|Broadcast area||United Kingdom:
|Slogan||"Discover real music" "The home of the no-repeat guarantee"|
|Frequency||1215 kHz, AM Variants
105.8 MHz (G. London)
DAB – (Digital One)
– 11D (England, Wales & Northern Ireland)
– 12A (Scotland)
Virgin Media: 915
Orbit Network: 127
Usen (Japan): CG3
|First air date||30 April 1993 (Virgin)
29 September 2008 (Absolute)
|Format||Modern adult contemporary|
|Audience share||1.2% (National)
2.3% (London) (December 2012, )
|Sister stations||Absolute Classic Rock
Absolute Radio 60s
Absolute Radio 70s
Absolute Radio 90s
Absolute Radio 00s
Absolute Radio Extra
The station is based in London and plays popular rock music. It currently broadcasts on medium wave and DAB across the UK, on 105.8 FM in London, Sky (channel 0107), Virgin Media (channel 915), Freeview (channel 727) and Freesat (channel 724). It is also available in other parts of the world via satellite, cable, and on the Internet. As of 31 December 2013, international streaming via the internet has been discontinued. Absolute Radio is a patron of The Radio Academy.
- 1 History
- 2 Programming
- 3 Broadcast
- 4 Website and internet broadcasting
- 5 Sister stations
- 5.1 Absolute Classic Rock
- 5.2 Absolute Radio 60s
- 5.3 Absolute Radio 70s
- 5.4 Absolute 80s
- 5.5 Absolute Radio 90s
- 5.6 Absolute Radio 00s
- 5.7 Former spin-off stations
- 6 References
- 7 Bibliography
- 8 External links
1993–1997: Virgin Radio launch and early years
The 1990 Broadcasting Act allowed for the launch of independent national radio (INR) stations in the United Kingdom. The Radio Authority was mandated to award three INR licences, one of which (INR1) had to be for a 'non-pop' station (which was awarded to Classic FM), and one of which had to be for a predominantly speech-based service (this would be advertised later as INR3 and would be awarded to Talk Radio). The remaining licence was to be open to 'all-comers'. The licences were to be awarded to the highest cash bidder, providing that the applicant met criteria set down in the Broadcasting Act.
The second national licence, INR2, would take over the 1197 kHz and 1215 kHz frequencies, which were to be relinquished by BBC Radio 3. The licence was advertised in October 1991 and five organisations bid: the Independent National Broadcasting Company of Sheffield, which bid £4,010,000 per year; a TV-am/Virgin consortium (£1,883,000); Chiltern Radio's 20/20 Radio (£1,311,000); Radio Clyde's Score Radio (£701,000); and a consortium of CLT, Harvey Goldsmith and RTÉ (£211,000). The TV-am/Virgin consortium was awarded the licence in April 1992, after the Radio Authority said that it was not satisfied that Independent National Broadcasting would be able to sustain the service. Later that year, TV-am lost its ITV license and its stake in the radio station was sold in March 1993 to Apax Partners, JP Morgan Investment Corporation and Sir David Frost.
The station launched as Virgin 1215 at 12.15 pm on 30 April 1993. The first song was a cover version of the Steppenwolf song "Born to be Wild", recorded by Australian group INXS. Richard Branson was the first voice to be heard, live from the Virgin Megastore in Manchester, with Richard Skinner the first voice back in the London studios. Skinner was also Programme Director, a role he shared with John Revell. David Campbell, previously managing director of one of Virgin's post-production television companies, was the chief executive at launch.
From before its launch on AM, Virgin Radio was campaigning for a national FM network. Initially, it lobbied for Radio 4's FM network to be made available and then, when the Radio Authority launched a consultation on the use of the 105–108 MHz band, it lobbied for it to be set aside as a national network. The Radio Authority decided, however, that 105–108 MHz would be licensed to new local and regional stations and Virgin Radio applied for and won one of the new FM licences advertised in London as a result.
Virgin Radio launched on 105.8 MHz FM in London on 10 April 1995 beginning with a message from David Frost at 6 am followed by the Russ ‘n’ Jono breakfast show. Part of the licence requirements for the London service meant that a daily London opt-out was broadcast on FM, presented initially by Rowland Rivron.
Within a year, Virgin Group was considering the next steps for the radio station, including the option of a flotation or buying back the shares of JP Morgan, Apax and Sir David Frost. In May 1997, it was announced that Capital Radio had agreed to acquire Virgin Radio in an £87 million deal. Capital's plans included moving Virgin Radio from 1 Golden Square to Capital's Leicester Square building and splitting programming between the AM and FM services. The Radio Authority approved the acquisition, but Nigel Griffiths, the Consumer Affairs Minister, referred the takeover to the Monopolies and Mergers Commission (MMC). The MMC report into the takeover would not be issued until January 1998, and would recommend that the deal could only go ahead if Capital Gold was sold or Virgin's London FM licence was left out of the deal. However, the delay in approval of the Capital acquisition would ultimately lead to the deal not going through.
In January 1997, Chris Evans had left his role as presenter of the Radio 1 breakfast show as a result of a disagreement between him and the programme controller Matthew Bannister (Chris had asked for Fridays off to allow more time for him to work on his Channel 4 television show, TFI Friday). Evans was keen to return to radio. Indeed it was reported that his agent, Michael Foster, had approached Matthew Bannister to ask if Chris would be allowed to be return to Radio 1, and he had gone as far as commencing negotiations to buy Talk Radio.
Richard Branson wanted Evans to work for Virgin Radio, so much so that he joined him on a Concorde flight to New York in order to try to persuade him to join as the drive time presenter. In the end, Virgin Radio hired Evans to present the breakfast show, replacing the incumbent Russ 'n' Jono show (presented by Russ Williams and Jonathan Coleman). His show started on 13 October 1997, the same day that Zoë Ball started as Evans' replacement on Radio 1. The initial contract would only be for ten weeks, until the MMC announced its decision on the Capital Radio takeover. Evans approached David Campbell to discuss buying the radio station and, with Michael Foster's help, they put together a deal to buy the radio station with venture capital supplied by Apax Partners and Paribas, with Virgin Group retaining a 20% stake in the business. The deal was announced on 8 December 1997, and would see the formation of the Ginger Media Group, an umbrella company overseeing Virgin Radio and producing programmes such as TFI Friday.
1998–2000: The Ginger Media Group
Evans' ownership of Virgin Radio started well, with a breakfast show audience increase of 660,000 to 2.2m in his first three months. In August 1998, Chris Evans took a spur of the moment decision one weekend to launch a Saturday afternoon show called Rock 'n' Roll Football, a show that is still broadcast on Absolute Radio. From 5 October 1998, Virgin Radio started simulcasts of the breakfast show on Sky One each morning for an hour between 7.30 and 8.30 am. When a track was played on the radio, viewers would see a video at the same time.
The start of the new football season in August 1999 saw Terry Venables join Russ Williams in a show that would precede Rock 'n' Roll Football. At the end of 1999, in response to the TV programme Who Wants To Be A Millionaire not having given away its top prize, Virgin Radio set a broadcasting first when Clare Barwick won £1 million at the culmination of "Someone’s Going To Be A Millionaire".
The management team at the Ginger Media Group were considering expansion opportunities, including a plan to acquire the Daily Star newspaper from United News & Media, and hire Piers Morgan to edit it. Their plans were stalled, however, when the shareholders got cold feet. Evans wrote in his autobiography that "the management wanted to stick to our original brief of expansion, whereas our investors only cared about extracting the added value."
2000–2008: SMG ownership
The management team therefore set themselves on a strategy to sell the business three years ahead of schedule. They hired Goldman Sachs to run the sale process, and considered a public flotation, before selling to the Scottish Media Group (now STV Group plc) for £225 million in March 2000. The Scottish Media Group, which owned Scottish Television and the Herald newspaper, fought off other bidders including Clear Channel, NRJ and Guardian Media. Evans personally made £75 million out of the sale.
Chief Executive, John Pearson, who had been with the station since before launch, resigned in April 2005, and was replaced by Fru Hazlitt, who had previously been managing director of Yahoo! UK and Ireland.
On 13 June 2006, SMG plc signed a deal with YooMedia to make Virgin Radio available on Freeview. It has always placed a great emphasis on other methods of transmission than medium wave, as the 1215 kHz frequency suffers from considerable interference, particularly after dark – BBC Radio 1, which used 1215 kHz for its first eleven years on air, moved to higher-quality medium wave frequencies (now used by talkSport) in 1978 mainly for this reason.
2008–2013: Acquisition by Times of India and rebranding as Absolute Radio
On 12 April 2007, it was announced that SMG plc were to sell Virgin Radio, to enable the company to focus on its television station, STV. On 30 May 2008 SMG sold Virgin Radio to TIML Golden Square Limited, a subsidiary of The Times Group for £53.2 million with £15 million set aside for rebranding. TIML were given 90 days grace in which to rebrand the station. As part of the deal, Absolute Radio International, which operates two FM licences in Oxford, would manage the station.
On 1 September 2008 it was announced that Virgin Radio would be rebranded as Absolute Radio at the end of the month (28 September). At the same time some changes to the line-up were made known with JK and Joel, Robin Burke, Tony Hadley and John Osborne leaving the station and Allan Lake, Joanna Russell (of Trent FM's Jo & Twiggy) and Tim Shaw joining, though Osborne would return shortly after. However, listening figures revealed for the final quarter of 2008 have revealed that almost one fifth of former Virgin Radio listeners have been lost since the rebranding to Absolute Radio.
2013–present: Acquisition by Bauer Media
On 29 July 2013, Bauer Media Group announced it intended to purchase Absolute from current owner, The Times Group for an amount believed to be between £20m-£25m, pending regulatory approval of the sale. The deal was cleared by the Office of Fair Trading on 23 December.
Audience and playlist
Virgin Radio launched aiming at a target group of 24 to 44-year-olds and with a focus on album music, arguing that "singles chart shows on Radio 1 and local commercial radio were outdated because albums outsold singles by three to one." It would provide a blend of album and chart music from the past 25 years and aim to fill the "hole in the middle" between Radio 1, which was specifically aimed at young audiences and "gold" stations offering classic hits.
A year after launch, David Campbell was quoted as saying that "the music policy was wrong, even though Virgin had lots of research to suggest it was doing what listeners said they wanted. We did something we should never do: pursue critical acclaim, playing obscure tracks, gaining the praise of the music press." The station's approach had been to mix in more familiar music.
Fru Hazlitt, when interviewed for The Guardian in September 2006, described the type of music the station championed: "It's pretty much mainstream rock festival type music. Razorlight, Keane. These bands are becoming some of the biggest in the world."
When announcing the rebrand as Absolute Radio on the One Golden Square blog, Clive Dickens, Chief Operating Officer, noted that the station would be "sticking with real music – not manufactured rubbish – and we’re building on the amount of live music we do – we’re just going to discover more of all of it."
The music policy continues to focus on guitar-based rock, mostly British. In a blog post in February 2009, Head of Music James Curran noted that the twenty-most played artists in the first four months of Absolute Radio had been: Coldplay, Kings of Leon, The Killers, Oasis, U2, Suede, Kaiser Chiefs, Queen, Keane, Stereophonics, Elbow, Bruce Springsteen, R.E.M., Nickelback, The Rolling Stones, The Beatles, David Bowie, The Police and Blur.
Other past presenters on the network include Danny Baker, Simon James and Hill, Robin Banks, Kelly-Anne Smith, Vicki Butler-Henderson, Greg Burns, Robin Burke, Martin Collins, Gary Davies, Daryl Denham, Chris Evans (who also owned the station), Mark Fox, Neil Francis, Alan Freeman, Tony Hadley, Nicky Horne, Janey Lee Grace, Kevin Greening, Gary King, Phil Kennedy, JK and Joel, Jezza (aka Jeremy Kyle), Allan Lake, Iain Lee, Tim Lichfield, Tim Lovejoy, Pete Mitchell, Al Murray, James Merritt, John Osborne, Lynn Parsons, Steve Penk, Vic Reeves, Jo Russell, Holly Samos, Harriet Scott, Tim Shaw, Richard Skinner, Graeme Smith, Suggs, David Tennant, Clive Warren, Sandy Beech, Ray Cokes (MTV), Dave Gorman and many others.
From the 2010–11 season, Absolute Radio began broadcasting live commentary of 32 Premier League games on Saturday afternoons. The matches are broadcast on AM only; the London FM service airs "Rock 'n Roll Football" in place of match output. On DAB, Absolute Radio Extra was established as a part-time opt-out service to carry match commentaries.
Ian Wright joined the station to host a post-match phone-in programme, as well as a regular music show on Absolute Radio 90s and a football podcast.
Virgin Radio and Absolute Radio have broadcast from studios at 1 Golden Square since Virgin Radio's launch in 1993.
The 1215 kHz frequency (247 metres) was used, in selected areas only, by the BBC Light Programme until 1967. It was then used nationally as the original home of BBC Radio 1 until 22 November 1978 and from 23 November 1978 until 28 February 1992 by BBC Radio 3.
In a number of areas, particularly in areas where the signal from the main 1215 transmitters overlap with each other, Absolute Radio operates a number of filler transmitters on different frequencies. Here is a list of the current AM transmitters in use by Absolute Radio:
|Transmitter Name||Coverage||Frequency (kHz)||EMRP (kW)||Grid Reference||Air date|
|Boston||Lincolnshire||1242||2||TF260448||2 September 1994|
|Brighton (Southwick)||Sussex||1197||1.1||TQ234051||9 November 1993|
|Brookmans Park||London, Hertfordshire, Essex, South Bedfordshire||1215||125||TL259050||3 August 1993|
|Chesterton Fen||South and Central Cambridgeshire||1197||0.2||TL477608||2 September 1994|
|Dartford Tunnel||Dartford Tunnel||1215||0.004||TQ571769||8 March 1993|
|Droitwich||West Midlands||1215||105||SO929663||8 March 1993|
|Fareham||South Hampshire and Isle of Wight||1215||1||SU546058||9 March 1993|
|Fern Barrow||Dorset||1197||0.25||SZ070926||11 March 1993|
|Gloucester||Gloucestershire||1197||0.3||SO841230||14 March 1993|
|Greenside Scalp||East Tayside||1242||0.5||NO431290||9 March 1993|
|Guildford (Pirbright)||West Surrey and North East Hampshire||1260||0.5||SU959541||24 December 1993|
|Hoo||North and West Kent, South and Central Essex||1197||2||TQ790720||15 March 1993|
|Hull||Humberside||1215||0.32||TA169258||15 March 1993|
|Kings Heath||Northamptonshire||1233||0.5||SP740633||7 November 1993|
|Lisnagarvey||Northern Ireland||1215||16||IJ258619||8 March 1993|
|Lydd||South East Kent and South East Sussex||1260||2||TR049208||2 April 1995|
|Manningtree||South East Suffolk and North East Essex||1233||0.5||TM123295||6 November 1993|
|Moorside Edge||North West and Yorkshire||1215||200||SE070154||8 March 1993|
|Oxford||Oxfordshire||1197||0.25||SP567105||12 March 1993|
|Plymouth||Devon||1215||1.1||SX490585||15 March 1993|
|Postwick||East Norfolk and North East Suffolk||1215||1.2||TG303086||16 March 1993|
|Reading (Manor Farm)||Berkshire||1233||0.16||SU710709||3 November 1993|
|Redmoss||Aberdeen and East Grampian||1215||2.3||NJ942024||25 March 1993|
|Redruth||Cornwall||1215||2||SW709403||28 July 1997|
|Sheffield||South Yorkshire||1233||0.3||SK348849||6 November 1993|
|Sideway||Staffordshire||1242||0.5||SJ876434||9 July 1993|
|Stockton||Cleveland||1242||1||NZ420218||15 March 1993|
|Swindon||Wiltshire||1233||0.1||SU129859||11 November 1993|
|Torbay||Devon||1197||1||SX878630||19 March 1993|
|Trowell||Nottinghamshire||1197||0.5||SK506398||27 March 1993|
|Wallasey||Merseyside||1197||0.4||SJ305926||27 March 1993|
|Washford||South Wales, Avon, Somerset||1215||100||ST058410||11 March 1993|
|Westerglen||Central Scotland||1215||100||NS868773||10 March 1993|
|Wrekenton||Tyne and Wear||1215||2.2||NZ274598||18 March 1993|
In the summer of 1993, Virgin Radio began broadcasting in stereo on the Astra 1A satellite on an audio sub-carrier of the Sky News channel. This service ceased on 1 July 2001 in anticipation of Sky's cessation of its analogue satellite service. Virgin Radio was one of the first twenty radio stations which joined the Sky Digital service on 20 November 1999. Carried on Astra 2A, it launched on the channel 917 of the Sky EPG, and can today be found as Absolute Radio on channel 0107.
Website and internet broadcasting
Virgin Radio launched its first website on 7 March 1996. Designed by AKQA, it hosted a live RealAudio stream, making it the first European radio station to stream 24-hours a day on the internet. The station went onto redesign the website a further six times as Virgin Radio. Streaming audio formats and presentation developed over time: QuickTime streaming was added in July 1999, an interactive media player launched in October 1999, an Ogg-Vorbis stream was launched in June 2003, and HE-AAC and Ogg-FLAC streams were launched in December 2009.
In 2001, Virgin Radio joined the Measurecast and Arbitron internet broadcasting measurement services. Both measurement services have since closed. In 2009, Absolute Radio started publishing its internet listening and download statistics.
Virgin Radio was also among the first to explore the opportunities for delivering its services to mobile phones. It took part in a joint venture with Ericsson in 1999 to investigate the use of third-generation mobile phone technologies for radio, launched a WAP site in 2000 and took part in a trial in 2001 with Crown Castle and Manx Telecom to explore the use of 3G phones to add interactivity to digital radio broadcasts. In 2009, Absolute Radio launched an application for the Apple iPhone and tagging for the Apple iPod Nano. In 2010 applications were released for the Amazon Kindle, the Nokia Ovi Store, the BlackBerry and Windows Phone 7 and Absolute Radio was selected as a launch partner for the Apple iAd mobile advertising network.
In January 2014, Absolute Radio Network has restricted the internet radio to UK listeners only, and removed their apps for iPhone and Android in non-UK app stores.
A number of subsidiary stations to Virgin Radio and Absolute Radio have been launched as online and digital radio services over recent years, many being established during the period when SMG plc was in charge of the station. The stations were collectively known as the Virgin Radio Network (now the Absolute Radio Network). All 'Absolute' branded channels broadcast on DAB, the Internet, and digital television platforms; they are also now available as smartphone apps. The line-up of stations within the network has changed over time, and those currently on air are:
Absolute Classic Rock
A radio station on DAB, Virgin Media, Sky and the Internet playing classic rock from the sixties to the nineties. Launched as Virgin Radio Classic Rock in 2000 and rebranded as Absolute Classic Rock in 2008.
Absolute Radio 60s
Launched on 22 November 2011, Absolute 60s is the sixth radio station launched under the Absolute branding. The station is broadcast on DAB, some digital television networks, and online. The station has defined itself as "the home of the Beatles, Stones and Mo-Town". With The Beatles and The Rolling Stones as highlights of the station's broadcasts, this will focus on music originating from the 1960s. Pete Mitchell is the main daytime presenter, returning to Golden Square: he was last on Virgin Radio in 2005 hosting the Breakfast show with Geoff Lloyd.
Absolute Radio 70s
Launched on 29 November 2011, Absolute 70s is the seventh radio station launched under the Absolute branding. The station is broadcast on DAB and online. With Rod Stewart, David Bowie and Prince as highlights of the station's broadcast, this will focus on music originating from the 1970s. Richard Skinner, another previous DJ from the Virgin Radio days, will also return to Golden Square to feature on this station.
A radio station on DAB, Freesat, Sky, Virgin Media and the Internet which plays classic hits, and is aimed at "reluctant adults" who want to reconnect with the tunes of their youth. Absolute 80s was launched on 4 December 2009.
Absolute Radio 90s
Absolute Radio 90s launched on 21 June 2010 on DAB to a 13m population in London, Esssex, Wiltshire, Bristol, Berkshire and Bath. The station is also available on Sky 0203 and online via website and mobile smartphones.
Absolute Radio 00s
Former spin-off stations
dabbl was a user-controlled music radio station broadcast on the Internet and selected local DAB multiplexes 24 hours a day, and on DAB in London from 7 pm to 6 am daily. Its content was chosen by members of Absolute's VIP Service, who select songs which are then voted for. Songs with the most votes are then broadcast. dabbl has now ceased, its DAB slots outside London taken by Absolute Radio 90s.
Virgin Radio Groove
A radio station on DAB, Virgin Media, Sky and the Internet which played motown, soul and disco music. Originally named The Groove, it was rebranded as a Virgin Radio station in 2004 and closed at the end of 2007.
Liquid was a station playing indie, alternative and Britpop. It ran on DAB in London between 2000 and 2004, with its slot taken by Virgin Radio Classic Rock (now Absolute Classic Rock).
Virgin Radio Party Classics
Launched on 15 June 2006, Virgin Radio Party Classics played party pop music. The radio station was based on Suggs' Virgin Party Classics show broadcast on Virgin Radio. The station, which broadcast on Sky Digital and online, closed down on Friday 13 October 2006.
A radio station on DAB, Virgin Media, Sky and the Internet, playing new music. Absolute Xtreme was launched (as Virgin Radio Xtreme) on 5 September 2005, by Lali Parikh (Station Manager) with Steve Harris being the main on air talent. On 4 December 2009, Absolute Xtreme was replaced on DAB and digital TV by Absolute 80s.
Virgin Radio Viva (cancelled)
Virgin Radio Viva, which was due to launch on the new 4 Digital Group platform (which ultimately never launched), was due to be a popular music station aimed at 15- to 29-year-old women. It will now not go ahead.
- Listening Figures – Quarterly Listening RAJAR
- Parry, Caroline (18 September 2008). "Absolute Radio signs exclusive Sony Ericsson ad deal". Marketing Week. Retrieved 18 September 2008.
- Barnett, Emma (1 September 2008). "Plans revealed to rebrand Virgin Radio as Absolute". Brand Republic. Archived from the original on 7 September 2008. Retrieved 1 September 2008.
- "International Streaming FAQs". Absolute Radio. Retrieved 1 January 2014.
- "Patrons" The Radio Academy
- "Broadcasting Act 1990". London: HMSO. Archived from the original on 20 May 2011. Retrieved 2 May 2011.
- "Fact Sheet 3: The Radio Authority: Its licences and licensing procedures". London: Radio Authority. Archived from the original on 5 June 2011. Retrieved 2 May 2011.
- Linton, Martin (5 February 1992). "Pop hopefuls go under the hammer and over the top". The Guardian (London). p. 3. Retrieved 2 May 2011.
- "Radio Authority consults on INR opt-outs". London: Radio Authority. Retrieved 2 May 2011.
- Henry, Georgina (3 April 1992). "TV-am and Virgin awarded pop radio franchise". The Guardian (London). p. 2. Retrieved 2 May 2011.
- Hosking, Patrick (2 December 1992). "TV-am gives up hunt for a new business". The Independent (London). Retrieved 8 May 2011.
- Culf, Andrew (19 April 1993). "Sing-along-a-Branson". The Guardian (London). p. 22. Retrieved 8 May 2011.
- Hosking, Patrick (29 April 1993). "Branson takes to the airwaves: Hopes are high as Virgin Radio begins broadcasting.". The Independent (London). Retrieved 8 May 2011.
- Bell, Emily (13 April 1997). "Branson to buy back radio shares". The Observer (London). p. 37. Retrieved 29 May 2009.
- Karpf, Anne (1 May 1993). "Born to be wild, Branson records personal history". The Guardian (London). p. 5. Retrieved 2 May 2011.
- Lister, David (6 January 1993). "Virgin puts emphasis on albums". The Independent (London). Retrieved 8 May 2011.
- Campbell, David (27 March 1994). "My Biggest Mistake". The Independent (London). Retrieved 8 May 2011.
- Culf, Andrew (29 April 1993). "Virgin pushes for Radio 4's FM slot". The Guardian (London). p. 7. Retrieved 8 May 2011.
- Brown, Maggie (9 February 1994). "Listeners are asked to choose radio service: Authority seeks opinion on FM frequencies available in 1996". The Independent (London). Retrieved 8 May 2011.
- Culf, Andrew (9 February 1994). "Branson begins crusade to gain FM frequency for Virgin Radio". The Guardian (London). p. 8. Retrieved 8 May 2011.
- Brown, Maggie (25 May 1994). "Channel 4 presses for break with ITV". The Independent (London). Retrieved 8 May 2011.
- Culf, Andrew (29 June 1994). "41 fight for London radio licences". The Guardian (London). p. 5. Retrieved 8 May 2011.
- Williams, Rhys (8 October 1994). "Virgin wins one of six new slots on London's airwaves". The Independent (London). Retrieved 8 May 2011.
- Culf, Andrew (10 April 1995). "Wave of restricted radio hits peak". The Guardian (London). p. 7. Retrieved 24 May 2009.
- Bowie, Adam (26 September 2008). "A Brief History of Virgin Radio". Archived from the original on 8 May 2011. Retrieved 8 May 2011.
- "Virgin Radio considers flotation". The Independent (London). 13 February 1996. Retrieved 29 May 2011.
- Finch, Julia (7 May 1997). "Capital buys its rival Virgin as it prepares to challenge Radio 1". The Guardian (London). p. 19. Retrieved 29 May 2011.
- Newman, Cathy (7 May 1997). "Capital acquires Virgin Radio". The Independent (London). Retrieved 29 May 2011.
- "Capital gets go-ahead to buy Virgin Radio". The Independent (London). 18 July 1997. Retrieved 29 May 2011.
- Finch, Julia (1 August 1997). "Virgin Radio sale hits MMC snag". The Guardian (London). p. 19. Retrieved 29 May 2011.
- Barrie, Chris (14 January 1998). "Capital dealt blow to big ambitions as monopolies body bites". The Guardian (London). p. 19. Retrieved 29 May 2011.
- Evans 2009, p. 254-258.
- Culf, Andrew (21 January 1997). "Evans severs Radio 1 links after failing to present breakfast show". The Guardian (London). p. 5. Retrieved 29 May 2011.
- Evans 2009, p. 278-284.
- Mulholland, John (13 October 1997). "Evans wanted Radio 1 show back". The Guardian (London). p. 1. Retrieved 29 May 2011.
- Evans 2009, p. 283-284.
- Evans 2009, p. 265-275.
- Ahmed, Kamal (4 October 1997). "Branson woos Evans to Virgin's breakfast slot". The Guardian (London). p. 2. Retrieved 29 May 2011.
- Evans 2009, p. 287-289.
- Evans 2009, p. 290-317.
- "Chris Evans takes over at Virgin Radio". BBC News (London). 9 December 1997. Retrieved 29 May 2011.
- Beavis, Simon; Barrie, Chris (9 December 1997). "BBC faces new onslaught as Evans snatches Virgin Radio". The Guardian (London). p. 2. Retrieved 29 May 2011.
- McCann, Paul (7 February 1998). "Evans claims victory in breakfast war". The Independent (London). Retrieved 29 May 2011.
- Evans 2010.
- Lacey, Hester (4 October 1998). "A bumper breakfast, with ulcers". The Independent (London). Retrieved 29 May 2011.
- "£1m richer with thanks to George Eliot". The Guardian (London). 18 December 1999. p. 2.
- Finch, Julia (20 August 1999). "Evans ponders float for Ginger". The Guardian (London). p. 31. Retrieved 30 May 2011.
- "Evans sells up". BBC News (London). 13 January 2000. Retrieved 29 May 2011.
- "Virgin axes DJ Evans". BBC News. 28 June 2001. Retrieved 27 November 2007.
- Reece, Damian (13 October 2004). "Pearson quits as chief of SMG radio, leaving Virgin Radio rudderless". The Independent (London). Retrieved 1 June 2011.
- Shah, Saeed (19 April 2005). "Virgin Radio hires chief executive to fend off unwanted bidders". The Independent (London). Retrieved 1 June 2011.
- Holmwood, Leigh (12 April 2007). "SMG strategy was 'flawed'". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 9 December 2007. Retrieved 27 November 2007.
- Andrews, Amanda (30 May 2008). "Virgin Radio is sold to Absolute for £53.2m". The Times (London). Retrieved 30 May 2008.
- "Virgin Radio sold for £53million". Radio Today. 30 May 2008. Archived from the original on 31 May 2008. Retrieved 30 May 2008.
- "Listeners' Questions about Absolute Radio". Virgin Radio. 1 September 2008. Retrieved 3 May 2011.
- Commercial radio's share dips in Q4 2008 Brand Republic, 29 January 2009
- O'Carroll, Lisa (29 July 2013). "Bauer Media buys Absolute Radio". The Guardian. Retrieved 4 October 2013.
- Martin, Roy (23 December 2013). "OFT clears Bauer's Absolute Radio deal". Radio Today. Retrieved 30 December 2013.
- Wroe, Martin (7 April 1993). "Virgin flies the flag on the airwaves: Richard Branson's new station looks set to stir things up in radio". The Independent (London). Retrieved 30 May 2011.
- Brooks, Richard (21 February 1993). "Off Air". The Observer (London). p. 65. Retrieved 30 May 2011.
- Culf, Andrew (20 January 1993). "Virgin aims shows at 'hole in middle' of radio market". The Guardian (London). p. 7. Retrieved 30 May 2011.
- Brown, Maggie (27 April 1994). "Rock station that is finally on a roll: The wrong music policy and poor reception gave Virgin a shaky first year". The Independent (London). Retrieved 30 May 2011.
- Gibson, Owen (25 September 2006). "Tuned in to Virgin". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 13 November 2007. Retrieved 27 November 2007.
- Dickens, Clive (2 September 2008). "Absolute Clarity". Retrieved 30 May 2011.
- Curran, James (4 February 2009). "Listen to the Music". Retrieved 30 May 2011.
- Plunkett, John (11 February 2010). "Absolute Radio snaps up rights to Premier League football commentary". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 13 February 2010. Retrieved 13 February 2010.
- Scott, Robin (8 June 1968). "The British Radio Scene: A Special Report". Billboard 80 (23): 43. ISSN 00062510. Retrieved 30 May 2011.
- McCarthy, Clive (28 May 2007). "Development of the BBC A.M. Transmitter Network". Retrieved 30 May 2011.
- "Tech Parameters". London: Radio Authority. 2003. Archived from the original on 25 May 2011. Retrieved 30 May 2011.
- "Frequency Finder UK and Ireland". Retrieved 30 May 2011.
- The Transmission Gallery: Boston, retrieved 30 May 2011
- The Transmission Gallery: Brighton (Southwick), retrieved 30 May 2011
- The Transmission Gallery: Brookmans Park, retrieved 30 May 2011
- The Transmission Gallery: Chesterton Fen, archived from the original on 16 May 2011, retrieved 30 May 2011
- The Transmission Gallery: Droitwich, retrieved 30 May 2011
- The Transmission Gallery: Fareham, retrieved 30 May 2011
- The Transmission Gallery: Fern Barrow, retrieved 30 May 2011
- The Transmission Gallery: Gloucester MF, retrieved 30 May 2011
- The Transmission Gallery: Greenside Scalp, retrieved 30 May 2011
- The Transmission Gallery: Guildford MF, retrieved 30 May 2011
- The Transmission Gallery: Hoo, retrieved 30 May 2011
- The Transmission Gallery: Hull MF, archived from the original on 14 June 2011, retrieved 30 May 2011
- The Transmission Gallery: Kings Heath, retrieved 30 May 2011
- The Transmission Gallery: Lisnagarvey, archived from the original on 14 June 2011, retrieved 30 May 2011
- The Transmission Gallery: Lydd, retrieved 30 May 2011
- The Transmission Gallery: Manningtree, retrieved 30 May 2011
- The Transmission Gallery: Moorside Edge, retrieved 30 May 2011
- The Transmission Gallery: Oxford, archived from the original on 16 May 2011, retrieved 30 May 2011
- The Transmission Gallery: Plymouth MF, archived from the original on 16 May 2011, retrieved 30 May 2011
- The Transmission Gallery: Postwick, archived from the original on 16 May 2011, retrieved 30 May 2011
- The Transmission Gallery: Manor Farm (Reading MF), retrieved 30 May 2011
- The Transmission Gallery: Redmoss, retrieved 30 May 2011
- The Transmission Gallery: Redruth MF, retrieved 30 May 2011
- The Transmission Gallery: Sheffield MF, retrieved 30 May 2011
- The Transmission Gallery: Sideway, archived from the original on 16 May 2011, retrieved 30 May 2011
- The Transmission Gallery: Stockton, retrieved 30 May 2011
- The Transmission Gallery: Swindon, retrieved 30 May 2011
- The Transmission Gallery: Occombe (Torbay MF), retrieved 30 May 2011
- The Transmission Gallery: Trowell, retrieved 30 May 2011
- The Transmission Gallery: Wallasey, retrieved 30 May 2011
- The Transmission Gallery: Washford MF, retrieved 30 May 2011
- The Transmission Gallery: Westerglen, archived from the original on 14 June 2011, retrieved 30 May 2011
- The Transmission Gallery: Wrekenton, retrieved 30 May 2011
- Hebditch, Stephen (August 1993). "Satellite Radio". AM/FM (TQM Communications). Retrieved 7 May 2011.
- Matthias Zepf (28 October 1993). "Astra, Radioprogramme". de.etc.lists. Web link. Retrieved 7 May 2011.
- "FAQs". Virgin Radio. Virgin Radio Ltd. 4 July 2001. Archived from the original on 18 August 2001. Retrieved 7 May 2011.
- Aston, Steve (28 October 1999). "BSkyB ready to air digital radio". Media Week. Retrieved 7 May 2011.
- Gary Tuppeny (12 November 1999). "BBC now on Astra 2A". alt.satellite.tv.europe. Web link. Retrieved 7 May 2011.
- "Frequencies". Virgin Radio. Virgin Radio Ltd. January 2000. Archived from the original on 21 June 2000. Retrieved 7 May 2011.
- "Website history". Virgin Radio. Virgin Radio Ltd. Archived from the original on 17 May 2008. Retrieved 30 May 2011.
- Waldman, Simon (18 March 1996). "Virgin Radio via the net". The Guardian (London). p. 36. Retrieved 30 May 2011.
- Bowen, David (15 December 1996). "Young, gifted and rich". The Independent (London). Retrieved 30 May 2011.
- Matthew, Ben (18 December 2009). "More streaming options…". Retrieved 30 May 2011.
- "mediamazing.com takes number one sport in MeasureCast top 25 internet radio stations list" (Press release). MeasureCast, Inc. 13 March 2001. Archived from the original on 8 April 2001. "Britain's Virgin Radio Debuts in Number Three Position"
- "Virgin Radio Joins Arbitron InfoStream Service" (Press release). Arbitron. 11 April 2001. Archived from the original on 16 August 2000.
- Bowie, Adam (23 October 2009). "Internet Radio Stats". Retrieved 30 May 2011.
- Bannister, Nicholas (13 August 1999). "Mobiles replace radio dials". The Guardian (London). p. 21. Retrieved 30 May 2011.
- "WAP's new". The Guardian (London). 9 March 2000. p. 71. Retrieved 30 May 2011.
- "World First for Virgin Radio, Manx Telecom and Crown Castle" (Press release). Crown Castle International. 11 October 2000. Archived from the original on 19 April 2001.
- Amey, Duncan (27 March 2009). "Attention: iPhone and iPod Touch Owners!". Retrieved 30 May 2011.
- Wallder, Carrie (26 November 2009). "Christian O’Connell brings brand new iTunes tagging service to listeners". Retrieved 30 May 201.
- Brown, Paul (1 February 2010). "Absolute Radio becomes first European radio station on Amazon’s Kindle". Retrieved 30 May 2011.
- Thornton, Dan (1 February 2010). "Six new apps in one day". Retrieved 30 May 2011.
- Brown, Paul (1 February 2010). "Absolute Radio App now available for Windows Phone 7". Retrieved 30 May 2011.
- "Apple’s iAd Coming to Europe in December" (Press release). Apple Inc. 18 November 2010. Archived from the original on 21 May 2011. Retrieved 30 May 2011.
- "International Streaming FAQ's - Absolute Radio". Absolute Radio. 1 January 2014. Retrieved 8 February 2014.
- Plunkett, John (29 November 2010). "Absolute Radio launches noughties-only station". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 6 May 2011.
- DAB Ensembles Worldwide: London, 13 April 2011, archived from the original on 6 May 2011, retrieved 6 May 2011
- "Virgin Radio cuts back digital operation". VirginRadioWorld.com. November 2007. Archived from the original on 21 November 2007. Retrieved 27 November 2007.
- Evans, Chris (2009). It's not what you think. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-00-732723-2.
- Evans, Chris (2010). Memoirs of a Fruitcake. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-00-734568-7.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Absolute Radio.|
- Absolute Radio YouTube channel
- Absolute Radio Last.fm page, showing a complete listing of most tracks played
- Absolute Radio Player
- The Launch of Absolute Radio Absolute Radio, 29 September 2008
- Virgin Radio International
- The launch of Virgin 1215 (audio file) Interval Signals Online
- The Radio Academy