June 21, 1965
Chicago, Illinois, United States
|Other names||Larry Wachowski (before 2010)|
|Occupation||Film and TV director, screenwriter, and producer, comic book writer and publisher|
|Born||Andrew Paul Wachowski
December 29, 1967
Chicago, Illinois, United States
|Other names||Andy Wachowski (before 2016)|
|Occupation||Film and TV director, screenwriter, and producer, comic book writer and publisher|
|Spouse(s)||Alisa Blasingame (m. 1991)|
Lana Wachowski (formerly Laurence "Larry" Wachowski, born June 21, 1965) and Lilly Wachowski (formerly Andrew Paul "Andy" Wachowski, born December 29, 1967) are sister American film directors, screenwriters, and producers. They are both openly transgender women. Known together professionally as The Wachowskis and formerly as The Wachowski Brothers, the pair made their directing debut in 1996 with Bound, and reached fame with their second film The Matrix (1999), a major box office success for which they won the Saturn Award for Best Director. They wrote and directed its two sequels: The Matrix Reloaded and The Matrix Revolutions (both in 2003), and were deeply involved in the writing and production of other works in the franchise.
Following the commercial success of The Matrix series, they wrote and produced the 2006 film V for Vendetta (an adaptation of the comic of the same name by Alan Moore), and in 2008 released the film Speed Racer, which was a live-action adaptation of the Japanese anime series of the same name. Their next film, Cloud Atlas, based on the novel of the same name by David Mitchell and co-written and co-directed by Tom Tykwer, was released in 2012. Their most recent works are the film Jupiter Ascending and the Netflix series Sense8, both of which debuted in 2015. Sense8 will return on Netflix with a Christmas special in December 23, 2016 and a second season in May 5, 2017.
The siblings have worked as a writing and directing unit throughout their professional film careers from Bound up to the first season of Sense8. For the production of the second season and following her gender transition, Lilly Wachowski decided to take a break from writing and directing in order to focus on her well-being, making it the first time Lana worked without her sister. Lilly will reportedly stay active as a co-creator on the show, and could return in a more involved position in a potential third season.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Career
- 3 Unrealized projects
- 4 Personal life
- 5 Gaming
- 6 Works
- 7 Awards and nominations
- 8 References
- 9 External links
Lana was born Laurence Wachowski in Chicago in 1965; Lilly was born Andrew Paul Wachowski two and a half years later, in 1967. Their mother, Lynne (née Luckinbill), was a nurse and painter; Their father, Ron Wachowski, was a businessman of Polish descent. Their uncle is the actor and Primetime Emmy Award-winning producer Laurence Luckinbill. They have two sisters, Julie and Laura. Julie was credited as assistant coordinator in the Wachowskis' film Bound; she is a novelist and screenwriter.
Lana and Lilly attended Kellogg Elementary School in Chicago's Beverly area, and graduated from Whitney Young High School, known for its performing arts and science curriculum, in 1983 and 1985 respectively, in both cases under their birth names. Former students recall them playing Dungeons & Dragons and working in the school’s theater and TV program. Lana (as Laurence) went to Bard College in New York and Lilly (as Andrew) attended Emerson College in Boston. Both dropped out before graduating, and they ran a house painting and construction business in Chicago while writing for Marvel Comics.
Prior to working in the film industry, the Wachowskis wrote comic books for Marvel Comics' Razorline imprint, namely Ectokid (created by horror novelist Clive Barker) in 1993. They also wrote for Epic Comics' Clive Barker's Hellraiser and Clive Barker's Nightbreed comic series.
In the mid-1990s they branched out into film writing, including the script for Assassins in 1994, which was directed by Richard Donner and released in 1995. Warner Bros. bought the script and included two more pictures in the contract. Donner had their script "totally rewritten" by Brian Helgeland and the Wachowskis tried unsuccessfully to remove their names from the film. They say the experience gave them the perspective that they should become directors or "[they will] never survive as writers in this town."
Their next project was the 1996 neo-noir thriller Bound, for which they wrote the script and made their debut as directors. The film was well received for its style and craft, and was noted as one of the first mainstream films to feature a gay relationship without it being central to the plot. Taking advantage of the positive buzz, the Wachowskis asked to direct their next picture, The Matrix.
J. Michael Straczynski, who has worked with the Wachowskis on Ninja Assassin and Sense8, has said that the sisters told him they were reading his column on scriptwriting for the Writer's Digest magazine, for inspiration and pointers. Straczynski contributed to the magazine from 1981 to 1991.
In 1998, in the context of explaining how they got their start in filmmaking, the Wachowskis mention Roger Corman's book, How I Made A Hundred Movies in Hollywood and Never Lost a Dime, and indicate, with laughter, that they liked his movies, and began by wanting to "make a low-budget horror movie." In the same interview, they expressed being flattered, after their first film, by their being compared to the Coen brothers, who had "made five, maybe six great movies…" at that time.
Speaking to Bernard Weintraub of The New York Times, earlier, in April 1999, the Wachowskis mention explicitly having prepared for their first Matrix production by studying the works of John Woo "and other Hong Kong filmmakers," as well as reading and rereading Homer's Odyssey, and studying the works of John Huston, Stanley Kubrick, Fritz Lang, George Lucas, Ridley Scott, and Billy Wilder.
Mark Miller, writing in Wired in 2003, also listed Kubrick, Huston, Woo, Wilder, Scott, Lucas, and Lang as Wachowski influences. Other reported influences in this list were Homer, Hermann Hesse, Fyodor Dostoyevsky, and philosopher Cornel West. In an interview with Gadfly in 2004 (after their first movie), the Wachowskis reiterated their influence by or enjoyment of Huston (e.g. Treasure of the Sierra Madre) and Wilder (e.g., Sunset Boulevard and Lost Weekend), and added to these the impacts of Alfred Hitchcock (e.g. Strangers on a Train and Psycho), Roman Polanski (e.g. Repulsion), and Francis Ford Coppola (the Godfather movies, and The Conversation).
The Matrix franchise
|This section needs expansion with: a more thorough overview of this franchise, here, effectively summarizing the wikilinked main article, so that readers desiring to understand the importance of this set of creative works (in the Wachowskis' creative development and history) do not have to leave the page. You can help by adding to it. (September 2016)|
They completed The Matrix, a science fiction action film they had written, in 1999. The movie stars Keanu Reeves as Neo, a hacker recruited by a rebellion to aid them in the fight against machines who have taken over the world and placed humanity inside a simulated reality called "the Matrix". Laurence Fishburne, Carrie-Anne Moss, Hugo Weaving and Joe Pantoliano also star. The movie was a critical and commercial hit for Warner Bros. It won four Academy Awards, including for "Best Visual Effects" for popularizing the bullet time visual effect. The Matrix came to be a major influence for action movies and has appeared in several "greatest science fiction films" lists. In 2012, the film was selected for preservation in the National Film Registry by the Library of Congress for being "culturally, historically, and aesthetically significant."
After its success, they directed two shot back-to-back sequels, The Matrix Reloaded and The Matrix Revolutions, both released in 2003. Reeves, Fishburne, Moss and Weaving returned for the sequels. The Matrix Reloaded received positive critical reception, although not on the level of the original. It became a major box office hit, retaining the spot of the highest-grossing R-rated film for over a decade, until 2016's Deadpool. The Matrix Revolutions received a mixed to negative critical reception and performed lukewarmly in the box office. While it was profitable it made slightly less money than the original film.
In 1998, the Wachowskis and Spencer Lamm, who ran the official website of The Matrix, came up with the plan of creating comics based on the world of the upcoming movie and releasing them online for free through the website. The comics along with a few short stories were released in three series from 1999 to 2003, with several of them (along with some new material) being collected later in printed form in two volumes, in the years 2003 and 2004. The Wachowskis got "based on concepts by" credit in them and contributed "Bits and Pieces"; a prequel story to the movie that explains the origins of the Matrix. The story featured illustrations by Geof Darrow, the movie's conceptual designer, and was conceived as the first part of four. Other writers and artists that contributed to the series include Neil Gaiman, Dave Gibbons, Paul Chadwick, Ted McKeever, Poppy Z. Brite and Steve Skroce.
The Wachowskis' next feature film was V for Vendetta, an adaptation of Alan Moore's comic book of the same name, starring Natalie Portman and Hugo Weaving. The Wachowskis wrote and produced the film with Matrix producer Joel Silver, who had previously purchased the film rights to the novel. The Wachowskis offered the film to James McTeigue, the first assistant director of The Matrix trilogy, as his directorial debut. Moore did not participate in the production, as he was disappointed by previous Hollywood adaptations of his work, and disagreed with differences between the screenplay and his novel. Following a statement to the press by Silver that Moore was supposedly excited to learn more about the movie, Moore demanded from Silver to retract it and when the latter didn't comply Moore had his name removed from the credits. The film's controversial storyline and themes have been both criticized and praised by sociopolitical groups. It was released in 2006 and was well received critically; it was a box office success but did not rank on the scale of The Matrix films. The film popularized the image of the Guy Fawkes mask, originally designed by illustrator David Lloyd for the graphic novel, which was adopted as a symbol by the online hacktivist group Anonymous two years later.
In 2006, Silver had the Wachowskis and McTeigue hired to revamp The Invasion for Warner Bros. The studio was disappointed in the film as produced by director Oliver Hirschbiegel and hired the Wachowskis to rewrite a portion of the script and add new action scenes, which McTeigue directed. The film, the fourth adaptation of the novel The Body Snatchers, was released in 2007 and was not a critical or box office success. The Wachowskis and McTeigue are not credited on the film.
The Wachowskis returned to directing with Speed Racer (2008) which starred Emile Hirsch. The film, which was again produced by Silver, was an adaptation of a 1960s Japanese manga series originally called Mach GoGoGo, which had previously been adapted as an anime TV series in 1967. The Wachowskis were attracted to the project because the series was the first anime they had watched and they wanted to make a family friendly film for their nieces and nephews to enjoy. In an effort to simulate the look of anime in live action the Wachowskis had cinematographer David Tattersall shoot the movie digitally on a digital backlot with the intention of adding extensive visual effects in post-production. The movie was considered a critical and commercial disappointment. While its special effects were noted as outstanding, the storyline is considered lacking. It was nominated in the category of "Worst Prequel, Remake, Rip-off or Sequel" for the 29th Golden Raspberry Awards. Its box office gross was $93 million compared to a production budget of $120 million. Since then, critics periodically have put the film on lists of underrated or cult films.
The Wachowskis' next film project was Ninja Assassin, a martial arts film starring Rain that was released in 2009. It was produced by the Wachowskis in their last involvement with Silver and directed by McTeigue and it was inspired by Rain's fighting scene in Speed Racer. The screenplay was written by Matthew Sand and J. Michael Straczynski, who the Wachowskis called 6 weeks before filming to ask him for a complete rewrite completed within a week, because they were dissatisfied with the earlier drafts and were running out of time. Ninja Assassin received negative reviews and performed lukewarmly in the theaters but respectably on home video.
Their next directorial outing was Cloud Atlas, which was adapted from David Mitchell's 2004 novel of the same name and starred an ensemble cast which included Tom Hanks and Halle Berry. Cloud Atlas was written and directed in collaboration with German filmmaker Tom Tykwer to whom the Wachowskis had introduced the novel several years earlier. The filmmakers failed to secure funding from a studio (save for $20 million by Warner Bros.) and was produced independently after much trouble. With a budget of over $100 million it was noted as the most expensive independent movie to that date and the first attempt at a German blockbuster. The movie opened at the 37th annual Toronto International Film Festival in September 2012 to acclaim and received a loud and lengthy standing ovation. In its general release a month later, it received polarizing reviews and eventually appeared in both "Best Film" and "Worst Film" lists. Overall reviews were mixed to positive. The film received many nominations and awards, particularly for its technical aspects, including ten nominations in the German Film Awards out of which it won five and five Saturn Award nominations out of which it won two. In contrast to Moore's aversion to the script and production of V for Vendetta, David Mitchell liked the script of Cloud Atlas, spent some time on the set (including filming a cameo) and had a positive impression about the end result. According to the Wachowskis the movie was the hardest of their films to make, the one they are the most proud of, and the one they have been told has touched people's lives the most. They believe Cloud Atlas will be the film they will be remembered for.
The Wachowskis subsequently produced and directed Jupiter Ascending, an original space opera screenplay they wrote. The film was released in 2015. It stars Channing Tatum and Mila Kunis, and features the Wachowskis' regular collaborators John Gaeta on visual effects and Kym Barrett on costumes. According to Deadline, the financial and critical failure of Jupiter Ascending caused their business relationship with Warner Bros. that began with The Matrix franchise to be terminated.
Their next project was the Netflix science fiction drama series Sense8, created and written with J. Michael Straczynski. Sense8 features an international ensemble cast and it is shot in a multitude of cities around the world. The Wachowskis directed most of the episodes of the first season with the rest being handled by McTeigue, Tykwer and their go-to visual effects supervisor on their movies, Dan Glass, on his directorial debut. The first season premiered in 2015 to generally positive reviews particularly for the scale of the production and the presentation of diverse and LGBT characters and themes, winning the GLAAD Media Award for Outstanding Drama Series. It has also received a Primetime Emmy Award nomination for Outstanding Original Main Title Theme Music. A Christmas special and a second season have been announced for December 2016 and May 2017 respectively.
The Wachowskis admit to a love for telling multi-part stories. "Because we grew up on comic books and the Tolkien trilogy, one of the things we're interested in is bringing serial fiction to cinema," Lana has said. Lilly says: "We think movies are fairly boring and predictable. We want to screw with audiences' expectations." In terms of themes expressed in their body of work, Lana has cited "the inexplicable nature of the universe [being] in constant dialogue with our own consciousness and our consciousness actually affect[ing] the inexplicable nature of the universe," "interconnectivity and about truth beneath the surface", "the paradox of choice and choicelessness", "transcendence ... transcending archetypal boxes, stereotypes", "race ... an important component" and "gender ... it's one of our most significant cultural subjects."
The Wachowskis cited the art of comic book artist Geof Darrow as an influence on the look of The Matrix. Also, they said that Ghost in the Shell, Ninja Scroll, and Akira were anime that inspired them, saying "in anime, one thing that they do that we tried to bring to our film was a juxtaposition of time and space in action beats."
Lana has most been influenced by 2001: A Space Odyssey, Blade Runner, Ma vie en rose, and My Neighbor Totoro. Both Wachowskis are fans of the Ghost in the Shell, Akira, Wicked City, Ninja Scroll and Fist of the North Star anime films.
None of the home video releases of their films feature any deleted scenes. Lana says that despite often having to cut scenes from their movies, they do not want to include deleted scenes in such releases, as this would suggest that their films suffer from incompleteness. They love their finished products and believe them complete. For the same reason, they have not released their films for home video with director's or extended cuts. They also avoid recording audio commentary tracks, having participated only on the track recorded for the LaserDisc of Bound. The sisters say they learned that offering an interpretation of their movies means that viewers will be less likely to express their own interpretation. They are not interested in the typical commentaries featuring cast and crew, wanting the films to stand on their own.
This section has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages)(Learn how and when to remove this template message)
The Wachowskis have been noted for hiring the same basic film crew to make their movies. Lana admits they do it in part to ensure a positive environment. "It's like family. Everyone is very respectful of each other," says Lana. They used the same practice while selecting the television crew for their Netflix show, Sense8.
Some of their most notable frequent collaborators are:
|Crew member||Bound||The Matrix||The Matrix Reloaded||The Matrix Revolutions||Speed Racer||Cloud Atlas||Jupiter Ascending||Sense8||Roles||Notes|
|Kym Barrett||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Costume designer||Also credited in Enter the Matrix.|
|Hugh Bateup||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Production designer, (supervising) art director|
|Alexander Berner||Yes||Yes||Film editor|
|Geof Darrow||Yes||Yes||Yes||Uncredited||Uncredited||Uncredited||Conceptual designer, conceptual artist||Also worked on Speed Racer, Cloud Atlas, Jupiter Ascending. Founded Burlyman Entertainment along with the Wachowskis and Steve Skroce and worked on Shaolin Cowboy, Doc Frankenstein and The Matrix Comics.|
|Dane Davis||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Sound designer, supervising sound editor||Also credited in The Animatrix, Ninja Assassin and Enter the Matrix.|
|Don Davis||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Composer||Also credited in The Animatrix, Enter the Matrix and The Matrix Online.|
|John Gaeta||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Visual effects supervisor, visual effects designer||Also credited in Ninja Assassin, Enter the Matrix and The Matrix Comics.|
|Dan Glass||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Visual effects supervisor, TV episode director||Directed an episode of Sense8. Also credited in V for Vendetta, Ninja Assassin and Enter the Matrix.|
|Grant Hill||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Producer, executive producer, unit production manager||Also credited in V for Vendetta, Ninja Assassin and Enter the Matrix.|
|James McTeigue||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||First assistant director, second unit director, TV episode director||Also worked on The Invasion and Enter the Matrix. Also director of the Wachowski-produced V for Vendetta and Ninja Assassin.|
|Owen Paterson||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Production designer||Also credited in V for Vendetta and Enter the Matrix.|
|Bill Pope||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Director of photography||Also credited in Enter the Matrix. Pope says he hasn't been asked to work again with them since a fall out they had during The Matrix Reloaded and The Matrix Revolutions.|
|Joel Silver||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Producer||Also producer of Assassins, The Animatrix (executive producer), V for Vendetta, Ninja Assassin, Enter the Matrix and The Matrix Online.|
|Steve Skroce||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Uncredited||Uncredited||Uncredited||Storyboard artist||Also worked on Cloud Atlas, Jupiter Ascending and Sense8. Also credited in V for Vendetta and Ninja Assassin. Founded Burlyman Entertainment along with the Wachowskis and Geof Darrow and worked on Doc Frankenstein and The Matrix Comics.|
|Zach Staenberg||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Film editor||Also credited in Enter the Matrix, The Matrix: Path of Neo.|
|Ethan Stoller||Yes||Yes||Yes||Music consultant, music editor, composer||Also provided music for the extras in the home video releases of Speed Racer and was credited in V for Vendetta, Ninja Assassin and Google Me Love. He has known the Wachowskis since high school.|
|John Toll||Yes||Yes||Yes||Director of photography|
|Tom Tykwer||Yes||Yes||Yes||Composer, co-writer, co-director, TV episode director|
|Jeremy Woodhead||Yes||Yes||Yes||Makeup, hair and prosthetics designer||Also credited in V for Vendetta and Ninja Assassin.|
|Cast member||Bound||The Matrix trilogy||Speed Racer||Cloud Atlas||Jupiter Ascending||Sense8||Notes|
(Part 1 only)
|Hugo Weaving||Yes||Yes||Also starred in V for Vendetta, made an appearance in Enter the Matrix and was credited in The Matrix: Path of Neo for the use of clips from The Matrix films that were featuring him.|
As film producers and comic book publishers
During The Matrix Reloaded, The Matrix Revolutions, The Animatrix and Enter the Matrix production, the Wachowskis created EON Entertainment (not to be confused with Eon Productions), their production company to coordinate and direct all involved partners. It is also where the films were edited together, after the various FX vendors sent their finished work. EON's internal VFX team, ESC, did a number of visual effect shots for the two Matrix sequels and coordinated the other vendors. ESC was shut down in summer 2004. Anarchos Productions (credited in Cloud Atlas as Anarchos Pictures) is their production company that has been billed for all their films starting with V for Vendetta.
Kinowerks is their pre- and post-production and effects studio, based in the Ravenswood neighbourhood of Chicago. It has been acclaimed for its green-friendly design. Roger Ebert was invited to watch a restored print of The Godfather in the Kinowerks facilities and met the Wachowskis, but he was oblivious to the fact the studio belonged to them. The Chicago Tribune's Christopher Pirelli, the facility is very low-key: "an industrial building that appears neither old nor especially new" and "It could be an upscale dentist's office" while the "inside is rather unexpected" and has numerous mementos of past film projects.
Prior to working in the film industry, the Wachowskis wrote comic books for Marvel Comics' Razorline imprint, namely Ectokid (created by horror novelist Clive Barker) in 1993 as well as writing for Epic Comics' Clive Barker's Hellraiser and Clive Barker's Nightbreed comic series.
- Shaolin Cowboy – created, written, and drawn by Geof Darrow (the Wachowskis contributed the opening dialogue to each issue)
- Doc Frankenstein – created by Geof Darrow and Steve Skroce, written by the Wachowskis, with art by Skroce.
The Wachowskis' first script was a thriller called Carnivore. It has been described as "a Corman-style, low-budget horror movie that dealt with cannibalism or, more specifically, rich people being eaten by cannibals". The writing was well received and the script made the duo noticed, although interest in making the movie was low as executives told them "This is a bad idea. I can't make this. I'm rich.". Years later, on April 6, 1999, a week after The Matrix opened in American theaters, Variety reported Trimark was looking to buy the script and were in talks with George Romero to direct it with production scheduled to begin in August. In April 2001, news of the Wachowskis producing it for Lionsgate and looking for a director surfaced again, and in August 2003 a second time, with their go-to cinematographer Bill Pope rumored to be making his directorial debut with it. The film ultimately went unproduced.
Another two of their earliest scripts which were never produced were Plastic Man, based on the DC Comics superhero of the same name and Vertical Run based on the book of the same name by Joseph R. Garber.
After completing The Matrix, the Wachowskis were looking to make an animated adaptation of Frank Miller's Hard Boiled graphic novel. The comic was drawn by Geof Darrow, the conceptional designer of The Matrix and later its sequels. The project didn't move forward because Miller didn't want it to be an animated film.
In November 2000, Variety reported the Wachowskis would produce, co-create and direct second unit on a new Conan the Barbarian movie for Warner Bros. which was to be written and directed by John Milius and which could see Arnold Schwarzenegger make an appearance. The Wachowskis were planning to juggle their pre-production involvement on the movie and work on The Matrix sequels at the same time. In January 2004 it was reported that development on King Conan: Crown of Iron had stalled for years because of the Wachowskis' involvement in The Matrix sequels and now that the movies were complete they decided to abandon the project of their own volition because of the frequent clashes they had experienced with Milius concerning the tone and direction of the movie. Lana once suggested Conan the Barbarian as her favorite movie based on comics to which Lilly also responded enthusiastically.
In 2008, the Wachowskis were producing for Madhouse an animated film based on their comic book company's Shaolin Cowboy, titled Shaolin Cowboy in The Tomb of Doom. The feature is co-directed by the comic book's creator Geof Darrow and Seiji Mizushima, a Japanese director. When the American financiers backed out, the film was left half-finished and in need of $3 million. Darrow does not believe that the required amount of money to finish it will be found.
In December 2009, Arianna Huffington tweeted pictures of herself on the set of "a Wachowskis movie on Iraq from the perspective of the future". CHUD.com reported what the Wachowskis were doing was camera tests and shooting of test footage on the Red digital camera for a future movie, but not shooting the movie itself. In March 2010, Jesse Ventura said he had also shot for the project right before Huffington. Both of them were dressed as people from roughly 100 years in the future and they were asked to improvise without a script about the Iraq War. In May 2010, Deadline reported the movie was going to be a hard-R story that would begin in the future but move back to the then-current war in Iraq and center on the homosexual relationship between an American soldier and an Iraqi. The Wachowskis completed the script and were searching for funding to direct it. In July 2010, the movie was reported to have began casting under the codename CN9 (or CN-9), and in August 2010 the full name was revealed as Cobalt Neural 9. In September 2010, Vulture posted additional details about the script and revealed the movie would be told in found footage-style from the perspective of digital archaeologists from the future. An estimated $20 million budget was reported although they were told a studio would "never, ever" finance it but perhaps the Wachowskis could do it themselves. In December 2010, The Hollywood Reporter wrote that Salman Rushdie and Cornel West had also shot talking head sequences along with the previously reported involvement of Huffington and Ventura but the Wachowskis were currently looking into other movies because of troubles financing it. Later, in September 2012, Aleksandar Hemon wrote about the making of Cloud Atlas and recalled he too was one of the people the Wachowskis had invited to interview in December 2009, to help inspire the script of Cobalt Neural 9. The last update on the film was in October 2012, when the Wachowskis were asked about it and they responded they were still keen to make it, because they had invested both financially ($5 million) and emotionally into it, even if that ends up being in a different form than film.
In December 2010, The Hollywood Reporter wrote that the Wachowskis were planning to direct for Warner Bros. a script of theirs called Hood, which was a modern adaptation of the Robin Hood legend. The Wachowskis were said to be reaching out to actors, including Will Smith.
Lilly has been married to Alisa Blasingame since 1991. Lana married Thea Bloom in 1993; they divorced in 2002. She subsequently began dating Karin Winslow; they married in 2009. Winslow is a board member of the Chicago House and Social Service Agency.
Raised by a "hardcore atheist" father and an "ex-Catholic turned Shamanist" mother, the duo once described their religious beliefs as non-denominational. Lana is a vegetarian. During the Democratic Party presidential primaries of 2016, The Advocate posted a video message of Lana talking about why she would be supporting Bernie Sanders.
Lana's gender transition
Rumors that Lana Wachowski was transitioning spread in the early 2000s, though neither sibling spoke directly on the subject at the time. In 2003, Gothamist.com reported the possible gender reassignment. In a 2007 interview Joel Silver, the producer of numerous Wachowski films, said that the rumors concerning the gender reassignment surgery were "all untrue", saying that "they just don't do interviews, so people make things up." Crew members working on Speed Racer said similarly.
Lana completed the transition after Speed Racer's release in 2008, and by at least December 2010, trade magazines and newspapers referred to "Lana (formerly Larry) Wachowski". and to the duo as "Andy and Lana Wachowski." On some documents her name is shown as Laurenca Wachowski. In July 2012, Lana made her first public appearance after transitioning, in a video discussing the creative process behind Cloud Atlas. Lana is the first major Hollywood director to come out as transgender.
In October 2012 Lana Wachowski received the Human Rights Campaign's Visibility Award. In her acceptance speech, she revealed that once during her youth, she had considered committing suicide because of her feelings of confusion about identity. Her acceptance speech was one of the longest public appearances by either of the notoriously reclusive siblings. Lana said that, although she and her sister had not publicly commented on her transitioning during the previous decade, it was not because she was ashamed of it, nor had she kept it a secret from her family and friends. Rather, she stated, the two are generally shy about the news media and prefer to maintain their privacy. Comparing media exposure to losing one's virginity as an irreversible event that only happens once, the Wachowskis had tried to stay out of the public eye. They feared losing their privacy and the ability to go to public places without being noticed and harassed as celebrities.
Explaining her decision to appear at the HRC event, Lana said,
"there are some things we do for ourselves, but there are some things we do for others. I am here because when I was young, I wanted very badly to be a writer, I wanted to be a filmmaker, but I couldn't find anyone like me in the world and it felt like my dreams were foreclosed simply because my gender was less typical than others. If I can be that person for someone else, then the sacrifice of my private civic life may have value."
Lilly's gender transition
In March 2016, Lilly Wachowski also came out as a transgender woman, issuing a statement to the Windy City Times after a visit from a reporter from the Daily Mail newspaper. While on the red carpet of the 27th GLAAD Media Awards, Lilly commented she had been hiding she was transgender throughout her "whole life".
Lana and Lilly are self-proclaimed gamers. As teens they spent their weekends in the attic playing Dungeons & Dragons. They liken the process of the playing parties that imagined the same virtual space to the process of filmmaking. Along with some of their friends, they wrote a 350-page role-playing game of their own, called High Adventure. The rights to it are available for publishing.
On the video game front, they had been exchanging letters with Hideo Kojima and met him during a Famitsu interview in late 1999. Metal Gear Solid was the first video game they played after finishing work on The Matrix. Candidates for an adaptation of the first Matrix movie to video game form included Kojima, Bungie and Shiny Entertainment, whose Messiah PC game impressed them. Shiny's David Perry, who ultimately had his company develop and collaborate with them on the Enter the Matrix and The Matrix: Path of Neo video games, was impressed with their familiarity with the medium; this proved helpful during development. The Wachowskis owned both a PlayStation 2 and Xbox video game console and played several games such as Splinter Cell and Halo 2. They reportedly destroyed their Xbox during a Halo deathmatch. Actor Collin Chou recounts an instance of visiting their office and finding them playing video games on the floor. Lilly is a fan of the Death Jr. PlayStation Portable game.
Asked about their feelings about turning the tightly controlled Matrix saga to the unpredictable form of an MMORPG with The Matrix Online, the duo appeared enthusiastic about the nature and possibilities of video games:
The "vagaries of an MMO where unpredictable player behavior is the rule," is the reason for doing it. Our films were never intended for a passive audience. There are enough of those kinds of films being made. We wanted our audience to have to work, to have to think, to have to actually participate in order to enjoy them. This may be because while we enjoy movies, we also spend a lot of time (as in crack-den amounts of time) gaming.
Gaming engages your mind actively whereas most genre films (the films we tend to watch) are designed to provoke as little thinking as possible. Consider why the films in which everyone knows exactly what is going to happen are the films that make the most money.Yet the fact that The Matrix films are three of the most successful adult films in history (despite of what much of the media would have us believe), suggests that there are other people like us. Those are the people, the people who thought about it, who worked at it, who we ultimately made the trilogy for and it now makes perfect sense to us that they should inherit the storyline. For us, the idea of watching our baby evolve inside the virtual bubble-world of this new radically developing medium, which has in our opinion the potential of combining the best attributes of films and games, of synthesizing reality TV with soap opera, RPGs and Mortal Combat [sic], is fantastically exciting.— The Wachowskis
|1995||Assassins||Yes||Their script was "totally rewritten" by screenwriter Brian Helgeland. They felt the rewrite removed "all the subtext, the visual metaphors... the idea that within our world there are moral pocket universes that operate differently" to the point they chose to call it their "abortion". They tried to remove their names from the film but failed.|
|2001||The Matrix Revisited||Yes||Documentary|
Writing credits for "Final Flight of the Osiris"; story credits for "The Second Renaissance Part I", "The Second Renaissance Part II" and "Kid's Story".
|The Matrix Reloaded||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|The Matrix Revolutions||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|2006||V for Vendetta||Second unit (uncredited)||Yes||Yes||Along with writing and producing the film, they also did uncredited second unit directing work which includes the fighting scenes such as V's climactic fight against Creedy's men. They edited the movie together with McTeigue and they were in control of the final cut.|
|2007||The Invasion||Rewrites (uncredited)||Reportedly the studio brought them in to rewrite 30% of the film (with Collider reporting over 66%) to include action scenes and a new ending. They asked to remain uncredited.|
|2012||Cloud Atlas||Yes||Yes||Yes||Co-directed with Tom Tykwer.|
|2014||Google Me Love (short)||Yes||Written and directed by their nephew Ryan Eakins. The short was created at Lana and Lilly's request and they also picked the subject matter of love.|
|2015–present||Sense8||Yes||Yes||Yes||Co-created with J. Michael Straczynski for Netflix.|
|2009||"Epilepsy Is Dancing"||Antony and the Johnsons||The music video was choreographed by Sean Dorsey and was censored in North America. The production team behind the video collectively call themselves AFAS.|
|2003||Enter the Matrix||Yes||Yes||Based on a 244-page script by the Wachowskis, the game features close to one hour of live action sequences directed by them, and their collaboration with the game's staff for the creation of another hour of in-engine cinematics and more. Also directed the game's trailer.|
|2005||The Matrix Online||Yes||The Wachowskis picked Paul Chadwick as the game's writer and directed him with the first year's theme: "Peace and the ways people wreck it" and a starting point: "the death of Morpheus and the hunt for his killer". Furthermore they reviewed and dictated changes to Chadwick's early drafts, such as prohibiting the death of one character. Overall they weren't directly involved with the creation of the game, in comparison to their other two efforts, instead opting to act as consultants of Chadwick.|
|The Matrix: Path of Neo||Yes||Yes||In collaboration with Zach Staenberg, the Wachowskis edited footage from the previously released films, anime and game to retell the story from the point of view of Neo. Additionally they scripted new locations and encounters, some of them being scrapped content from the films, along with their appearance to the player to humorously explain the reasons behind the creation of a new ending for this adaptation of The Matrix trilogy.|
|1989–1994||Clive Barker's Hellraiser||Yes||Lana Wachowski is credited as a writer on stories included in issues 8, 9, 12, 13 and the Hellraiser: Spring Slaughter – Razing Hell special.|
|1992||Clive Barker's Nightbreed||Yes||Lana Wachowski is credited as a writer on issue 17.|
|1993||Clive Barker's Book of the Damned||Yes||Lana Wachowski is credited as a writer on volumes 1, 2 and 4.|
|1993–1994||Ectokid||Yes||Lana Wachowski is credited as a writer on issues 3–9. Lilly Wachowski reportedly worked on it as well.|
|1999–2004||The Matrix Comics||Yes||Yes||Written "Bits and Pieces of Information", the first part of a conceived four part story. Parts of it were later incorporated in "The Second Renaissance" short in The Animatrix.
Most of the comics originally published on whatisthematrix.warnerbros.com, along with a few new ones, were collected on two printed volumes, published by the Wachowskis' comic book company, Burlyman Entertainment.
|2004–||Doc Frankenstein||Yes||Yes||Based on an original idea of Geof Darrow, later reworked by Steve Skroce, the duo ended up writing it.|
|2004–2007||Shaolin Cowboy||Recap only||Yes||Issues 2–7 begin with a humorous recap of the story written by the Wachowskis, and narrated by a talking mule named Lord Evelyn Dunkirk Winniferd Esq. the Third.|
The Art of the Matrix book credits them for including their screenplay and additional art. The Wachowskis also wrote an introduction to the 2005 published Vol. 2: Tag trade paperback of Ex Machina comic book, being big fans of it. Additionally Lana Wachowski wrote the introduction to the 2012 published No Straight Lines: Four Decades of Queer Comics collection of LGBTQ comic book stories.
Awards and nominations
- Silverman, Stephen M. (May 19, 2004). "Matrix Maker's Divorce Gets Even Messier". People. Retrieved August 19, 2012.
- Hemon, Aleksandar (September 10, 2012). "Beyond The Matrix". The New Yorker. Retrieved September 4, 2012.
- Schmich, Mary (March 2, 2014). "A safe place for transgenders". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved November 17, 2014.
- "Larry Wachowski Biography (1965-)". FilmReference.com. Retrieved March 9, 2016.
- "Andy Wachowski Biography (1967–)". FilmReference.com. Retrieved July 19, 2012.
- "21 Transgender People Who Influenced American Culture". Time Magazine.
- Sieczkowski, Cavan (July 30, 2012). "Larry Wachowski Transgender: 'Matrix' Director Reveals Transition To Lana Wachowski (VIDEO)". Huffington Post.
- Abramovitch, Seth (March 8, 2016). "Second Wachowski Sibling Comes Out as Transgender". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved March 8, 2016.
- Stedman, Alex (March 8, 2016). "Second Wachowski Sibling Comes Out as Transgender". Variety. Retrieved March 8, 2016.
- Adams, Nick (March 8, 2016). "GLAAD responds to Lilly Wachowski's statement about her transition" (Press release). GLAAD. Retrieved March 8, 2016.
- Rachel Janik (2015-02-24). "Wachowskis: Jupiter Ascending and Sense8 on Netflix: What to Expect". Time.com. Retrieved 2016-03-11.
- Kevin Fitzpatrick (December 3, 2016). "'Sense8' Finally Confirms Christmas Special, Season 2 Premiere". Archived from the original on December 3, 2016. Retrieved December 3, 2016.
- Jarett Wieselman (May 26, 2016). "What To Expect From "Sense8" Season 2". BuzzFeed. Archived from the original on May 26, 2016. Retrieved May 26, 2016.
- Jackson McHenry (May 26, 2016). "Lilly Wachowski to Take a Backseat on Sense8 Season Two". Vulture.com. New York Media. Archived from the original on June 10, 2016. Retrieved June 10, 2016.
- J. Michael Straczynski (June 10, 2016). "'Sense8' creator J. Michael Straczynski on sex, diversity & global perspective" (Interview). Interview with Gold Derby. Retrieved September 13, 2016 – via YouTube.
- "Wachowski Brothers Reload". The World of English. Archived from the original on May 8, 2013.
- Baram, Marcus (May 21, 2003). "Wacky Wachowskis". New York Post. Whoaisnotme.net.
- "Bound – Cast, Crew, Director and Awards". The New York Times. movies.nytimes.com. Retrieved July 9, 2013.
- "J. Wachowski Is Speaker At Chattanooga Writers Guild Meeting On May 14". Chattanoogan.com. May 2, 2013. Retrieved March 9, 2016.
- Miller, Mark (November 11, 2003). "Matrix Revelations". Wired News. Retrieved July 19, 2012.
- Godoski, Andrew. "Under The Influence: The Matrix". Screened.com. Archived from the original on December 22, 2012. Retrieved December 22, 2012.
- Horowitz, Josh. "The Lost Wachowski Brothers Interview". Asitecalledfred.com via web.archive.org. Archived from the original on July 25, 2012. Retrieved July 2, 2014.
- "The Wachowskis Refuse To Take No For An Answer". buzzfeed.com. Retrieved September 13, 2016.
- "Bound". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved July 8, 2012.
- LaSalle, Mick (October 4, 1996). "Darkly Witty 'Bound' a Taut Noir Caper". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved May 28, 2007.
- "Straczynski Talks 'Sense8' and the Outrageous Show's Diversity". awardsdaily.com. June 9, 2016. Retrieved October 31, 2016.
- Whilk, Nat; Whitehead, Jayson (January 1998). "Glory Bound: An interview with Larry and Andy Wachowski". Gadfly Online. Archived from the original on March 1, 2004. Retrieved July 24, 2014.
- Weinraub, Bernard (April 5, 1999). "Brothers Unleash the Comic Book of Ideas". The New York TImes. Retrieved 28 September 2016.
- "Anti Hero - the Hidden Revolution in Leadership & Change". academia.edu. p. 60. Retrieved October 1, 2016.
- Heritage, Stuart (October 21, 2010). "The Matrix: No 13 best sci-fi and fantasy film of all time". Retrieved October 1, 2016 – via The Guardian.
- "Top 25 Sci-Fi Movies of All Time - IGN - Page 4". ign.com. Retrieved October 1, 2016.
- "The Sci-Fi 25 - 25 - Countdown! - Movies - Sci-Fi Central - Entertainment Weekly". archive.org. May 8, 2007. Retrieved October 1, 2016.
- King, Susan (December 19, 2012). "National Film Registry selects 25 films for preservation". Retrieved October 1, 2016 – via LA Times.
- "The Matrix Reloaded". rottentomatoes.com. Retrieved October 1, 2016.
- Lang, Brent (March 29, 2016). "'Deadpool' Overtakes 'Matrix Reloaded' as Highest-Grossing R-Rated Movie". variety.com. Retrieved October 1, 2016.
- "The Matrix Revolutions". rottentomatoes.com. Retrieved October 1, 2016.
- "The Matrix Revolutions (2003) - Box Office Mojo". boxofficemojo.com. Retrieved October 1, 2016.
- "V for Vendetta (2006)". rottentomatoes.com. Retrieved July 8, 2012.
- CNN, By Nick Thompson. "Guy Fawkes mask inspires Occupy protests around the world - CNN.com". cnn.com. Retrieved September 13, 2016.
- Sperling, Nicole; Spines, Christine (August 10, 2007). "Hidden 'Invasion'". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved August 18, 2007.
- www.t75.org. "IndieLondon: Speed Racer - Joel Silver interview - Your London Reviews". indielondon.co.uk. Retrieved September 14, 2016.
- Moro, Eric (March 3, 2007). "WonderCon 07: Wonder Woman, Speed Racer Status". ign.com. Retrieved September 14, 2016.
- Thompson, Anne (June 18, 2008). "Why 'Speed Racer' sputtered". Variety. Retrieved June 18, 2008.
- "Speed Racer". Rotten Tomatoes. Flixster.
- Horton, NP. "Top 50 underrated films of the 2000s". Den of Geek. Retrieved October 1, 2014.
- Hyman, Nick (June 14, 2010). "15 Movies the Critics Got Wrong". Metacritic. Retrieved October 1, 2014.
- Newitz, Annalee. "10 Reasons Why Speed Racer Is an Unsung Masterpiece". io9. Retrieved October 1, 2014.
- Stepenberg, Alejandro. "The UnPopular Opinion: Speed Racer". Retrieved October 1, 2014.
- Wade, Chris (October 25, 2012). "Speed Racer: The Wachowskis' masterpiece is underrated.". Slate Magazine. Retrieved October 1, 2014.
- "How Rain trained for 'Ninja Assassin'". philstar.com. Retrieved September 28, 2016.
- "Masters of SciFi – J. Michael Straczynski on Changeling's Message and Warp-Speed Writing for Ninja Assassin". amc.com. Retrieved September 23, 2016.
- "Ninja Assassin". rottentomatoes.com. Retrieved September 23, 2016.
- "'New Moon' Overshadows 'The Blind Side' At Box Office". mtv.com. Retrieved September 28, 2016.
- "Ninja Assassin (2009) - Box Office Mojo". boxofficemojo.com. Retrieved September 28, 2016.
- "500,000 'Ninja Assassin' DVDs Sold Within Four Weeks". hancinema.net. Retrieved September 23, 2016.
- "Don't Call 'Cloud Atlas' a Box-Office Flop Just Yet". thewrap.com. October 29, 2012. Retrieved September 19, 2016.
- D'Alessandro, Anthony (November 24, 2012). "OSCARS Q&A: Wachowskis And Tykwer". deadline.com. Retrieved September 19, 2016.
- Pidd, Helen (June 22, 2011). "Cloud Atlas to be filmed in Berlin as city eyes starring role in movies". Retrieved September 19, 2016 – via The Guardian.
- "Toronto: 'Cloud Atlas' premiere wows - cast gets standing ovation". ew.com. Retrieved September 19, 2016.
- Olsen, Mark (September 9, 2012). "Wachowskis open up their 'Cloud Atlas' at last". Retrieved September 19, 2016 – via LA Times.
- "Toronto 2012: 'Cloud Atlas' Earns Lengthy Standing Ovation, but Are Oscars in the Cards?". hollywoodreporter.com. Retrieved September 19, 2016.
- "Cloud Atlas (2012)". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved October 27, 2012.
- AlloCine. "5 questions à... David Mitchell, l'auteur de "Cloud Atlas" !". allocine.fr. Retrieved September 23, 2016.
- Mitchell, David (October 19, 2012). "Translating 'Cloud Atlas' Into the Language of Film". Retrieved September 23, 2016 – via Wall Street Journal.
- "'Jupiter Ascending': The Wachowskis' long journey". latimes.com. February 6, 2015. Retrieved September 19, 2016.
- "'Jupiter Ascending' filmmakers thrive on being sci-fi originals". torontosun.com. Retrieved September 19, 2016.
- Fleming, Mike (October 20, 2011). "Lana and Andy Wachowski Return To Sci-Fi Action Arena With 'Jupiter Ascending'". Deadline. Retrieved July 19, 2012.
- D'Alessandro, Anthony (February 9, 2015). "The Wachowskis' Expensive 'Jupiter Ascending': What The Hell Happened?". deadline.com. Retrieved September 12, 2016.
- "First Trailer For The Wachowskis' Sense8 Released". gamesradar.com. Retrieved September 19, 2016.
- "Sense8: Season 1". rottentomatoes.com. Retrieved September 19, 2016.
- "Outstanding Drama Series - GLAAD Media Awards: The Winners List". hollywoodreporter.com. Retrieved September 19, 2016.
- "Best Guest Actress in a Drama Series - Creative Arts Emmys 2016: Winners List". hollywoodreporter.com. Retrieved September 19, 2016.
- Erik Pedersen (June 29, 2016). "Movie Academy Stresses Diversity As It Invites Record 683 For Membership Including Nate Parker, Freida Pinto & the Wachowskis". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved 2016-06-29.
- "Larry Wachowski". Filmbug. February 25, 2005. Retrieved July 19, 2012.
- Asi, Husam Sam (October 20, 2012). "The Wachowski siblings (formerly brothers) seek the meaning of life in Cloud Atlas". UKScreen. Retrieved December 28, 2012.
- McGrath, Charles (October 9, 2012) "Bending Time, Bending Minds", The New York Times.
- Lana and Andy Wachowski New Matrix, Jupiter Ascending, Sign Vendetta Mask @ Cloud Atlas Gala London. YouTube (February 18, 2013).
- Hugo Weaving | Random Scribblings (February 17, 2013). "Cloud Atlas - Chinese TV Interview with Hugo Weaving, Lana and Andy Wachowski, Tom Tykwer (v.qq.com)". Retrieved October 1, 2016 – via YouTube.
- Corliss, Richard (October 25, 2012). "'Cloud Atlas' Movie Review: The Wachowskis Struggle in the Stratosphere". Time.
- Oloizia, Jeff (August 13, 2014). "Sam Taylor-Johnson, Lisa Cholodenko, Sarah Polley and Other Female Directors on the Movies That Influenced Them". T Magazine. The New York Times. Retrieved August 18, 2014.
- Manga Max #8, July 1999
- "Chat with the Wachowski Brothers". whatisthematrix.warnerbros.com. November 6, 1999. Archived from the original on February 13, 2010.
- Weintraub, Steve (October 27, 2012). "Andy Wachowski, Lana Wachowski, and Tom Tykwer Talk CLOUD ATLAS and SPEED RACER". Collider. Retrieved October 8, 2014.
- "The Many Meanings of the Matrix". MatrixFans.net. Retrieved October 8, 2014.
- Introduction by the Wachowski Brothers included in The Ultimate Matrix Collection
- Tabach-Bank, Lauren (August 13, 2014). "Flipping the Script". The New York Times.
- Siuntres, John. "Word Balloon The Pop Culture Interview Podcast: Word Balloon Podcast Geof Darrow's Shaolin Cowboy & Chris Roberson & Dennis Culver's Edison Rex". wordballoon (blog). Retrieved October 1, 2014.
- "Geof Darrow's Big Guys, Deadpools and Shaolin Cowboys — FlinkTO". FlinkTO. Retrieved December 14, 2014.
- Peterson, Steve (April 30, 2013). "Games need more direction, says filmmaker James McTeigue". GamesIndustry.biz. Retrieved October 1, 2014.
- Radish, Christina (May 19, 2014). "Cinematographer Bill Pope Talks COSMOS, ANT-MAN, the Wachowskis, More". Collider. Retrieved October 1, 2014.
- john siuntres. "Word Balloon The Pop Culture Interview Podcast: Word Balloon Podcast Hasan Minahj On The Stand Up Planet Documentary , Steve Skroce's Doc Frankenstein Returns and The 2014 C2E2 Podcasters Roundtable". Retrieved October 1, 2014.
- ambush bug (July 22, 2014). "AICN COMICS Q&@: Bug chats with talented artist Steve Skroce on the Wachowskis' DOC FRANKENSTEIN!". Aint It Cool News. Retrieved June 15, 2015.
- Alter, Ethan (September 16, 2015). "Emmy Watch 2016: 'Sense8' Deserves a Nomination for Music Direction". yahoo.com. Retrieved September 19, 2015.
- "The Wachowskis And 'Sense8' Season 2: An Insider's Perspective". Forbes. April 7, 2016. Retrieved April 8, 2016.
- The Matrix Revealed: An Interview with John Gaeta. creativeplanetnetwork.com. Retrieved July 9, 2013.
- Taub, Eric A. (June 3, 2003). "The 'Matrix' Invented: A World of Special Effects". New York Times. Retrieved March 9, 2016.
- "ESC Cuts Staff and Goes on Hiatus". Animation World Network. awn.com. August 18, 2004.
- Thompson, Anne (April 12, 2011). "Tom Hanks To Star in Tykwer and Wachowskis' Cloud Atlas, Selling at Cannes". Thompson on Hollywood. Blogs.indiewire.com. Retrieved July 9, 2013.
- "Lana Wachowski". Variety. Retrieved February 20, 2016.
- "Andy Wachowski". Variety. Retrieved February 20, 2016.
- "News". warnerbros.co.uk. Archived from the original on October 29, 2013. Retrieved February 20, 2016.
- Ratny, Ruth L. (March 14, 2012). "The Wachowskis want to produce big movie here – but...". ReelChicago.com.
- Simonsen, Mae (July 25, 2011). "Wachowskis' Kinowerks the best of green technology". ReelChicago.com.
- Ebert, Roger (July 1, 2013). "The Wachowskis: From "2001"to "The Godfather" to "The Matrix"". Chicago Sun-Times. rogerebert.com.
- Pirelli, Christopher (October 24, 2012). "Inside Cloud Atlas and The Matrix directors Lana and Andy Wachowski's Chicago workshop". Chicago Tribune. chicagotribune.com. Retrieved March 10, 2016.
- "The Matrix Comics: Volume One - EW.com". ew.com. Retrieved October 1, 2016.
- "INTRODUCING BURLYMAN ENTERTAINMENT - NEWSARAMA". archive.org. April 17, 2009. Retrieved October 1, 2016.
- Brady, Matt (2004). "Geof Darrow on Shaolin Cowboy". Newsarama. Archived from the original on May 11, 2008. Retrieved December 28, 2012.
- Brady, Matt (October 2002). "Skroce and The Monster: Steve Skroce on Doc Frankenstein". Newsarama. Archived from the original on April 6, 2005. Retrieved December 28, 2012.
- Hindes, Andrew (April 6, 1999). "Trimark bites into 'Carnivore'". variety.com. Retrieved September 28, 2016.
- Ascher, Rebecca (April 20, 2001). "Reel World: The Wachowski Brothers". EW.com. Retrieved August 25, 2014.
- Dixon, Don; Goldsmith, Jeff; Hewitt, Chris (August 2003). "The twelve best unmade scripts in Hollywood". Empire. No. 170. Bauer Media Group.
- Stax (June 5, 2003). "The Stax Report: Script Review of Plastic Man". IGN. Retrieved August 25, 2014.
- "Vertical Run - PowerGrid". thewrap.com. Retrieved September 30, 2016.
- "tovima.gr - Λάρι και Αντι Γουατσόφσκι". tovima.gr (in Greek). Retrieved September 28, 2016.
- Seifert, Mark (July 13, 2012). "The Hard Boiled Wachowski Movie That Almost Was, The Shaolin Cowboy Movie That Is, And The Darrow/Wachowski SF/Superhero Movie That May Be". Bleeding Cool. Bleedingcool.com.
- Fleming, Michael (November 7, 2000). "Milius to pen, helm WB's 'Conan'". variety.com. Retrieved September 28, 2016.
- Stax (January 20, 2004). "IGN FilmForce Exclusive: The Wachowskis Leave Conan". ign.com. Retrieved September 28, 2016.
- Clary, Jennifer. "Giddy Up with Geof Darrow, Writer of Shaolin Cowboy from Dark Horse". PREVIEWSworld.
- "C2E2 Announces Ten Top Artist Appearances" (Press release). Chicago Comic & Entertainment Expo. January 28, 2010.
- McNary, Dave (April 28, 2009). "Circle of Confusion hires Emery". Variety. variety.com. Retrieved March 10, 2016.
- Bailey, Benjamin (July 26, 2012). "CCI: Geof Darrow Remembers Moebius, Talks Animated "Shaolin Cowboy"". Comic Book Resources.
- "WTF: Secret Wachowski Brothers Futuristic War Movie In Production? - /Film". slashfilm.com. December 7, 2009. Retrieved September 30, 2016.
- "THE WACHOWSKIS ARE NOT SECRETLY SHOOTING THEIR NEXT MOVIE RIGHT NOW". archive.org. December 13, 2009. Retrieved September 30, 2016.
- "Jesse Ventura Also Filmed Role in The Wachowskis' Secret Futuristic War Movie - /Film". slashfilm.com. March 10, 2010. Retrieved September 30, 2016.
- Jr, Mike Fleming (May 14, 2010). "Larry And Andy Wachowski Shop U.S.-Iraqi War Tale With 'Hard R' Gay Love Story". deadline.com. Retrieved September 30, 2016.
- "The Wachowskis Gay Iraq Romance Begins Casting, Has a Title: CN9 - /Film". slashfilm.com. July 13, 2010. Retrieved September 30, 2016.
- Jr, Mike Fleming (August 6, 2010). "NO SCRIPT FOR YOU! Actors Vying For Big Parts Can't Read Full Screenplays Anymore". deadline.com. Retrieved September 30, 2016.
- "We've Got Details on the Wachowskis's Top-Secret Gay Iraq War Romance Cobalt Neural 9". vulture.com. September 22, 2010. Retrieved September 30, 2016.
- Kit, Borys (December 7, 2010). "Exclusive: Wachowskis, Warner Bros. Take Aim With 'Hood'". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on March 11, 2015. Retrieved July 19, 2012.
- Robinson, Tasha (October 25, 2012). "The Wachowskis explain how Cloud Atlas unplugs people from the Matrix | Interview". The A.V. Club. Retrieved December 28, 2012.
- "Andy Wachowski". Yahoo Movies Canada.
- Baim, Tracy (August 3, 2014). "Wachowskis host TransLife Center benefit at film studio". Windy City Times. www.windycitymediagroup.com. Retrieved August 4, 2014.
- "Board of Trustees". Chicago House. Retrieved March 10, 2016.
- DP/30: Cloud Atlas, screenwriter/directors Lana Wachowski, Tom Tykwer, Andy Wachowski. YouTube. Retrieved July 9, 2013.
- "Lana Wachowski on Why She's a Bernie Sanders Supporter (Video)". advocate.com. May 13, 2016. Retrieved September 12, 2016.
- Wise, Damon (May 3, 2008). "Cut and run". The Guardian. London, UK. Retrieved July 19, 2012.
- Chung, Jen (June 5, 2003). "Sex Change for Larry Wachowski?". gothamist.com. Retrieved August 19, 2012.
- Friedman, Roger (September 6, 2007). "No Sex Change for 'Matrix' Director Larry Wachowski". Fox News. Fox News Channel.com.
- Buchanan, Jason. "Larry Wachowski". AllMovie.com (Rovi). Retrieved March 9, 2016.
- Kulish, Nicholas; Cieply, Michael (December 5, 2011). "Around the World in One Movie: Film Financing's Global Future". The New York Times. Retrieved July 19, 2012.
- Fleming, Mike (April 12, 2011). "Focus Features And Tom Hanks Sign on For Wachowski-Directed 'Cloud Atlas'". Deadline.com. Retrieved July 19, 2012.
- Ninemsn Staff (April 28, 2009). "Pictures fuel Matrix sex change rumours". News.ninemsn.com.au. Archived from the original on September 21, 2012. Retrieved July 19, 2012. via web.archive.org
- Doty, Meriah (July 30, 2012). "'Cloud Atlas' directors reveal more than just back story". Yahoo! Movies. Retrieved July 30, 2012.
- Abramovitch, Seth (October 24, 2012). "Lana Wachowski Reveals Suicide Plan, Painful Past in Emotional Speech". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved October 30, 2012.
- THR Staff (October 24, 2012). "Lana Wachowski's HRC Visibility Award Acceptance Speech (Transcript)". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved October 30, 2012.
- "EQIL Honors Chicago Filmmaker Lana Wachowski". equalityillinois.us. Equality Illinois. Retrieved June 15, 2015.
- "Equality Illinois to honor Chicago filmmaker Lana Wachowski". GoPride.com. January 21, 2014. Retrieved March 10, 2016.
- Equality Illinois 2014 Gala — Lana Wachowski Accepts Freedom Award. YouTube. February 21, 2014. Retrieved June 15, 2015.
- Baim, Tracy (March 8, 2016). "Second Wachowski filmmaker sibling comes out as trans". Windy City Times. Archived from the original on March 9, 2016. Retrieved March 9, 2016.
- Los Angeles Times (April 3, 2016). "Lilly Wachowski makes first public appearance at GLAAD Awards since coming out as transgender". latimes.com. Retrieved April 3, 2016.
- Feinberg, Scott (October 17, 2012). "Wachowskis, Tom Tykwer on 'Cloud Atlas,' 'Matrix' Sequels, and Out-of-Line Journalists". The Hollywood Reporter. hollywoodreporter.com. Retrieved March 10, 2016.
- Ike Sato, Yukiyoshi (October 5, 1999). "Hideo Kojima Speaks About The Matrix". GameSpot.com. Archived from the original on March 28, 2013. Retrieved March 10, 2016.
- Martin, Paul (June 14, 2013). "Dave Perry Talks "Enter the Matrix"". MatrixFans.net.
- Martin, Paul (June 14, 2013). "Interview with Gabe Rountree (Animation Director) from Enter the Matrix". MatrixFans.net.
- Accardo, Sal (February 15, 2003). "GameSpy: Dave Perry on Enter The Matrix". Uk.gamespy.com. Retrieved July 9, 2013.
- Reed, Kristan (July 12, 2005). "Enter The Bank Balance". Eurogamer.net.
- Matrix Stratics Staff. "Matrix Stratics — MxOS Exclusive Interview: Collin Chou". Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on May 22, 2009. Retrieved August 6, 2014.
- Feldman, Curt (October 2, 2006). "Atari polishes off Shiny". GameSpot. Retrieved October 1, 2014.
- Chadwick, Paul (April 11, 2005). "The Matrix Online – IGN". Uk.ign.com. Retrieved December 28, 2012.
- "Sin City, V For Vendetta, Ghost Rider, Batman Begins: April 28th Comic Reel Wrap". Comic Book Resources. April 28, 2005. Retrieved December 28, 2012.
- "V for Vendetta Comic-Con Panel". Warner Brothers. Pdl.warnerbros.com. Retrieved December 28, 2012.
- "The BAFTA Interview: Martin Walsh on editing". ideastap.com. Retrieved September 29, 2016.
- Shay, Estelle. "Overview: Dan Glass on V for Vendetta". Cinefex (106): 19.
- "V For Vendetta". mattmueller.co.uk. Retrieved September 29, 2016.
- Frosty (userid) (April 3, 2007). "Was Nicole Kidman's THE INVASION In Trouble |4017". Collider. Collider.com. Archived from the original on May 10, 2007. Retrieved July 24, 2014.
- Lurz, Nathan (May 27, 2014). "Wheaton filmmaker steps into spotlight at Independent Film Showcase". mySuburbanLife.com. Retrieved July 24, 2014.
- "Tranny Fest 2009 program". Sean Dorsey Dance. Seandorseydance.com. Retrieved June 17, 2014.
- Evers, Derek (January 21, 2009). "Antony And The Johnsons – "Epilepsy Is Dancing"". The Fader. Retrieved June 17, 2014.
- Budraitis, Erildas (November 2, 2006). "Matrix Directors Create New Bulls Introductions – RealGM Wiretap". Basketball.realgm.com.
- Marriott, Michel (February 20, 2003). "FROM PROJECTOR TO POLYGONS; A Thin Line Between Film And Joystick". The New York Times. Retrieved December 28, 2012.
- Martin, Paul (December 21, 2012). "Interview with Stuart Roch (Executive Producer) from Enter the Matrix". MatrixFans.net. Retrieved December 28, 2012.
- "Enter The Matrix Video Game". Warner Brothers. enterthematrixgame.com. Archived from the original on April 23, 2009.
- "Enter The Matrix Trailer 2". Shacknews.com. Retrieved July 9, 2013.
- Chadwick, Paul. "Paul Chadwick . Net – The Matrix Online". Paulchadwick.net. Retrieved December 28, 2012.
- "Matrix Online Q&A with Paul Chadwick". Phase9.tv. Retrieved December 28, 2012.
- "The Matrix: Path of Neo for PlayStation 2 (2005) Ad Blurbs". MobyGames. February 21, 2008. Retrieved December 28, 2012.
- Dunham, Jeremy. "Path of Neo: The Matrix Interview – IGN". Uk.ign.com. Retrieved December 28, 2012.
- Lindberg, Eric (August 24, 2010). "Chicago Comic-Con 2010: Geof Darrow – Broken Frontier – Comic Book and Graphic Novel News & Community | Articles and Interviews". Broken Frontier. Retrieved December 28, 2012.
- "Ex Machina, Vol. 2: Tag: Brian K. Vaughan, Tony Harris, The Wachowski brothers: 9781401206260: Amazon.com: Books". Amazon.com.
- Loder, Kurt (January 24, 2006). "This Movie Will Kick Your Ass". MTV.
- Wheeler, Andrew (November 1, 2012). "Rediscovering Comics' Queer History: An Interview with 'No Straight Lines' Editor Justin Hall". Comicsalliance.com.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to:|