San Diego International Airport

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San Diego International Airport
San Diego International Airport logo May 2017.png
San Diego International Airport (KSAN) Terminal 2 (upper deck) - August 2018.jpg
Summary
Airport type Public
Owner/Operator San Diego County Regional Airport Authority
Serves Greater San Diego
Location
  • North Harbor Drive
  • San Diego, California
Opened August 16, 1928 (1928-08-16)
Focus city for
Elevation AMSL 17 ft / 5 m
Coordinates 32°44′01″N 117°11′23″W / 32.73361°N 117.18972°W / 32.73361; -117.18972Coordinates: 32°44′01″N 117°11′23″W / 32.73361°N 117.18972°W / 32.73361; -117.18972
Website www.san.org
Maps
FAA airport diagram as of February 2017[update]
FAA airport diagram as of February 2017
SAN is located in San Diego
SAN
SAN
Location within San Diego
SAN is located in California
SAN
SAN
SAN (California)
SAN is located in the US
SAN
SAN
SAN (the US)
Runways
Direction Length Surface
ft m
9/27 9,401 2,865 Asphalt/Concrete
Statistics (2017)
Total passengers 22,173,493
International Passengers 874,321
Total Domestic Passengers 21,299,172
Gates 51
Sources: San Diego County Airport Authority,[1] Alaska Airlines[2]
Statistics: San Diego County Airport Authority[3][4]

San Diego International Airport (IATA: SAN, ICAO: KSAN, FAA LID: SAN), formerly known as Lindbergh Field, is an international airport 3 mi (4.8 km) northwest of Downtown San Diego, California, United States. It is owned and operated by the San Diego County Regional Airport Authority.[5][6] San Diego International Airport covers 663 acres (268 ha) of land.[5]

In 2015, traffic at San Diego International exceeded 20 million passengers, serving more than 500 scheduled operations carrying about 50,000 passengers each day.[3] While primarily serving domestic traffic, San Diego has nonstop international flights to Canada, Germany, Japan, Mexico, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom.[7]

San Diego is the largest metropolitan area in the United States that is not an airline hub or secondary hub; however, San Diego is a focus city for Alaska Airlines and Southwest Airlines. The top five carriers in San Diego during 2015, by seat capacity, were Southwest Airlines (42.7%), American Airlines (14.0%), United Airlines (11.2%), Alaska Airlines (10.1%), and Delta Air Lines (9.9%).[8]

San Diego International is the busiest single runway airport in the United States and third-busiest single runway in the world, behind Mumbai and London Gatwick.[9][10] [Note 1] Due to the short usable length of the runway, proximity to the skyscrapers of Downtown San Diego, and steep landing approach as a result of the nearby Peninsular Ranges, SAN has been called "the busiest, most difficult single runway in the world."[11][12][13][14] SAN operates in controlled airspace served by the Southern California TRACON, which is some of the busiest airspace in the world.[15]

History[edit]

Spirit of St. Louis replica inside the airport.

The airport is near the site of the Ryan Airlines factory, but it is not the same as Dutch Flats, the Ryan airstrip where Charles Lindbergh flight tested the Spirit of St. Louis before his historic 1927 transatlantic flight. The site of Dutch Flats is on the other side of the Marine Corps Recruit Depot, in the Midway neighborhood, near the intersection of Midway and Barnett avenues.[16]

Inspired by Lindbergh's flight and excited to have made his plane, the city of San Diego passed a bond issue in 1928 for the construction of a two-runway municipal airport. Lindbergh encouraged the building of the airport and agreed to lend his name to it.[17] The new airport, dedicated on August 16, 1928, was San Diego Municipal Airport – Lindbergh Field.

The airport was the first federally certified airfield to serve all aircraft types, including seaplanes. The original terminal was on the northeast side of the field, on Pacific Highway. The airport was also a testing facility for several early US sailplane designs, notably those by William Hawley Bowlus (superintendent of construction on the Spirit of St. Louis) who also operated the Bowlus Glider School at Lindbergh Field from 1929–1930. On June 1, 1930, a regular San Diego–Los Angeles airmail route started. The airport gained international airport status in 1934, and a United States Coast Guard Air Base next to the field was commissioned in April 1937. The Coast Guard's fixed-wing aircraft used Lindbergh Field until the mid-1990s when their fixed-wing aircraft were retired.[citation needed]

A major defense contractor and contributor to World War II heavy bomber production, Consolidated Aircraft, later known as Convair, had their headquarters on the border of Lindbergh Field, and built many of their military aircraft there. Convair used the airport for test and delivery flights from 1935 to 1995.[18]

The US Army Air Corps took over the field in 1942, improving it to handle the heavy bombers being manufactured in the region. Two camps were established at the airport during World War II and were named Camp Consair and Camp Sahara.[19] This transformation, including an 8,750 ft (2,670 m) runway, made the airport "jet-ready" long before jet airliners came into service.[20] The May 1952 C&GS chart shows an 8,700-ft runway 9 and a 4,500-ft runway 13.

Pacific Southwest Airlines (PSA) established its headquarters in San Diego and started service at Lindbergh Field in 1949. The April 1957 Official Airline Guide shows 42 departures per day: 14 American, 13 United, 6 Western, 6 Bonanza, and 3 PSA (5 PSA on Friday and Sunday). American had a nonstop flight to Dallas and one to El Paso; aside from that, nonstop flights did not reach beyond California and Arizona. Nonstop flights to Chicago started in 1962 and to New York in 1967.

The first scheduled jet flights at Lindbergh Field were in 1960, with American Airlines flying to Phoenix and United Airlines to San Francisco, using the Boeing 720.[citation needed]

The original terminal was on the north side of the airport and was used until the 1960s; the current Terminal 1 opened on the south side of the airport on March 5, 1967. Terminal 2 opened on July 11, 1979. These terminals were designed by Paderewski Dean & Associates.[21] A third terminal, dubbed the Commuter Terminal, opened July 23, 1996. Terminal 2 was expanded by 300,000 square feet (27,871 m2) in 1998, and opened on January 7, 1998. The expanded Terminal 2 and the Commuter Terminal were designed by Gensler and SGPA Architecture and Planning.[22][23] As downtown San Diego developed, the airport's 3,600 ft (1,100 m) second runway was closed as its short length provided no operational benefits other than to support the smallest of aircraft.

The airport was originally built and operated by the City of San Diego through the sale of municipal bonds to be repaid by airport users. In 1962 it was transferred to the San Diego Unified Port District by a state law. In 2001 the San Diego County Regional Airport Authority was created and assumed jurisdiction over the airport.[24]

Expansion[edit]

San Diego International Airport's expansion and enhancement program for Terminal 2 was dubbed "The Green Build". Additions include 10 gates on the west side of Terminal 2 West, a two-level roadway separating arriving and departing passengers, additional security lanes, and an expanded concession area.[25] It was completed in August 13, 2013 and cost US$900 million.[26] In January 2016 the airport opened a new consolidated rental car facility on the north side of the airport. The US$316 million, 2-million-square-foot (190,000 m2) facility houses 14 rental car companies and is served by shuttle buses to and from the terminals.[27] A new three-story parking structure in front of Terminal 2 was launched in July 2016 and completed in May, 2018.[28][26]

The Airport Development Plan (ADP) is the next master-planning phase for San Diego International Airport.[29] In 2006, a county-wide ballot measure to move the airport was defeated. Therefore, the airport will continue in its current location for the foreseeable future. The ADP identifies improvements that will enable the airport to meet demand through 2035, which is approximately when projected passenger activity levels will reach capacity for the airport's single runway. An additional runway is not being considered.

In a broad sense, the ADP envisions the replacement of Terminal 1 and other related improvements. As a first step in the ADP, several potential concepts were developed. These concepts represented the first step in a comprehensive planning process.

Extensive public outreach was conducted to obtain input from residents and airport stakeholders in the San Diego region. The Airport Authority Board eventually selected a preferred alternative and a detailed environmental analysis is now under way. The environmental review and planning process is expected to conclude in spring 2017.

A new immigrations and customs part of Terminal 2 is under construction. Currently international arrivals are handled at gates 20, 21, and 22. By 2018, international arrivals will be handled at gates 47, 48, 49, 50 and 51. This expansion was all due to the sharp rise of international travels handled at San Diego International Airport.[30][31]

San Diego International Airport is proceeding with a redevelopment plan for the entire airport, which starts with reconstruction of Terminal 1. This work is scheduled to be complete by 2026. The number of gates will increase from 19 gates in the old Terminal 1 to 30 gates in the reconstructed Terminal 1. Other parts of the redevelopment plan include a 7,500-space parking structure, a new dual-level roadway in front of the new Terminal 1, and a new entry road to the airport. Further changes are scheduled in later years for Terminal 2, which will increase the total number of gates at San Diego International Airport to 61. Completion of these changes is not expected until 2035.[32]

Relocation proposals[edit]

Multiple studies have been conducted on where to place an airport dating back to 1923. The first study developed the site location plan for Lindbergh field. Eighteen studies were conducted by private groups, most in the early days by those who were opposed to Lindbergh being built instead of on land set aside at what is now Montgomery Field. Much of the others came over repeated concerns over the capacity of the airfield and its ability to keep up with economic growth in the region, which have been ongoing since early the 1960s.[33]. One was a revisiting of a study done in the 1980s by the City in 1994 when Naval Air Station Miramar closed and was then immediately transferred to the US Marine Corps as Marine Corps Air Station Miramar. Another was by the City of San Diego in 1984 and another that started in 1996 and sat dormant with SANDAG until the airport authority was formed. This study is the first study ever done to look for a new site by a public agency that actually had jurisdiction over the issue, and the first non-site specific comprehensive study of the entire region.

San Diego International Airport's former Commuter Terminal houses administrative offices for the San Diego County Regional Airport Authority.

California State Assembly Bill 93 created the San Diego County Regional Airport Authority (SDCRAA) in 2001.[24] The SDCRAA projects that SAN will be constrained due to congestion between 2015-2022.[34] In June 2006, SDCRAA board members selected Marine Corps Air Station Miramar as its preferred site for a replacement airport, despite military objections. On November 7, 2006, San Diego County residents defeated an advisory relocation that included a joint use proposal measure.[35][36]. Since then no public agency has placed forth a serious proposal to relocate SDIA, and the Airport Authority has stated it has no plans to do so for the foreseeable future [37].

Three professors from the University of California San Diego (UCSD), Fred Spiess, PhD, former director of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography; Walter Munk, PhD, Secretary of the Navy/Chief of Naval Operations Chair for Scripps Institute of Oceanography and Frieder Seible, PhD, former dean of the Jacobs School of Engineering, proposed building a floating airport in deep water west of the end of Interstate 8 in Ocean Beach. Their plan would use Lindbergh Field terminals and parking facilities for passenger ticketing and security then whisk them by tram via Interstate 8 and an Archimedes bridge to the floating airport, a trip of perhaps 15 minutes at 60 mph (97 km/h). Several groups have approached the Airport Board for sponsorship to apply for federal funds to develop the plan, but the proposal has never been given serious consideration. However, the advent of 3D concrete printing and special polymerized, fiber-reinforced concrete mixes—an efficient method of construction—may make this proposal less expensive than building a new airport on land.[38][39]

In 2013, graduate business students at California State University San Marcos (CSUSM) released several studies around a new proposed international airport in San Diego County. The first group of studies are known as San Diego Airport Exploratory Study 1.0.[40] Qualcomm sponsored the CSUSM airport exploratory studies.[41] The research project examined several topics: Demand Projections,[42] Economic Implications,[43] Infrastructure, Traffic & Transportation,[44] Political Implications[45] and Potential Demographic Changes.[46] The study discussed the political implications of developing a new international airport at three different locations: Marine Corps Air Station Miramar, Campo/Boulevard and Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton. The CSUSM airport studies build upon the Ricondo & Associates Consulting Group 2006 report that evaluated the advantages and disadvantages of building an airport at each of these sites.[45] The San Diego Airport Exploratory Study 1.0 determined the only feasible location would be on the southern edge of Camp Pendleton [42] at the existing Munn Field air strip. The location is on approximately 5000 acres, comprising 4% of the total land at Camp Pendleton.

In 2014 and 2015, Qualcomm sponsored further studies known as San Diego Airport Exploratory Study 2.0 [47] and San Diego Airport Exploratory Study 2.1.[48] The studies have generated media attention in local newspapers,[49] KPBS radio [50][51] and local news stations such as KUSI.[52][53][54] On December 9, 2015, students presented the San Diego Airport Exploratory Study 2.1 report at California State University San Marcos. Qualcomm founder Irwin Jacobs[54] and real estate investor Malin Burnham were among those in attendance at the presentation. The addendum to the initial report continued to express the potential benefits of a second, larger airport in the San Diego region but noted that military leaders had informally expressed serious concerns about the effects locating it at Camp Pendlton would have on USMC readiness and training [55]. Since that time neither the Airport Authority, SANDAG, or the military have taken any actions regarding the students' proposal.

Airport facilities[edit]

SAN's Control Tower.

Terminal facilities[edit]

The airport has nearly completed a substantial expansion of concessions. 73 new shops and food and beverage locations have opened throughout the terminals.[56] Three airline lounges are located in the airport in Terminal 2: Delta SkyClub, United Club, and a joint Airspace Lounge/American Airlines Admirals Club.[57]

Rental car facilities[edit]

Until 2015, major rental cars companies operated out of ground-level facilities across Harbor Drive from the airport, with each company operating its own shuttle. Other companies were located on private property near the airport. In January 2016 the airport opened a consolidated rental car facility on the north side of the airport, housing 14 rental car agencies with capacity for 19. An on-airport shuttle bus service transports passengers to and from the airport. The same shuttle bus also serves passengers from off-site rental car companies, and is intended to carry passengers from a nearby trolley stop as well.[58]

Terminals[edit]

Curbside pickup at Terminal 2 East for arriving flights c. 2018

San Diego International Airport has two terminals:

Terminal 1
Terminal 2
  • Terminal 2 has two parts: East and West, and has 32 gates, numbered 20–51. The rest of the airlines that serve the airport are found in Terminal 2.
  • All international arrivals at San Diego International Airport are handled in Terminal 2 West at gates 45-51, including the arrivals of Terminal 1 tenant Alaska Airlines flights from Mexico.
Commuter Terminal (former)
  • The Commuter Terminal had four gates, numbered 1–4. The last flight to use the Commuter Terminal was American Eagle flight #2883, which departed on the evening of June 3, 2015. The last flight of the night from LAX (which would in turn be the first flight on June 4, 2015) docked at Terminal 1. Today, the Commuter Terminal houses the administrative offices of the San Diego County Regional Airport Authority.[59]

The airport is home to the largest airport USO center in the world.[60]

The airport promotes education about its history,[61] and sponsors an "airport explorers" program.[62]

There are several well-known pieces of art on display at the airport.[63] Inside Terminal 2 is a recreation of The Spirit of St. Louis. "At the Gate", a popular piece with tourists, depicts comical characters patiently waiting for their planes.[64] Terminal 2 also features "The Spirit of Silence," a meditation room designed by public artist Norie Sato.[65]

Airlines and destinations[edit]

Passenger[edit]

AirlinesDestinationsRefs
Air Canada Express Vancouver [66]
Air Canada Rouge Toronto–Pearson [66]
Alaska Airlines Albuquerque, Austin, Baltimore, Boise, Boston, Dallas–Love, Fresno, Honolulu, Kansas City, Kahului, Kailua–Kona, Lihue, Minneapolis/St. Paul, Monterey, Newark, Omaha, Orlando, Portland (OR), Puerto Vallarta, Sacramento, St. Louis, Salt Lake City, San Francisco, San Jose (CA), San José del Cabo, Santa Rosa, Seattle/Tacoma, Spokane (begins October 1, 2018)[67]
Seasonal: Hayden/Steamboat Springs
[68]
Allegiant Air Bellingham, El Paso, Stockton
Seasonal: Eugene
[69]
American Airlines Charlotte, Chicago–O'Hare, Dallas/Fort Worth, Miami, New York–JFK, Philadelphia, Phoenix–Sky Harbor [70]
American Eagle Los Angeles [70]
British Airways London–Heathrow [71]
Delta Air Lines Atlanta, Detroit, Los Angeles, Minneapolis/St. Paul, New York–JFK, Salt Lake City, Seattle/Tacoma [72]
Delta Connection Las Vegas, Los Angeles
Seasonal: Seattle/Tacoma (ends November 2, 2018)
[72]
Edelweiss Air Seasonal: Zürich [73]
Frontier Airlines Austin, Cleveland, Denver, Indianapolis, Raleigh/Durham, San Antonio
Seasonal: Cincinnati,[74] Milwaukee, Orlando, Pittsburgh
[75]
Hawaiian Airlines Honolulu, Kahului[76] [77]
Japan Airlines Tokyo–Narita [78]
JetBlue Airways Boston, Fort Lauderdale, New York–JFK [79]
Lufthansa Frankfurt [80]
Southwest Airlines Albuquerque, Atlanta, Austin, Baltimore, Boise, Chicago–Midway, Dallas–Love, Denver, El Paso, Houston–Hobby, Kansas City, Las Vegas, Nashville, Newark, New Orleans, Oakland, Orlando, Phoenix–Sky Harbor, Portland (OR), Puerto Vallarta, Reno/Tahoe, Sacramento, San Antonio, San Francisco, San Jose (CA), Salt Lake City, San José del Cabo, Seattle/Tacoma, St. Louis, Tucson
Seasonal: Indianapolis, Milwaukee, Spokane, Tampa
[81]
Spirit Airlines Chicago–O'Hare, Houston–Intercontinental, Las Vegas
Seasonal: Baltimore, Denver, Detroit [82]
[83]
Sun Country Airlines Minneapolis/St. Paul
Seasonal: San José del Cabo
[84]
United Airlines Chicago–O'Hare, Denver, Houston–Intercontinental, Los Angeles, Newark, San Francisco, Washington–Dulles [85]
United Express Denver, Los Angeles, San Francisco [85]
WestJet Calgary
Seasonal: Vancouver
[86]

Cargo[edit]

AirlinesDestinations
DHL Express Cincinnati, Phoenix–Sky Harbor
FedEx Express Indianapolis, Los Angeles, Memphis, Oakland, Ontario
UPS Airlines Honolulu, Louisville, Ontario

General aviation[edit]

BBA Aviation's Signature Flight Support (previously known as Landmark Aviation[87]) is the fixed-base operator (FBO) at San Diego International Airport.[88] It services all aircraft ranging from the single-engine Cessna aircraft to the four-engine Boeing 747. Generally, it services corporate traffic to the airport. The FBO ramp is located at the northeast end of the airfield.

Statistics[edit]

San Diego International Airport Terminal 2
The Sunset Cove dining and shopping area inside Terminal 2
A view of the Terminal 2

Top destinations[edit]

Busiest domestic routes from San Diego
(July 2017 – June 2018)
[89]
Rank City Passengers Carriers
1 California San Francisco, California 925,970 Alaska, Southwest, United
2 Arizona Phoenix–Sky Harbor, Arizona 609,620 American, Southwest
3 Colorado Denver, Colorado 602,800 Frontier, Southwest, Spirit, United
4 Washington (state) Seattle/Tacoma, Washington 568,010 Alaska, Delta, Southwest
5 Nevada Las Vegas, Nevada 554,410 Delta, Southwest, Spirit
6 California San Jose, California 526,530 Alaska, Southwest
7 California Sacramento, California 519,300 Alaska, Southwest
8 Texas Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas 510,190 American, Spirit
9 Illinois Chicago–O'Hare, Illinois 486,330 American, Spirit, United
10 California Oakland, California 422,550 Southwest
Busiest international routes from San Diego (2016)[90]
Rank City Passengers Carriers
1 Mexico San José del Cabo, Mexico 226,307 Alaska, Southwest, Spirit
2 United Kingdom London–Heathrow, United Kingdom 190,648 British Airways
3 Japan Tokyo–Narita, Japan 114,649 Japan Airlines
4 Canada Toronto–Pearson, Canada 112,499 Air Canada
5 Canada Calgary, Canada 65,775 WestJet
6 Canada Vancouver, Canada 43,352 Air Canada, WestJet
7 Mexico Puerto Vallarta, Mexico 31,924 Alaska
8 Mexico Mexico City, Mexico 22,222 Volaris
9 Mexico Guadalajara, Mexico 3,024 Volaris
10 Mexico Ixtapa-Zihuatanejo, Mexico 243 Alaska

Airline market share[edit]

Airline market share (June 2017 - May 2018)[91]
Rank Carrier Enplanements Share
1 Southwest 8,770,000 39.30%
2 United 2,745,000 12.30%
3 American 2,729,000 12.23%
4 Delta 2,210,000 9.90%
5 Alaska 1,879,000 8.42%

Annual traffic[edit]

Annual passenger traffic (enplaned + deplaned) at SAN, 1949 through 2016[92]
Year Passengers % Change
1949 139,327 Steady
1950 193,373 Increase 38.79
1951 321,189 Increase 66.10
1952 390,427 Increase 21.56
1953 402,674 Increase 3.13
1954 426,600 Increase 5.94
1955 496,641 Increase 16.42
1956 582,120 Increase 17.21
1957 682,609 Increase 17.26
1958 698,543 Increase 2.33
1959 786,798 Increase 12.63
1960 878,669 Increase 11.68
1961 883,288 Increase .53
1962 951,655 Increase 7.74
1963 1,152,065 Increase 21.06
1964 1,319,855 Increase 14.56
1965 1,632,833 Increase 23.71
1966 2,048,034 Increase 25.43
1967 2,486,213 Increase 21.40
1968 2,958,053 Increase 18.98
1969 3,320,576 Increase 12.23
1970 3,341,391 Increase .63
1971 3,464,174 Increase 3.67
1972 3,915,395 Increase 13.03
1973 4,274,286 Increase 9.17
1974 4,410,972 Increase 3.20
1975 4,490,668 Increase 1.81
1976 4,912,368 Increase 9.39
1977 5,447,648 Increase 10.90
1978 6,185,583 Increase 13.53
1979 6,541,820 Increase 5.76
1980 5,213,356 Decrease 20.31
1981 5,022,152 Decrease 3.67
1982 5,630,343 Increase 12.11
1983 6,547,439 Increase 16.29
1984 7,173,272 Increase 9,56
1985 7,937,806 Increase 10.66
1986 9,084,438 Increase 14.45
1987 9,801,030 Increase 7.89
1988 10,748,729 Increase 9.67
1989 11,111,080 Increase 3.37
1990 10,937,026 Decrease 1.57
1991 11,185,920 Increase 2.28
1992 11,759,091 Increase 5.12
1993 11,817,706 Increase .50
1994 12,681,985 Increase 7.31
1995 12,908,395 Increase 1.79
1996 13,461,361 Increase 4.28
1997 13,900,712 Increase 3.26
1998 14,340,447 Increase 3.16
1999 14,971,261 Increase 4.40
2000 15,746,445 Increase 5.18
2001 14,942,061 Decrease 5.11
2002 14,731,518 Decrease 1.41
2003 15,304,975 Increase 3.90
2004 16,517,153 Increase 7.92
2005 17,569,355 Increase 6.37
2006 17,673,483 Increase .59
2007 18,326,734 Increase 3.70
2008 18,125,633 Decrease 1.10
2009 16,974,172 Decrease 6.35
2010 16,889,622 Decrease .50
2011 16,891,690 Increase .01
2012 17,250,265 Increase 2.12
2013 17,710,241 Increase 2.67
2014 18,758,751 Increase 5.92
2015 20,081,258 Increase 7.05
2016 20,725,801 Increase 3.21

Flight operations[edit]

Runway configuration and landing[edit]

San Diego International Airport runway and terminal diagram

The airport consists of a single runway designated runway 9/27 for its magnetic compass headings of 095 degrees (106 True) and 275 degrees (286 True) orienting it directly east and west in relation to magnetic north. The runway is an asphalt and concrete design with dimensions of 9,401 feet (2,865 m) x 200 feet (61 m). A displaced threshold exists in both directions. For runway 27 the first 1,810 feet (550 m) are displaced and for runway 9 the first 1,000 feet (300 m) are displaced.

Typical prevailing winds in San Diego are from the west and most takeoffs and landings at the airport are from east to west using runway 27.

The approach from the east is steeper than most because the terrain drops from 266 ft (81 m) to sea level in less than one nautical mile. The runway is west of a hill with several obstructions, including Interstate 5 and trees in Balboa Park. Contrary to local lore, the parking structure off the end of the runway was built in the 1980s long after previous obstructions were built up east of I-5 and does not affect the approach.

Landing at the airport from the east offers closeup views of skyscrapers, Petco Park (home of the San Diego Padres), the San Diego Bay, and the San Diego–Coronado Bridge from the left side of the aircraft. On the right, Balboa Park, site of the 1915-1916 Panama-California Exposition, can be seen.

Reverse operations[edit]

Runway 27 (landing east to west), is a localizer and RNP approach with minimums down to 1.5 mi (2.4 km). For Runway 9, the visibility is .75 mi (1.21 km). When visibility gets below 1.5 mi (2.4 km), it forces arriving aircraft to use Runway 9 (landing west to east), which has better landing minimums. The terrain east of the airport often imposes weight limits on many departing aircraft. As a result, some aircraft must take off to the west. While safe, these "head to head" operations slow the flow of aircraft for sequencing and create delays in the air and on the ground.

Reverse operations at KSAN

Terrain east and west of the airport greatly impacts the available runway length. Runway 27 (heading west) has a climb gradient of 353 ft/nmi (58.1 m/km) feet per nautical mile. Taking off to the east requires a 610 ft/nmi (100 m/km) climb rate.

San Diego International Airport does not have standard 1,000 ft (300 m) runway safety areas at the end of each runway. An engineered materials arrestor system (EMAS) has been installed at the west end of the runway to halt any aircraft overruns. The east end of the runway does not have such a system as its use would reduce the runway length by at least 400 ft (120 m), further impacting the runway's capability for departures to the west. Instead, the use of declared distances reduces the mathematical length of Runway 9 (west to east operations) by declaring that the easternmost end of Runway 9 is 1,121 ft (342 m) shorter with a net length of 8,280 ft (2,520 m).[93]

Noise curfew[edit]

SAN is in a populated area. To appease the concerns of the airport's neighbors regarding noise and possible ensuing lawsuits, a curfew was put in place in 1979. Takeoffs are allowed between 6:30 a.m. and 11:30 p.m. Outside those hours, they are subject to a large fine. Arrivals are permitted 24 hours per day.[94] While several flights have scheduled departure times before 6:30 a.m., these times are pushback times; the first takeoff roll is at 6:30 a.m.

Current status[edit]

As of June, 2017, San Diego International Airport is served by 18 passenger airlines and five cargo airlines that fly nonstop to 65 destinations in the United States, Canada, Mexico, Great Britain, Japan, and most recently Germany and Switzerland. Several carriers including Alaska, Southwest, and Spirit have increased their flights to and from San Diego. Additional service between SAN and Los Cabos (Mexico), Dallas, Portland, Boston, Washington D.C./Baltimore, Burbank, and Tokyo were added in 2014; however, Burbank has since been discontinued.[95][96][97]

British Airways resumed nonstop service to London Heathrow Airport on June 1, 2011 with a Boeing 777-200ER. The airline had dropped this route in October 2003, after the worldwide downturn in aviation after the September 11 attacks in 2001. The airline had been flying nonstop to London Heathrow (previously London Gatwick on its 777-200s); however, the route had originally been flown from Gatwick via Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport on a Boeing 747-400. After the September 11 attacks, the route was reduced to six days a week, then five, and then cancelled. In June 2010 the European Union approved the new Atlantic Joint Business Agreement between British Airways, American Airlines, and Iberia Airlines, which dropped many of the provisions of the Bermuda II treaty and its restrictions on airlines flying to Heathrow. Oneworld members now can earn mileage on any American Airlines, British Airways, or Japan Airlines flight.[98] On March 27, 2016, British Airways changed the aircraft on this flight from the 3-class 777-200 to the 4-class 777-300, increasing passenger and cargo capacity, and to provide first class seats. In November 2015, British Airways announced that it would fly the Boeing 747-400 on the London-San Diego route, and is now used in seasonal service. Before that, 747-400 was flown into the city until 2003 via Phoenix Sky Harbor (which then continued onto Gatwick, not Heathrow).[99]

Japan Airlines began service to Tokyo–Narita on December 2, 2012, using the Boeing 787 aircraft. This is the airport's first nonstop flight to Asia. The flights used the 787 until its grounding when service was temporarily replaced with a 777-200ER. The last 777 flight was May 31, 2013. On June 1, 2013, 787 service resumed, this time daily. This route is covered under the Pacific Joint Business Agreement between Oneworld partners Japan Airlines and American Airlines.[100][101]

On Thursday, June 9, 2016, Condor Airlines announced thrice-weekly seasonal service from Frankfurt am Main International Airport to San Diego, with Monday flights beginning May 1, 2017, through October 2, 2017, Thursday flights beginning May 4, 2017, through October 5, 2017, and Saturday flights beginning July 8, 2017, through September 2, 2017. Flights will be on a Boeing 767-300 aircraft.[102] On June 21, 2016, Edelweiss Air announced twice-weekly seasonal service from Zürich Airport, beginning Monday, June 9, 2017, with the second flight of the week on Fridays. Flights will be on an Airbus A340-300 aircraft.[103] On June 13, 2017, Lufthansa announced five weekly flights from Frankfurt to San Diego beginning in summer 2018.[104]

The busiest route by flight count is to Los Angeles with 25 daily round trips on United Express, American Eagle, and Delta Connection. The busiest route by available seats per day is to San Francisco with just over 2,816 seats on 21 daily round trips on United Airlines, Southwest Airlines, and Alaska Airlines.

In January 2008, San Diego International Airport entered the blogosphere with the launch of the first employee blog–the Ambassablog[105]–for a major US airport. Written by front-line employees, the blog features regular posts on airport activities, events, and initiatives; reader comments; and several multimedia and interactive features. It has been presented as a case study in employee blogging to several public agencies at the federal, state, and local levels.

In February 2008, San Diego International Airport was one of the first major airports in the US to adopt a formal sustainability policy, which expresses the airport's commitment to a four-layer approach to sustainability known as EONS. As promulgated by Airports Council International – North America, EONS represents an integrated "quadruple bottom line" of (E)conomic viability, (O)perational excellence, (N)atural resource conservation and preservation and (S)ocial responsibility.

In May 2008, California Attorney General Jerry Brown announced an agreement with San Diego International Airport on reducing greenhouse gas emissions associated with the airport's proposed master plan improvements. In announcing the agreement, the Attorney General's office said "San Diego airport will play a key leadership role in helping California meet its aggressive greenhouse gas reduction targets."

There are three public transportation options:

San Diego International Airport is testing a new system of airfield lights called Runway Status Lights (RWSL) for the US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). It completed the rehabilitation of the north taxiway in 2010. A project that included replacing its airfield lighting and signage with energy efficient LED lights where possible.[citation needed]

Because of the airport's close proximity to downtown San Diego, FAA regulations do not allow any building within a 1.5-mile (2.4 km) radius of the runway to be taller than 500 feet (150 m).[106]

US Coast Guard operations[edit]

Coast Guard Air Station San Diego is located near the southeast corner of the airport. The installation originally supported seaplane operations, with seaplane ramps into San Diego Bay, as well as land-based aircraft and helicopter operations using the airport's runway.

The air station is separated from the rest of the airfield which necessitated moving aircraft across North Harbor Drive, a busy, 6-lane city street, to reach SAN's runway. Stoplights halted vehicle traffic while aircraft crossed North Harbor Drive. This was a common occurrence during the 1970s, 1980s, and early 1990s, when the station had both HH-3F Pelican and HH-60J Jayhawk helicopters and HU-25 Guardian jets assigned.[citation needed]

Accidents and incidents[edit]

  • On June 2, 1941, the first British Consolidated LB-30 Liberator II, AL503, on its acceptance flight for delivery from the Consolidated Aircraft Company plant in San Diego, crashed into San Diego Bay[107] when the flight controls froze, killing all five of the civilian crew: Consolidated Aircraft Company's chief test pilot William Wheatley, co-pilot Alan Austen, flight engineer Bruce Kilpatrick Craig, and two chief mechanics, Lewis McCannon and William Reiser. Craig had been commissioned a 2nd Lieutenant in the US Army Reserve in 1935 following Infantry ROTC training at the Georgia Institute of Technology, where he earned a Bachelor of Science degree in aeronautical engineering. He had applied for a commission in the US Army Air Corps before his death; this was granted posthumously, with the rank of 2nd Lieutenant. On August 25, 1941, the airfield in his hometown of Selma, Alabama was renamed Craig Field, later Craig Air Force Base.[108] Investigation into the cause of the accident caused a two-month delay in deliveries, resulting in the Royal Air Force not receiving Liberator IIs until August 1941.[citation needed]
  • On May 10, 1943, the first Consolidated XB-32 Dominator, 41–141, crashed on take-off at Lindbergh Field, likely from failure of the flaps. Although the bomber did not burn when it piled up at end of runway, Consolidated's senior test pilot Dick McMakin was killed. Six others on board were injured.[109] This was one of only two twin-finned B-32s (41–142 was the other); all subsequent planes had a PB4Y-style single tail.[citation needed]
  • On November 22, 1944, Consolidated PB4Y-2 Privateer, BuNo 59544, on a pre-delivery test flight by company crew out of Lindbergh Field, took off at 12:23 am, lost its left outer wing on climb-out, and crashed in a ravine in an undeveloped area of Loma Portal near the Naval Training Center, less than 2 miles (3.2 km) from the runway. All crew were killed, including pilot Marvin R. Weller, co-pilot Conrad C. Cappe, flight engineers Frank D. Sands and Clifford P. Bengston, radio operator Robert B. Skala, and Consolidated Vultee field operations employee Ray Estes. A wing panel landed on a home at 3121 Kingsley Street in Loma Portal. The cause was found to be 98 missing bolts; the wing was only attached with four spar bolts. Four employees who either were responsible for installation, or were inspectors who signed off on the undone work, were fired two days later. A San Diego coroner's jury found Consolidated Vultee guilty of "gross negligence" by vote of 11–1 on January 5, 1945, and the Bureau of Aeronautics reduced its contract by one at a cost to firm of US$155,000. Consolidated Vultee paid out US$130,484 to the families of the six dead crew.[110]
  • On April 5, 1945, the prototype Ryan XFR-1 Fireball, BuNo 48234, piloted by Ryan test pilot Dean Lake, on a test flight over Lindbergh Field, lost skin between the front and rear spars of the right wing, interrupting airflow over the wing and causing it to disintegrate. The pilot bailed out and the airframe broke up. The wreckage struck a brand new Consolidated PB4Y-2 Privateer, BuNo 59836, just accepted by the US Navy and preparing to depart for the modification center at Litchfield Park, Arizona. The bomber burned and the Navy crew, consisting of pilots Lt. D. W. Rietz, Lt. J. E. Creed, and Aviation Machinists Mates G. R. Brown and J. H. Randall, evacuated the burning PB4Y, with only Randall suffering first, second, and third degree burns and minor lacerations.[111]
  • On April 30, 1945, just before midnight, the first production Consolidated PB4Y-2 Privateer, BuNo 59359, was being prepared on the ramp at Lindbergh Field for a flight to Naval Air Station Twin Cities in Minneapolis, Minnesota. A mechanic attempted to remove the left battery solenoid, located 14 inches (36 cm) below the cockpit floor, but did so without disconnecting the battery. A ratchet wrench accidentally punctured a hydraulic line 3 inches (7.6 cm) above the battery and the fluid ignited, setting the entire aircraft alight. The mechanic suffered severe burns. Only the number four (outer right) engine was deemed salvageable. The cause was an unqualified mechanic attempting a task that only a qualified electrician should perform.[112]
  • On September 25, 1978, a Boeing 727-200 operating flight PSA Flight 182 on the Sacramento–Los Angeles–San Diego route collided in mid-air with a Cessna 172 while attempting to land at San Diego Airport. The two aircraft collided over San Diego's North Park neighborhood, killing all 135 people on Flight 182 and the two people in the Cessna, along with seven people on the ground. The San Diego-based crew included Captain James McFeron, First Officer Robert Fox, Flight Engineer Martin Wahne, and four flight attendants.[113]

Recognition and awards[edit]

  • Airports Council International (ACI) ranked San Diego International Airport the No. 4 best airport in North America in 2007. ACI also ranked SAN the No. 2 best airport in the world with 15–25 million passengers in 2007.[114] ACI also ranked SAN the No. 3 best airport in the world with 15–25 million passengers in 2008.

California High-Speed Rail[edit]

As of March 3, 2011, the airport is one of a few locations proposed to be the southern terminus of San Diego-Los Angeles branch of the California High-Speed Rail System.[115] Other station proposals include the SDCCU Stadium site and Downtown San Diego.[115] The San Diego portion of the system is the last phase of the project, with estimates putting completion sometime in the 2030s and travel time between Los Angeles and San Diego taking 1 hour and 20 minutes.[116]

The high-speed rail option will be a cheaper alternative to commuter flights to the Los Angeles Metropolitan Area and in-state flights to Central California and the San Francisco Bay Area.[117]

Endangered species habitat[edit]

A portion of the southeast infield at San Diego International Airport is set aside as a nesting site for the endangered California Least Tern. The least tern nests on three ovals from March through September. The birds lay their eggs in the sand and gravel surface at the southwest end of the airfield. The San Diego Zoological Society monitors the birds from May through September. The terns nest on the airfield because they do not have to compete with beach goers and the airport fence keeps dogs and other animals out, while the airplane activity helps keep predatory hawks away from the nests. Approximately 135 nests were established there in 2007.[118]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

1.^ In addition both London Gatwick and Mubai International physically possess two runways, of which only one can be used at a time due to aircraft separation concerns. San Diego International's "true" single runway places additional constraints on operations as performing any repairs on it effectively requires the closure of the airport. [119]

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External links[edit]

Media related to San Diego International Airport at Wikimedia Commons