Chapacuran languages

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Linguistic classification Wamo–Chapakúra
  • Chapacuran
  • Madeira
  • Guapore
Glottolog chap1271[1]

The Chapacuran languages are a nearly extinct Native American language family of South America. There are three living Chapacuran languages, which are spoken in the southeastern Amazon Basin of Brazil and Bolivia.

The Chapacuran languages appear to be related to the extinct Wamo language.


Birchall et al. (2013) classify the dozen known Chapacuran languages as follows:[2]

  • Chapacuran
    • Kitemoka–Tapakura: Chapacura, Kitemoka (Quitemo)
    • Moreic–Waric
      • Moreic–Tor
        • Nuclear More: Itene (moribund), Kuyubi (Kujubim; = Cumana?)
        • Torá, Brazil; probably extinct
      • Waric
        • Urupa–Yaru: Urupa, Yaru, both extinct
        • Wanham–Wari–Oro Win
          • Wanyam (Wanham, Uanham)
          • Wari–Oro Win: Oro Win, Brazil; nearly extinct, Wari’ (Pakaásnovos), Brazil
    • ?Napeca (Nape)
    • ?Rocorona (Ocorono)

All languages are rather closely related. Rocorona appears closest to Torá and Moré (Itene), but those do not cluster together in the classification above.

Extinct languages for which Loukotka says 'nothing' is known, but which may have been Chapacuran, include Cujuna, Mataua, Urunumaca, and Herisobocono. Similarities with Mure appear to be loans.[1]


  1. ^ a b Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Chapacuran". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  2. ^ Birchall, Joshua and Dunn, Michael and Greenhill, Simon (2013) An internal classification of the Chapacuran language family.