Philippine Negrito languages

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The Negrito peoples of the Philippines speak various Philippine languages. They have more in common with neighboring languages than with each other,[1] and are listed here merely as an aid to identification.

Classification[edit]

Lobel (2013)[edit]

Lobel (2013)[1] lists the following Black Filipino (i.e., Philippine Negrito) ethnolinguistic groups.

(Lobel (2010)[2] lists the following Negrito languages that are spoken on the eastern coast of Luzon Island, listed from north to south.)

Furthermore, Robinson & Lobel (2013)[3] argue that Dupaningan Agta, Pahanan Agta, Casiguran Agta, Nagtipunan Agta, Dinapigue Agta, and Paranan do not belong to the Northern Cordilleran branch, but rather a new branch that they call Northeastern Luzon, which they consider to be a primary branch of the Northern Luzon (Cordilleran) group.

Zambales Mountains
Southern Luzon
Southern Philippines
Extinct varieties

Another Negrito language investigated by Lobel (2013) is Southern Binukidnon (Magahat).

Reid (1994)[edit]

Reid (1994) lists the following Negrito languages.[4]

Other Philippine Negrito languages

Ethnologue adds extinct and unclassified Katabaga of southern Luzon.

Reid (2013)[edit]

Reid (2013)[6] considers the Philippine Negrito languages (highlighted in bold) to have split in the following fashion. Reid (2013) considers each Negrito language or group to be a first-order split in its respective branch, with Inati and ManideAlabat as first-order subgroups of Malayo-Polynesian.

Unique vocabulary[edit]

Lobel (2010)[2] lists the following percentage of unique vocabulary items out of 1,000 compared words in these Negrito languages, which Reid (1994)[4] suggests are lexical remnants from the pre-Austronesian substrata that these Negrito languages may have. Manide and Umiray Dumaget have the most unique vocabulary items.

Other Southeast Asian languages with high proportions of unique vocabulary of possible isolate origin include the Enggano language of Indonesia and the Kenaboi language of Malaysia.

Reid (1994)[edit]

Reid (1994)[4] lists the following reconstructed forms as possible non-Austronesian lexical elements in Philippine Negrito languages.

No. Gloss Reconstructed form Attested branches
1. rattan *lati North Agta, Alta
2. rat *kuyəŋ North Agta, Alta, Central Agta
3. ashamed *aməs North Agta, Alta, Central Agta
4. vein *litid North Agta, Alta, Central Agta
5. bury, inter *tapuR North Agta, Alta, Central Agta
6. pity, kindness *Rəbi North Agta, Arta, Alta
7. snake *babak Alta, Central Agta, Sinauna
8. thirst *pələk North Agta, Arta
9. hunt *purab North Agta, Arta
10. deer, buck *b[ia]dut North Agta, Arta
11. fingernail *[l]usip North Agta, Arta
12. penis *g[ia]ləŋ North Agta, Arta
13. wall *gəsəd North Agta, Arta
14. dog, puppy *lapul North Agta, Arta
15. fire *dukut North Agta, Arta
16. hair, feather *pulug North Agta, Arta
17. boil (v.) *ləbut North Agta, Alta
18. forget *liksap North Agta, Alta
19. summit *taltay/*taytay North Agta, Alta
20. forehead *[l]aŋas North Agta, South Agta
21. summit *kurut North Agta, South Agta
22. fragrant *səlub Arta, Alta
23. buttocks *sula Alta, Central Agta
24. fast *paripari Alta, Central Agta
25. know (s.o.) *abuyan Alta, Central Agta
26. leaf *agid Alta, Central Agta
27. man, male *patud Alta, Central Agta
28. see *lawi[g] Alta, Central Agta
29. wall *sagbuŋ Alta, Central Agta
30. shoulder *sugbuŋ/*subuŋ(-an) Alta, South Agta
31. run *kaldit Alta, South Agta
32. betel leaf *li[t]lit Alta, Ayta
33. waterfall *gərəy Central Agta, Sinauna
34. accompany *ilan North Alta, South Alta
35. know *ənul North Alta, South Alta
36. lazy *b[ia]kət North Alta, South Alta
37. pregnant *tuyud North Alta, South Alta
38. sleep *puləd North Alta, South Alta
39. heavy *dəgi North Agta
40. thick *bagəl North Agta
41. bitter *təkak North Agta
42. butterfly *lullu/*lilli North Agta
43. dry in sun *sarun North Agta
44. hear *tima[n, ŋ] North Agta
45. hunt *lagum North Agta
46. mountain *amugud North Agta
47. old (obj.) *ligid North Agta
48. sun *pamalak North Agta
49. termite *sarik North Agta
50. throw (away) *tugbak North Agta
51. fingernail *lu/*[l]udis North Agta
52. run *buyut North Agta
53. wing *kəpig North Agta
54. throw *b[ia]sag North Agta
55. waterfall *sənad North Agta
56. shoulder *dapi North Agta
57. call *dulaw North Agta
58. sweat *asub North Agta
59. butterfly *lumlum/*limlim North Agta
60. sit *tugkuk North Agta
61. thirst *g[ia]mtaŋ North Agta
62. urine *sitəb North Agta
63. walk *sugut North Agta
64. hear *sanig North Agta
65. rattan *karat North Agta
66. run *gutuk North Agta
67. salt *b[ia]gəl North Agta
68. afternoon (ma-)*lutəp Arta
69. arrive *digdig Arta
70. bone *sagnit Arta
71. butterfly *pippun Arta
72. drink *tim Arta
73. ear *ibəŋ Arta
74. lime *ŋusu Arta
75. man, male *gilaŋ(-an) Arta
76. mosquito *buŋur Arta
77. old (man) *dupu Arta
78. one *sipaŋ Arta
79. rain *punəd Arta
80. run *gurugud Arta
81. say, tell *bud Arta
82. sleep *idəm Arta
83. two *təlip Arta
84. burn *təmuk North Alta
85. call *ŋuk North Alta
86. collapse *bəwəl North Alta
87. depart *əg[ʔk]aŋ North Alta
88. fruit *ian North Alta
89. hear *tibəŋ North Alta
90. hit, strike *pu[ʔk]na North Alta
91. lie down *ədsaŋ North Alta
92. locust *pəsal North Alta
93. long *lə[ʔk]aw North Alta
94. penis *gəyət North Alta
95. put, place *dətun North Alta
96. red *silit North Alta
97. seek *alyuk North Alta
98. stand *payuŋ North Alta
99. wait *tanud North Alta
100. ant *il[əu]m South Alta
101. black *lit[əu]b South Alta
102. blow (v.) *uswa South Alta
103. burn *tiduk South Alta
104. bury, inter *laba South Alta
105. butterfly (ma-)*lawak South Alta
106. buttocks *timuy South Alta
107. call *gawi South Alta
108. carabao *uduŋ(-an) South Alta
109. cry *kəbi South Alta
110. deep *tanaw South Alta
111. fall (v.) *pagpag South Alta
112. fight/quarrel *itaw South Alta
113. fingernail *lunu South Alta
114. loincloth *g[ia]nat South Alta
115. long (time) *təwali South Alta
116. other (diff.) *kalad South Alta
117. put, place *bənu South Alta
118. rain *dəsu South Alta
119. sit *laŋad South Alta
120. stand *piad South Alta
121. tail *lambuŋ South Alta
122. three *saŋay South Alta
123. tree, wood *lab[ia]t South Alta
124. true *kuduR South Alta
125. vagina (i-)*plaŋ South Alta
126. widow, widower (na-)*dit South Alta
127. wind *kabu(-an) South Alta
128. bone *kaks(-an) Central Agta
129. call *ulaŋ Central Agta
130. climb *dawit Central Agta
131. crocodile (maŋ-)*atu Central Agta
132. feather *putput Central Agta
133. hair *sapuk Central Agta
134. hunt *ikag Central Agta
135. ladle *lukuy Central Agta
136. long (time) *luy Central Agta
137. no, not *eyen Central Agta
138. pound *buntul Central Agta
139. rain *tapuk Central Agta
140. run *g[ia]kan Central Agta
141. sand *laŋas Central Agta
142. sit *lipa Central Agta
143. sleep *pida Central Agta
144. stand *[uə]di Central Agta
145. sweat *aldut/*ald[ia]t Central Agta
146. vagina *kin(-an) Central Agta
147. water, river *urat Central Agta
148. white *lapsay Central Agta
149. fire *adiŋ South Agta
150. mosquito *kubuŋ South Agta
151. shoulder *mugmug(-an) South Agta
152. sleep *lubat South Agta
153. child *ubun Sinauna
154. leaf *hayin Sinauna
155. sit *səna Sinauna
156. stone *igaŋ Sinauna
157. wind *rugus Sinauna
158. see *ələw Ayta

Reid (2013: 334)[6] considers the endonym *ʔa(R)ta, meaning 'person', to have been a native Negrito word that was later borrowed into Austronesian with the meaning 'dark-skinned person'.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Lobel, Jason William (2013). Philippine and North Bornean Languages: Issues in Description, Subgrouping, and Reconstruction (Ph.D. in Linguistics thesis). University of Hawaii at Manoa.
  2. ^ a b Lobel, Jason William (2010). "Manide: An Undescribed Philippine Language". Oceanic Linguistics. 49 (2): 478–510.
  3. ^ Robinson, Laura C.; Lobel, Jason William (2013). "The Northeastern Luzon Subgroup of Philippine Languages". Oceanic Linguistics. 52 (1): 125–168.
  4. ^ a b c Reid, Lawrence A. (1994). "Possible Non-Austronesian Lexical Elements in Philippine Negrito Languages". Oceanic Linguistics. 33 (1): 37–72. doi:10.2307/3623000.
  5. ^ Wimbish, John. 1986. The languages of the Zambales mountains: a Philippine lexicostatistic study. In Work Papers of the Summer Institute of Linguistics, University of North Dakota Session, vol. 30:133-142.
  6. ^ a b Reid, Lawrence A. (2013) "Who Are the Philippine Negritos? Evidence from Language." Human Biology: Vol. 85: Iss. 1, Article 15.

External links[edit]