Indian soap opera
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Yeh Rishta Kya Kehlata Hai is the longest-running Hindi soap opera in the history of Indian television with 2,450 episodes having aired as of 11 August 2017. The programme has been airing since 12 January 2009. Taarak Mehta Ka Ooltah Chashmah has aired at least 2,262 episodes and is the longest-running sitcom serial in India (28 July 2008–present). Balika Vadhu is India's third longest Hindi soap opera with 2,248 episodes airing between 2008 and 2016.
India's first soap opera was Hum Log, which first aired in 1984 and concluded after the 154th episode, was the longest running serial in the history of Indian television at the time at which it ended. Every episode was approximately 25 minutes long, and the final episode lasted approximately 55 minutes. At the end of every episode, veteran Hindi actor Ashok Kumar would discuss the ongoing story and situations with the audience using Hindi couplets and limericks. In later episodes, he would introduce the actors who played characters in the serial and end his monologue with the Indian language versions of the words "Hum Log".
Biographies of famous people started being produced in the form of soap operas. Meera was a biography of Meera, Veer Shivaji portrayed Chhatrapati Shivaji Shahji Raje Bhosle, Jhansi Ki Rani presented Rani Lakshmi Bai of Jhansi, Chanakya covered Chanakya and Chittod Ki Rani Padmini Ka Johur portrayed Rani Padmini,Chakravartin Ashoka Samrat is a biography of Ashoka and Bharat ka veer putra Maharana Pratap was biography of Maharana Pratap
Crime programmes also started being produced and aired. Adaalat was an Indian television courtroom drama series which revolves around "Advocate K. D. Pathak", a defence lawyer with an impeccable track record of winning cases and setting helpless innocent victims free, but not at the cost of upholding the truth and CID, follows a team of detectives belonging to the Criminal Investigation Department in Mumbai. The protagonist of the show is Shivaji Satam. 
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Soaps affect Indian society, with regards to national integration, identity, globalisation, women, ethics and social issues in rural areas. The first Indian soap opera, Hum Log, began as a family planning programme, and – although it quickly turned its focus to entertainment – it continued to embed pro-development messages which provided a model of utilising the television serial as an "edutainment" method which was followed by countries around the world.
A 2007 study of cable coming to rural India showed that it led to "significant decreases in the reported acceptability of domestic violence towards women and son preference, as well as increases in women's autonomy and decreases in fertility". It also found "suggestive evidence that exposure to cable increases school enrollment for younger children, perhaps through increased participation of women in household decision-making".
Status in Pakistan
Indian soap operas are popular in Pakistan, and Indian entertainment channels are widely watched, due to the mutual intelligibility between Urdu and Hindi. The Supreme Court of Pakistan has banned the showing of Indian films and soap operas. The British Broadcasting Corporation has reported that cable television operators in Pakistan often violate the ban and air Indian television serials due the high popularity and demand for these in Pakistan, and Indian television shows make up nearly 60% of all foreign programmes broadcast in Pakistan.
In June 2006, Pakistani comedian Rauf Lala participated in and won the comedy television show The Great Indian Laughter Challenge, but could not be followed by fellow Pakistanis, as the show was not allowed to be aired.
Indian television shows have contributed heavily to the Sanskritisation of Urdu in Pakistan, and it has been reported that many Hindi words such as namaste (नमस्ते), maharani (महारानी) and chinta (चिंता), which have been an inherent part of Sanskritised Hindi, have entered standard usage in Pakisan due to the influence of these soaps and Bollywood movies.
The viewing of Indian soaps has become so popular that mainstream newspapers such as the Pakistan Tribune often have feature articles on the shows.
An anti-Indian sentiment has been reported in Pakistan, and the two countries have fought four wars. However, the effect of Indian soap operas and Bollywood has resulted in an increase in how "favourably an ordinary Pakistani views Indians".
- Pak-Hind Ka Swag, Book 5 "Culture, Technology and fun", chapter 16 "soap opera, Serials and films"
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- Munshi, Shoma (2010). Prime Time Soap Operas on Indian Television. Routledge, New Delhi. ISBN 978-0-415-55377-3. pp. 200.
- "Pakistani women love India’s ‘saas-bahu’ sagas – The Express Tribune". Tribune.com.pk. Retrieved 13 January 2015.
- "Indian TV Channels Banned in Pakistan". Pakistan Defence. Retrieved 13 January 2015.
- "BBC NEWS - South Asia - Pakistan allows Indian TV shows". News.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 13 January 2015.
- "BBC NEWS - South Asia - Pakistani comic's Indian joy". News.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 13 January 2015.
- "For many Pakistanis, India already MFN". Pakistantoday.com.pk. Retrieved 13 January 2015.
- "10 things I hate about Indian soaps". Tribune.com.pk. Retrieved 13 January 2015.