to help Jake escape, Dick tries to leave with his son, but Jake convinces him to aid the Titans and Superman in restoring the world's super-powers. Dick spent his remaining days watching his son grow into a responsible adult and teaching super-powered children how to control their abilities. As an adult, Jake eventually has a son of his own named Richard in honor of his father.
In other media
- Actor Burt Ward played Dick Grayson/Robin in the Batman television series that ran from 1966 through 1968, which further made Robin and Grayson inseparable parts of the Batman mythos. In the series, Dick was Bruce's ward (rather than adopted son) and attended "Woodrow Roosevelt High School". Robin was noted for delivering one-liners that would begin with "Holy..." and end with "Batman", such as "Holy haberdashery, Batman!" or "Holy atomic pile, Batman!" Ward also reprised the role for the feature film produced in 1966 in conjunction with the show, as well as for the 1979 NBC television special Legends of the Superheroes and a cameo as an old Dick Grayson in “Crisis on Infinite Earths. 
- On October 1, 2008, it was announced that The CW was preparing a new live-action pilot called The Graysons which would follow the life of a pre-Robin Dick Grayson. Smallville exec producers Kelly Souders and Brian Peterson, as well as Supernatural exec producer McG and Peter Johnson, were behind The Graysons, which landed a put pilot commitment at the netlet. Souders and Peterson were set to serve as showrunners (along with Todd Slavkin and Darren Swimmer). On November 6, 2008, Variety revealed that Warner Bros. executive Jeff Rubinov, who had initially supported the project, pulled the plug on the show. Rubinov stated that "the studio has opted not to go forward with the development of The Graysons at this time", stating that the concept did not fit with the aims of the current Batman franchise. Rubinov continued, "Warner Bros. Television is currently working on several replacement options for the CW."
- Rob Gorrie appears as John Grayson in the Gotham TV series episode "The Blind Fortune Teller" as the main focus of the episode, which centers on Haly's Circus, The Flying Graysons, and he and his fiancée Mary Lloyd's plan to get married and have a son, presumably Dick. Showrunner Bruno Heller had teased a "Prenatal Robin" story involving Dick Grayson's parents. In an interview with Sean Pertwee (who portrays Alfred Pennyworth in the show) during the Heroes and Villains Fan Fest in Nashville he discussed the potential of the series showing a young Dick Grayson in the show, and claimed that Mary was pregnant during "The Blind Fortune Teller", although nothing was actually stated in the show. In the episode "They Did What?", Lucius Fox mentions the "Nightwing Project" to Bruce Wayne.
- A 2018 TV series originally planned to be released through TNT called Titans in which Dick Grayson is one of the main characters, was released exclusively through Warner Bros. own direct-to-consumer digital service, DC Universe. Akiva Goldsman, Geoff Johns, and Greg Berlanti wrote the pilot episode, and served as producers with Sara Schechter. Brenton Thwaites was cast as a bitter, adult Dick Grayson/Robin who has cut all ties with Bruce Wayne after feeling manipulated for years by him. He later abandons the Robin persona and burns the suit. In season 2, he reconnects with Bruce and in the season finale he adopts the mantle of Nightwing.
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- Dick Grayson appeared in many of the early animated series related to DC Comics superheroes. These shows included:
- The Batman/Superman Hour by Filmation which ran from 1968 through 1969.
- The Adventures of Batman which repackaged portions of Filmation's previous series for rebroadcast in 1969.
- Various Super Friends shows produced by Hanna–Barbera from 1975 through 1985. These included:
- The New Adventures of Batman produced by Filmation in 1977.
- Dick Grayson appeared in Batman: The Animated Series and The New Batman Adventures, voiced by Loren Lester (Robin on Batman: The Animated Series and Nightwing on The New Batman Adventures) and Joey Simmrin (as the character's ten-year-old version in the Batman: The Animated Series Emmy Award winning two-part episode "Robin's Reckoning"). While much of the character's past remained the same, Dick's costume from Batman: The Animated Series was updated to a more modern look with short sleeves and long pants much like Tim Drake's original Robin outfit seen in Robin #1. While Grayson attended college at Gotham University, he dated Barbara Gordon but neither was aware of each other's secret identity despite having worked together. Dick eventually retired as Robin and left Gotham after coming to blows with Batman over the Dark Knight's controlling and ruthless behavior. Years later in The New Batman Adventures, the character returned as Nightwing. His Nightwing costume looks identical to the one seen in Nightwing #1 in late 1996. While he would still work with Batman and Batgirl, he never fully reconciled with the two. Nightwing does, however, establish a strong working bond with his Robin successor Tim Drake. The character is occasionally referenced in the spin-off series Batman Beyond, He had non-speaking cameos on the Justice League animated series and Justice League Unlimited.
- While the version of Robin of the Teen Titans animated series is never directly referred to be Dick Grayson in the cartoon, there are a number of elements of his character that point Dick to be the most likely candidate out of all the other Robins. This includes the color of his costume, a visual of two trapeze artists falling down in a circus tent when Raven was entering Robin's mind in the episode "Haunted", Robin becoming Nightwing in the episode "How Long is Forever?", his romantic relationship with Starfire, and the episode "Fractured" shows an alternate universe version of Robin with exactly the same DNA shows up named Nosyarg Kcid (Dick Grayson spelled backwards). The tie-in comic, Teen Titans Go! appears to confirm that this version of Robin is indeed Dick Grayson, as issue #47 focuses on Robin struggling through the anniversary of the death of his parents (which are shown to be the Flying Graysons as in the episode "Haunted") with the other Titans trying to help him cope. Batman makes a cameo overseeing Titans Tower from the city, and after seeing Robin and Starfire kiss, claims that Robin is "in better hands".
- Dick Grayson appears as central part in the cast of The Batman, voiced by Evan Sabara (Robin) and by Jerry O'Connell (Nightwing). Introduced in the fourth season, after the 2003 Teen Titans TV series had ended, this version is an energetic, gifted acrobat and one of the main attractions of Hayley's Circus, along with his parents as part of the amazing Flying Graysons act until Tony Zucco tried to threaten the Graysons into taking a 'protection' policy, resulting in an altercation where one of Zucco's brothers was easily defeated by Batman. When Zucco altered the Flying Graysons' trapeze act's rigs, Dick's parents fall to their deaths right in front of their son during a performance. With no surviving family members, Dick was taken in by Bruce Wayne. After the two worked together to capture Zucco, Dick chose the 'Robin' codename. Tensions arose when Robin and Batgirl met. While Batgirl has been Batman's wanna-be partner for some time, Robin appeared as Batman's new 'official partner' rather easily (presumably due to Bruce and Dick relating to losing parents). However, this changed when Batman took the liberty of revealing their respective identities and fully accepted each other into the fold. Afterward, Robin and Batgirl developed a more friendly, almost sibling-like working relationship, but Batgirl has romantic feelings for Robin. As depicted in the future, he has taken up the Nightwing mantle. However, Batman and Oracle still persist in calling Nightwing by his original codename. Batman did this more out of habit while Oracle did it as a flirting sort of way to annoy Nightwing. The character's Robin costume has elements of Tim Drake's two Robin costumes and is also influenced heavily by his Teen Titans counterpart. He is far less serious and genuinely enjoys his work as a vigilante, constantly spouting one-liners and generally acting as a typical teenager and his Golden Age comic counterpart. His Nightwing costume seen in the future resemble the modern costume while the Nightwing costume seen as Robin's online character for an online Mortal Kombat-esque fighting game resembles the original design.
- Dick Grayson appears in Batman: The Brave and the Bold, voiced by Crawford Wilson (Nightwing) alongside Jeremy Shada (Robin) and Lex Lang (Batman). Robin's present-day costume is similar to the one Earth-Two Robin wore near the end of his career, Robin's younger costume is the classic Robin costume, and Nightwing's costume is a nod to the original 1984 version. In the episode "The Color of Revenge!", Robin and Batman team up when Crazy Quilt escapes prison to get revenge on Robin. This teamup takes place sometime after Robin has moved to Blüdhaven and become an independent hero. The episode also has a flashback to his early days and an earlier encounter between the Dynamic Duo and Crazy Quilt. In the episode "Sidekicks Assemble!", Robin appears again along with Speedy and Aqualad facing off against Ra's al Ghul. At the end of the fight, Dick decides to go on his own as Nightwing. Nightwing is briefly seen in the first part of the episode "Starro Lives", where he is one of the many super-heroes whose mind is taken over by the villain Starro. Eventually, Nightwing is returned to normal like the others. In the teaser for "Emperor Joker!", Robin is seen in a flashback to an earlier battle between the Dynamic Duo and Firefly. In the episode "The Criss Cross Conspiracy!", he appears as Robin during a flashback and as Nightwing during the present time. During Batwoman's thrill seeking crime fighting that occasionally endangering innocent bystanders, Robin helps Batman. Some years later, Nightwing and Batgirl help Batman (in Batwoman's body) reverse Batwoman's damage. In the episode "The Knights of Tomorrow!", he becomes Batman after Bruce Wayne retires and marries Selina Kyle. After Bruce and Selina are killed by Joker Jr., Batman partners with Damian Wayne as the new Robin. In the opening for "Triumvirate of Terror", Robin was seen in the Justice League International playing baseball against the Legion of Doom.
- Dick Grayson appears in the Young Justice animated series, voiced by actor Jesse McCartney. The character is introduced as Robin in Season 1, and transitions into Nightwing in Young Justice: Invasion. When the series begins in 2010, Robin is 13 years old (the youngest on the Team but the most experienced). Grayson is forbidden by Batman to reveal his secret identity to the Team, wearing sunglasses when out of costume (although it appears later on that the original Team members became aware of his identity). He is known for making jokes during battles (such as his frequent use of the word "whelming", being a middle ground between "overwhelming" and "underwhelming") and is good with computers. His origin is the same as in the comics. After a simulated battle, Robin confesses to Black Canary that he can't dedicate himself completely to 'the mission', realizing that he doesn't want to be like Batman anymore. Grayson is shown to be a strong detective, able to work under pressure, and gains leadership experience throughout the first season. He develops a crush on Zatanna, the culmination of which is a kiss on New Year's Eve. He transitions into Nightwing during Young Justice: Invasion. During the five-year gap between seasons, he allows Jason Todd and Tim Drake to be successors as Robin. He is shown to be a member of the Bat-Family, implying a non-confrontational transition to Nightwing. Nightwing chooses to remain with the Team, rejecting an invitation to join the Justice League. He acts as team leader and deploys squads on missions (similarly to Batman in Season 1). At the end of Season 2, he chooses to take a leave of absence from the team (returning leadership to Aqualad), citing that everything happening is 'business as usual'. By Season 3, which begins 2 years later, Grayson is in a relationship with Barbara Gordon, with the latter now assuming her identity of Oracle. His Robin costume is similar to his "New 52" costume but designed more practically for urban combat. His Nightwing costume is similar to his third costume from the comics, enhanced with protective gear. This television series is not a direct translation of the Young Justice comic book series of the same name or any Teen Titans storylines, incorporating elements from multiple sources to tell a unique story allowing participation from multiple Robins.
- A Nightwing animated series was in development for Cartoon Network, but was turned down in favor of Young Justice.
- Dick Grayson's Nightwing costume from The New Batman Adventures appears as an easter egg in Justice League Action in the episode "Play Date".
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- Douglas Croft portrayed Robin in the 1943 serial Batman, which dealt with Batman and Robin's struggle against Dr. Daka, a Japanese scientist who invented a device that turns people into pseudo-zombies.
- In the 1949 sequel Batman and Robin, actor Johnny Duncan took over the role. The plot dealt with the Dynamic Duo facing off against the Wizard, a mysterious hooded villain.
Batman 1966 movie
- Burt Ward reprised the role for the feature film produced in 1966 in conjunction with the Batman television series.
Batman film series
- In the script written by Tom Mankiewicz for the unmade The Batman, Dick Grayson suffers his family's death by Joker being adopted by Bruce Wayne, blaming Batman for their deaths and discovering after the Batcave and being Robin after. Michael J. Fox and Eddie Murphy (during the period that the script was rewritten as a comedy) were considered for the role. The special edition version of the Batman DVD features an animated storyboard sequence of when his parents are killed by the Joker. Jason Hillhouse provides the voice of Dick Grayson, while Kevin Conroy and Mark Hamill reprise their respective roles (from the DC animated universe) as Batman and the Joker in the storyboard sequence. Director Tim Burton planned to cast actor Ricky Addison Reed as Robin, but later felt it was unimportant to the story and cut Robin out altogether. Kiefer Sutherland had also turned down the role, despite being unaware of the film's tone and direction. Marlon Wayans was originally cast as Robin in the 1992 film Batman Returns, however it was felt that the film featured too many characters, so the character was omitted from that film. In an earlier script of Batman Returns, he was portrayed as a technologically savvy street kid who would help Batman following his narrow escape when the Penguin tried to kill him. He would later play a crucial role in Batman's final confrontation with the Penguin. In that script, he was simply called Robin and has no known real name. He was considered for the role in Batman Forever, but the change in directors from Tim Burton to Joel Schumacher would also mean a change in the choice of actor for the role of Robin. Despite not actually appearing in either film, he was reportedly still paid for the role.
- Dick Grayson is played by actor Chris O'Donnell in Batman Forever (1995). In the film series, Richard "Dick" Grayson is in his mid-to-late teens, and is the younger of two brothers, and the "Flying Graysons" act being a family quartet (instead of a trio). Grayson's parents and older brother died after helping to foil Two-Face's plan to hold the Social Elite of Gotham City at a Circus charity fundraiser with a bomb. Their deaths were caused when Two-Face shot out the supports for the scaffolding they were hanging on to and they fell to their deaths, the safety net having been removed earlier in their performance. Following their deaths, Dick is taken in as a ward of Bruce Wayne's, although Dick is more interested in taking on and out Two-Face by himself. Suspicious of Bruce's and Alfred Pennyworth's behavior around a certain door they keep locked, Dick ends up finding his way into the Batcave. Having discovered Wayne's identity as Batman, Dick insists on becoming a crime-fighter himself, taking on the name "Robin", an old nickname courtesy of his late father and older brother, and collaborating with Batman to defeat Riddler and Two-Face and avenge his family. Before taking on the name Robin, Dick considers "Nightwing" as a possibility.
- In the 1997 sequel Batman & Robin, Chris O'Donnell reprised the role of Robin. His costume is changed to resemble Nightwing's in the comics, but continues to be "Robin." In the film, he's sick of being in Bruce's shadow and is constantly at odds with Batman thanks to Poison Ivy's powers. Ivy's seduction and pheromones cause Robin to fall blindingly in love with her, and Batman's attempts to stop the two from kissing cause Robin to believe he is jealous, allowing Ivy to tear the duo apart. Robin eventually decides to go solo and prepares to leave to see Ivy when he sees a "robin-signal" in the sky, with Batman begging him to trust him about Ivy one more time. Robin arrives at Ivy's lair and convinces her to tell him her plan as a sign of trust. The two share a kiss, but Robin reveals he has covered his lips in rubber, just in case Ivy really was trying to kill him. Ivy, enraged Robin tricked her and stole a kiss from her, shoves him into her pond to drown him, but he eventually cuts himself free of the vines. He and Batman, now joined by Batgirl, managed to save the city from Mr. Freeze, and after revealing that Ivy was the one who tried to kill Freeze's wife, he gives them a cure for Alfred, who was greatly sick. The trio agree to continue working together, as a family.
DC Extended Universe
In February 2017, it was announced that Warner Bros. is developing a Nightwing live action movie centered on the character set in the DC Extended Universe with Bill Dubuque writing the script and The LEGO Batman Movie director Chris McKay signed on as director. In Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice a vandalized Robin costume is seen in a memorial case. A behind-the-scenes video was released for the DC Extended Universe, it is revealed the suit did indeed belong to Jason who was killed by the Joker before the events of the film, and is labeled as such at the Warner Bros. Studio Tour Hollywood.
On his social media page, director Zack Snyder revealed that the vandalized Robin costume in the film was originally planned to have belonged to Dick Grayson. The filmmaker further elaborated that his plan was that the character would have been killed by the Joker before the events of the film. This however changed when the studio announced the development of Nightwing. As of 2018[update], no lead actor announcements has been published.
Robin appears in The LEGO Batman Movie, voiced by Michael Cera. This version was adopted by Batman as a teenager and his Robin outfit is actually a modified Reggae outfit for Batman with the pants taken off (the pants were too tight for him). He has large, green glasses similar to the Carrie Kelley version. During the climax, he briefly dons a Batman armor labeled "Nightwing" when attempting to save Barbara Gordon and Alfred Pennyworth.
- Robin appears in the direct-to-video animated movie Justice League: The New Frontier, voiced by Shane Haboucha. In his first appearance in his original costume since the end of The Super Powers Team: Galactic Guardians, this version apparently was adopted as a teenager after Batman realizes that he is frightening the innocent, instead of being adopted as a child; the circumstances surrounding their meeting are not shown. Robin thought that Superman was cool and showed great skills in acrobatics in the Batcave.
- Nightwing appears in the feature film Batman: Under the Red Hood, voiced by Neil Patrick Harris. This version is already Nightwing but is alluded as the first version of Robin before Jason Todd. At the story's start, Nightwing takes down two minor thugs, one of whom knows that Nightwing was once Robin as does the Joker. Nightwing later assists Batman in pursuing the Red Hood but is injured in an explosion set by Red Hood. While being bandaged by Alfred Pennyworth in the Batcave, he insists on helping Batman but is unable due to his injury and is told to go home but not before he is thanked by the Dark Knight for his help, which surprises him. Nightwing is also seen in the film's epilogue hearing reports of the Joker's arrest.
- Robin appears in JLA Adventures: Trapped in Time, voiced by Jack DeSena. The movie was intended to be a reboot, of sorts, of the classic Super Friends series, in which Dick Grayson joins Batman and various heroes, the Justice League in this case, on adventures. Robin plays a supporting role, and acts as somewhat of a foil to the two future Legion of Super-Heroes members, Karate Kid and Dawnstar. Robin is shown to have a close relationship to Batman, although he tends to ignore his orders.
- The DC Animated Movie Universe version of Dick Grayson (voiced by Sean Maher) appears in Son of Batman, Batman vs. Robin, Batman: Bad Blood, Justice League vs. Teen Titans, Teen Titans: The Judas Contract, Batman: Hush, and Teen Titans Go! vs. Teen Titans. Dick initially appears as Nightwing in Son of Batman and Batman vs. Robin. Grayson also acted as a replacement version of Batman for the majority of Batman: Bad Blood. Dick is even shown with a flirtatious relationship with Starfire in Justice League vs. Teen Titans. They are also romantically involved as shown in Teen Titans: The Judas Contract.
- Nightwing (voiced by Will Friedle) appears in Batman Unlimited: Animal Instincts, Batman Unlimited: Monster Mayhem and Batman Unlimited: Mech vs. Mutants.
- Dick Grayson/Nightwing appears in Lego DC Comics Super Heroes: Justice League: Gotham City Breakout, voiced by Will Friedle. He joins Barbara Gordon/Batgirl in getting Batman to go on vacation, but this leads to the three meeting with Deathstroke and Bane, as the Justice League and the Teen Titans take on a plethora of Batman villains in Gotham.
- Burt Ward reprises his role as Dick Grayson/Robin in the animated movie Batman: Return of the Caped Crusaders, which takes place in the continuity of the 1960s television show.
- Loren Lester reprises his role from the DC Animated Universe as Dick Grayson/Nightwing in Batman and Harley Quinn. In the film, he teams with Batman and Harley Quinn to stop Poison Ivy and Floronic Man and is shown to have a sexual relationship with Harley which is frowned upon by Batman.
- A Feudal Japan version of Nightwing voiced by Daisuke Ono (Japan release) and Adam Croasdell (American release) appears in the 2018 movie Batman Ninja.
- A Victorian-era version of Dick Grayson whose name is Dickie appears in Batman: Gotham by Gaslight, he is an orphan and street-thief alongside Jason and Timmy who are Victorian versions of Jason Todd and Tim Drake, they are initially under the employee of Big Bill Dust, but are released by Batman soon after who asks their aid towards the end of the film.
- Dick Grayson's Robin is the main character of the 2018 theatrical animated film Teen Titans Go! To the Movies. He desires to have his own theatrical solo-film and goes to great lengths to achieve this, leading to the development of the film's events.
- The Teen Titans Go! and original Teen Titans animated series versions of Dick Grayson's Robin appear in Teen Titans Go! vs. Teen Titans, with Scott Menville reprising the role for both. In addition, several alternate versions of Dick Grayson's Robin/Nightwing appear throughout the film, which include his counterparts from Tiny Titans, the New Teen Titans comic, and the DC Animated Movie Universe (with Sean Maher reprising the role).
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- Robin appeared in the Batman: The Animated Series video game.
- Robin appeared in The Adventures of Batman & Robin video game, voiced again by Loren Lester. He is a playable character in the game's Sega Genesis, Sega CD, and Sega Game Gear versions.
- Robin appeared in the Batman Forever video game.
- Robin appeared in Batman Forever: The Arcade Game.
- Robin appeared in the Batman & Robin video game.
- Nightwing appears in Batman: Chaos in Gotham.
- Nightwing appears in Batman: Gotham City Racer.
- Nightwing appears in Batman: Rise of Sin Tzu, voiced again by Loren Lester.
- Robin appears as a playable character in Batman: The Brave and the Bold – The Videogame, again voiced by Crawford Wilson.
- Nightwing appears as a playable character in Young Justice: Legacy, again voiced by Jesse McCartney.
- Nightwing appears as a non-playable character and as a playable Legends character in DC Universe Online, voiced by Joey Hood.
Batman: Arkham series
Dick Grayson appears as a recurring character in the Batman: Arkham series.
- Chronologically, Dick first appears in Batman: Arkham Origins, voiced by Josh Keaton. Robin is a playable character in the game's multiplayer component, where he works alongside Batman to stop various gang wars between the Joker and Bane. A poster for the Flying Graysons can also be seen through the single-player campaign. It is implied that Dick was adopted and trained as Robin by Batman shortly after the events of the main story of the game, before he eventually decided to leave Batman to fight crime on his own in Blüdhaven under his new persona, Nightwing.
- Nightwing appears as a playable character in the challenge maps for Batman: Arkham City, although he doesn't make any appearances in the game's main story. He also has an alternate costume based on his appearance in The New Batman Adventures.
- Nightwing plays a major role in Batman: Arkham Knight, voiced by Scott Porter. He is part of a sidequest where he works alongisde Batman to stop the Penguin's criminal activities in Gotham. Nightwing helps Batman track down several of Penguins's vans used to smuggle weapons through the city, which he then follows to several warehouses, where Batman and Nightwing proceed to beat up togheter Penguin's goons and destroy his vaults. At the end of the sidequest, Nightwing is captured by Penguin, but Batman manages to rescue him and then the duo take down Penguin for good, destroying his last vault. If the player completes the sidequest before the end of the main story, Batman makes Dick promise to keep Blüdhaven safe and tells him that he is proud of him, much to Dick's surprise.
- Nightwing also appears as a boss in the "Harley Quinn Story Pack" DLC, which is set several weeks prior to the events of the main story. He fights Harley Quinn when she breaks into the Blüdhaven Police Department Headquarters to release Poison Ivy, but is ultimately defeated by the two villains.
- Nightwing later appears again in the "Season of Infamy" mission focused on Killer Croc, where he works alongside Batman to hunt down and ultimately lock up Killer Croc in the GCPD Headquarters. F
- Nightwing also serves as the playable protagonist of the "GCPD Lockup" DLC mission, which is set some time after the conclusion of the main story and Batman's apparent death. After learning of Penguin's plan to have his goons break him out of the GCPD Headquarters, Nightwing travels to Gotham and ultimately foils Penguin's escape, with Lucius Fox's aid. After the villain is returned to his cell, Aaron Cash thanks Nightwing for his help and suggests building a new Bat-Signal for him, but Nightwing declines the offer, stating that it isn't something permanent.
- Nightwing was later added as a playable character for the game's challenge maps, with two additional skins: his original design from Batman: Arkham City, and his New 52 appearance.
- Nightwing makes a brief appearance in Batman: Arkham VR. In the stimulation, Batman investigates Nightwing's death in an alleyway, which Batman is surprised happened given Dick's skill. It is revealed at the end of the game that a Joker-possessed Batman was the one who killed Nightwing, though it also turns out that the entire game was a nightmare that Batman had under the influence of the Joker's contaminated blood inside him, taking place shortly before the events of Batman: Arkham Knight.
Lego DC series
- The character appears in Lego Batman: The Videogame, voiced by James Arnold Taylor. Nightwing is a separate character while Dick Grayson is available in the Nintendo DS version.
- Nightwing appears as a playable character via downloadable content in Lego Batman 2: DC Super Heroes, voiced by Cam Clarke. Nightwing is in his modern look.
- The character appears as separate playable characters in Lego Batman 3: Beyond Gotham, voiced by Josh Keaton (Nightwing) and by Charlie Schlatter (Robin). Nightwing is in his New 52 comic book style, while Robin is in his 1960s Batman design, and Dick Grayson appears as Agent 37.
- The LEGO Batman Movie version of Dick Grayson is playable in Lego Dimensions, where the player can switch between his Robin and Nightwing alter egos. Using Robin in the Teen Titans Go! adventure world turns him into the Teen Titans Go! version of the character, reprised by Scott Menville. The Teen Titans Go! version of Nightwing also makes a cameo appearance.
- Nightwing appears as a playable character in Lego DC Super-Villains, voiced by Matthew Mercer. He serves as a boss alongside Batgirl in a chapter of the story.
- Nightwing appears as a playable character in Injustice: Gods Among Us, voiced by Troy Baker. In the story mode's opening, he assists Cyborg and Raven in defending the Watchtower from an assault led by Lex Luthor. When Luthor talks about rebuilding Metropolis, Nightwing knocks the villain out. In the alternate reality, Damian Wayne has taken on the mantle of Nightwing, having accidentally killed his universe's Grayson before the game's events.
- Dick Grayson is mentioned in Injustice 2 as deceased in Damian Wayne's, Batman's, and Starfires interactions with other characters. He makes a cameo as Robin in Starfire's ending as she has a flashback of the Titans celebrating before his demise.
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- Titans Tower: Nightwing
- Nightwing at DC Comics
- Nightwing at BatmanYTB
- Index of Dick Grayson (Earth-1) appearances at Mike's Amazing World of Comics
- Index of Dick Grayson (Earth-2) appearances at Mike's Amazing World of Comics
- Dick Grayson on DC Database, an external wiki, a DC Comics wiki
- Dick Grayson on IMDb
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