FTSE 100 Index
|FTSE 100 Index|
|FTSE 100 Index performance between 1984 and 2012|
|Exchanges||London Stock Exchange|
|Market cap||£1,549 billion
(as at 30 April 2012)
|Website||FTSE UK Index Series|
The FTSE 100 Index, also called FTSE 100, FTSE, or, informally, the "footsie" //, is a share index of the 100 companies listed on the London Stock Exchange with the highest market capitalization. It is one of the most widely used stock indices and is seen as a gauge of business prosperity for business regulated by UK company law. The index is maintained by the FTSE Group, a subsidiary of the London Stock Exchange Group.
The index began on 3 January 1984 at the base level of 1000; the highest value reached to date is 6950.6, on 30 December 1999. After falling during the financial crisis of 2007-2010 to below 3500 in March 2009, the index recovered to a peak of 6091.33 on 8 February 2011, fell under the 5000 mark on the morning of 23 September 2011, but reached 6,840.27 (its highest since September 2000) on 22 May 2013.
The index is maintained by the FTSE Group, a now wholly owned subsidiary of the London Stock Exchange which originated as a joint venture between the Financial Times and the London Stock Exchange. It is calculated in real time and published every 15 seconds when the market is open.
The FTSE 100 consists of the largest 100 qualifying UK companies by full market value. The constituents of the index are determined quarterly, on the Wednesday after the first Friday of the month in March, June, September and December. The values used to make the changes to the indices are taken at the close of business the night before the review.
FTSE 100 companies represent about 81% of the entire market capitalisation of the London Stock Exchange. Even though the FTSE All-Share Index is more comprehensive, the FTSE 100 is by far the most widely used UK stock market indicator. Other related indices are the FTSE 250 Index (which includes the next largest 250 companies after the FTSE 100), the FTSE 350 Index (which is the aggregation of the FTSE 100 and 250), FTSE SmallCap Index and FTSE Fledgling Index. The FTSE All-Share aggregates the FTSE 100, FTSE 250 and FTSE SmallCap.
Component companies must meet a number of requirements set out by the FTSE Group, including having a full listing on the London Stock Exchange with a Sterling or Euro denominated price on the Stock Exchange Electronic Trading Service, and meeting certain tests on nationality, free float, and liquidity.
Continuous trading on the London Stock Exchange starts at 08:00 and ends at 16:30 (when the closing auction starts), and closing values are taken at 16:35.
In the FTSE indices, share prices are weighted by market capitalisation, so that the larger companies make more of a difference to the index than smaller companies. The basic formula for these indices is:
The Free float Adjustment factor represents the percentage of all issued shares that are readily available for trading. The factor is then rounded up to the nearest multiple of 5%. To find the free-float capitalisation of a company, first find its market cap (number of shares x share price) then multiply by its free-float factor. Free-float capitalisation, therefore, does not include restricted stocks, such as those held by company insiders.
Constituents by market capitalisation as of 5 March 2013
The following table lists the FTSE 100 companies measured by market capitalisation as of 5 March 2013. The numbers of employees are taken from company reports, mostly dated between 2011 and 2012. The index consists of 100 companies, but there are 101 listings, as Royal Dutch Shell has both A and B class shares listed. Schroders Non Voting shares were also listed until 1 June 2012 when the FTSE's stricter rules came into force.
|Company||Sector||Market cap (£bn)||Employees|
|Royal Dutch Shell||Oil and gas||135||90,000|
|BP||Oil and gas||85||97,700|
|British American Tobacco||Tobacco||69||87,813|
|Rio Tinto Group||Mining||48||67,930|
|BG Group||Oil and gas||49||6,625|
|Lloyds Banking Group||Banking||36||120,449|
|Reckitt Benckiser||Consumer goods||32||32,000|
|National Grid plc||Energy||26||27,000|
|Anglo American plc||Mining||26||100,000|
|Imperial Tobacco Group||Tobacco||24||38,200|
|Royal Bank of Scotland Group||Banking||18||150,000|
|Associated British Foods||Food||14||102,000|
|Tullow Oil||Oil and gas||11.2||890|
|CRH plc||Building materials||10.9||76,433|
|Legal & General||Insurance||9.5||9,324|
|Wolseley plc||Building materials||9.1||44,000|
|Standard Life||Fund management||8.8||10,500|
|Next plc||Retail clothing||6.9||58,706|
|Kingfisher plc||Retail homeware||6.7||80,000|
|Land Securities Group||Property||6.6||700|
|J Sainsbury plc||Supermarket||6.5||150,000|
|Smith & Nephew||Medical||6.4||11,000|
|Marks & Spencer Group||Retailer||5.9||81,223|
|InterContinental Hotels Group||Hotels||5.7||345,000|
|Intertek Group||Product testing||5.5||33,000|
|British Land Co||Property||5.1||177|
|Petrofac||Oil and gas||5.1||18,200|
|Aberdeen Asset Management||Fund management||4.9||1,800|
|International Consolidated Airlines Group SA||Transport air||4.5||58,476|
|Eurasian Natural Resources||Mining||4.3||72,000|
|RSA Insurance Group||Insurance||4.2||21,000|
|Tate & Lyle||Food||3.9||5,616|
|Serco Group||Outsourced services||3.1||100,000|
|Wood Group||Oil and gas||0.8||41,000|
|Kazakhmys||Oil and gas||0.5||61,000|
|Intu Properties||Property services||0.3||600|
The current constituents following the changes of 23 September 2013 are as follows:
- 3i Group (market capitalisation fell too low)
- Abbey Life (became subsidiary of Lloyds TSB in 1996, then sold to Deutsche Bank in 2007)
- Abbey National (acquired by Banco Santander Central Hispano, now part of its Santander UK subsidiary)
- African Barrick Gold (market capitalisation fell too low)
- Alliance & Leicester (acquired by Banco Santander Central Hispano, now part of its Santander UK subsidiary)
- Alliance Boots (acquired by private equity fund controlled by Kohlberg Kravis Roberts)
- Alliance Trust (market capitalisation fell too low)
- Allied Domecq (acquired by Pernod Ricard)
- Allied Zurich (dual holding company along with Zurich Allied, companies unified in 2000 to form Zurich Financial Services)
- Amersham (acquired by GE, now part of its GE Healthcare division)
- Amstrad (acquired by British Sky Broadcasting)
- Argos (acquired by GUS and now owned by Home Retail Group)
- Argyll Group (renamed Safeway in 1996, then taken over by Morrisons in 2004)
- Arjo Wiggins Appleton (acquired by Worms & Cie)
- ASDA Group (acquired by Wal-Mart)
- BAA (acquired by Ferrovial)
- Balfour Beatty (market capitalisation fell too low)
- Baltimore Technologies (acquired by Oryx International Growth Fund)
- Bank of Scotland (merged with Halifax to form HBOS, now part of the Lloyds Banking Group)
- Barratt Developments (market capitalisation fell too low)
- Bass (became Six Continents and then InterContinental Hotels Group)
- Beecham Group (merged with SmithKline and then with Glaxo to become GlaxoSmithKline)
- Berisford (renamed Enodis, subsequently acquired by The Manitowoc Company)
- BET, formerly British Electric Traction (acquired by Rentokil, now Rentokil Initial)
- BICC (renamed Balfour Beatty)
- Blue Arrow (acquired by Corporate Services Group)
- Blue Circle Industries (acquired by Lafarge)
- BOC (acquired by The Linde Group)
- Bowater (renamed Rexam)
- Bookham Technology (remamed Oclaro and now traded on Nasdaq)
- BPB Industries (acquired by Saint-Gobain)
- Bradford & Bingley (branch network acquired by Banco Santander Central Hispano, now part of its Santander UK subsidiary; loans book nationalised)
- Brambles Industries (now only listed on the Australian Securities Exchange)
- British Aerospace (merged with Marconi Electronic Systems to form BAE Systems)
- British Airways (merged with Iberia to form International Airlines Group)
- British Home Stores (acquired by Storehouse and then sold to Philip Green)
- British Steel (merged with Koninklijke Hoogovens N.V. to become Corus Group, itself now part of Tata Steel)
- British & Commonwealth (collapsed in 1990)
- Britoil (acquired by BP)
- BTR (merged with Siebe to form BTR Siebe, subsequently renamed Invensys)
- Burmah Oil (renamed Burmah Castrol and acquired by BP)
- Burton Group (renamed Arcadia and acquired by Philip Green)
- Cable & Wireless Worldwide (market capitalisation fell too low)
- Cadbury (acquired by Kraft Foods)
- Cairn Energy (market capitalisation fell too low)
- Carlton Communications (merged with Granada to form ITV)
- Carphone Warehouse Group (market capitalisation fell too low)
- Celltech (acquired by UCB in 2004)
- CMG (merged with Logica to form LogicaCMG)
- Coats Viyella (acquired by Guinness Peat Group and renamed Coats)
- Cobham (market capitalisation fell too low)
- COLT Telecom Group (market capitalisation fell too low)
- Commercial Union Assurance (merged with General Accident to form CGU, itself now part of Aviva)
- Consolidated Gold Fields (acquired by Hanson)
- Cookson Group (market capitalisation fell too low)
- Corus Group (acquired by Tata Steel, now forming its Tata Steel Europe division)
- Courtaulds (demerged into two businesses acquired by Sara Lee and Akzo Nobel)
- Daily Mail and General Trust (market capitalisation fell too low)
- Dalgety (renamed PIC International and then Sygen International and subsequently acquired by Genus)
- Debenhams (market capitalisation fell too low)
- De La Rue (market capitalisation fell too low)
- Dimension Data Holdings (market capitalisation fell too low, subsequently acquired by Nippon Telegraph and Telephone)
- Distillers (acquired by Guinness and now part of Diageo)
- Dixons Group (renamed to DSG International and then Dixons Retail; market capitalisation also fell too low)
- Dowty Group (acquired by TI Group, itself now part of Smiths Group)
- DSG International (renamed Dixons Retail; market capitalisation also fell too low)
- Eagle Star (acquired by BAT Industries and then demerged as part of Zurich Financial Services)
- Eastern Group (acquired by Texas Utilities and then Powergen, now part of E.ON UK)
- ECC Group (acquired by Imetal)
- Edinburgh Investment Trust (market capitalisation fell too low)
- Electrocomponents (market capitalisation fell too low)
- EMAP (acquired by Apax and the Guardian Media Group)
- EMI Group (acquired by Terra Firma Capital Partners, now owned by Citigroup)
- Energis (acquired by Cable and Wireless)
- English China Clays (acquired by Imetal)
- Enterprise Inns (market capitalisation fell too low)
- Enterprise Oil (acquired by Royal Dutch Shell)
- Essar Energy (market capitalisation fell too low)
- Eurasian Natural Resources Corporation (market capitalisation fell too low)
- Eurotunnel (market capitalisation fell too low)
- Evraz (market capitalisation fell too low)
- Exco International (acquired by British & Commonwealth Holdings)
- Exel (acquired by Deutsche Post)
- Ferranti International (collapsed in 1993)
- Ferrexpo (market capitalisation fell too low)
- FirstGroup (market capitalisation fell too low)
- Fisons (acquired by Rhone-Poulenc Rorer, now Sanofi-Aventis)
- Foreign & Colonial Investment Trust (market capitalisation fell too low)
- Forte (acquired by Granada, now ITV)
- Freeserve (acquired by France Télécom, now Orange)
- Friends Provident (acquired by Resolution Limited)
- Gallaher Group (acquired by Japan Tobacco)
- Gateway Corporation (renamed Somerfield, subsequently acquired by The Co-operative Group)
- GEC, formerly General Electric Company (renamed Marconi and then Telent)
- General Accident (merged with Commercial Union to form CGU, itself now part of Aviva)
- George Wimpey (merged with Taylor Woodrow to form Taylor Wimpey)
- Glaxo Wellcome (merged with SmithKline Beecham to form GlaxoSmithKline)
- Globe Investment Trust (acquired by British Coal Pension Fund)
- Granada Compass (split in 2001 to leave Granada and Compass Group)
- Granada (merged with Carlton Communications to form ITV)
- Greenall's Group (renamed De Vere Group and then acquired by a joint venture of private investors)
- Grand Metropolitan (merged with Guinness to form Diageo)
- Guardian Royal Exchange (acquired by Axa)
- Guinness (merged with Grand Metropolitan to form Diageo)
- GUS (now demerged into Home Retail Group and Experian)
- Habitat Mothercare (merged with British Home Stores to form Storehouse and subsequently renamed Mothercare again)
- Halifax Group (merged with the Bank of Scotland to form HBOS)
- Hambro Life (renamed Allied Dunbar and acquired by BAT Industries and then demerged as part of Zurich Financial Services)
- Hanson (acquired by Heidelberg Cement)
- Harrisons & Crosfield (renamed Elementis)
- Hawker Siddeley (acquired by BTR, now Invensys)
- Hays (market capitalisation fell too low)
- HBOS Group plc (acquired by Lloyds TSB, now Lloyds Banking Group)
- Hillsdown Holdings (acquired by Hicks, Muse, Tate and Furst and then sold on as Premier Foods)
- Home Retail Group (market capitalisation fell too low)
- House of Fraser (acquired by Baugur)
- ICAP (market capitalization fell too low)
- Imperial Chemical Industries (acquired by Akzo Nobel)
- Imperial Continental Gas Association (broke up into Calor and Contibel)
- Inchcape (market capitalisation fell too low)
- Innogy Holdings (renamed Npower and acquired by RWE)
- Inmarsat (market capitalisation fell too low)
- International Power (acquired by GDF Suez)
- Intu Properties (market capitalisation fell too low)
- Invensys (market capitalisation fell too low)
- Invesco (moved primary listing to NYSE)
- Investec (market capitalisation fell too low)
- Jaguar (acquired by Ford and then by Tata Motors)
- Kazakhmys (market capitalisation fell too low)
- Kelda Group (acquired by Saltaire Water consortium) a consortium of investment companies including Citigroup and HSBC.
- Kingston Communications (renamed KCOM Group and market capitalisation fell too low)
- Kwik Save Group (merged with Somerfield)
- Ladbrokes (market capitalisation fell too low)
- Laporte (major divisions acquired by Kohlberg Kravis Roberts)
- Lasmo (acquired by Eni)
- Lattice Group (merged with National Grid to form National Grid Transco)
- Logica (market capitalisation fell too low)
- London Electricity (acquired by Électricité de France, now part of its EDF Energy division)
- Lonhro (renamed Lonmin)
- Lonmin (market capitalisation fell too low)
- Lucas Industries (merged with Varity to form LucasVarity, then acquired by TRW)
- LucasVarity (acquired by TRW)
- Magnet and Southerns (acquired by Berisford)
- Man Group (market capitalisation fell too low)
- Maxwell Communications Corporation (collapsed in 1991)
- MB-Caradon (renamed Caradon and then Novar, then acquired by Honeywell)
- MEPC (acquired by Leconport Estates)
- Mercury Asset Management (acquired by Merrill Lynch)
- MFI Furniture (renamed Galiform and then Howden Joinery and market capitalisation fell too low)
- Midlands Electricity (acquired by Acquila Sterling, now part of E.ON UK)
- Midland Bank (acquired by HSBC)
- Misys (market capitalisation fell too low)
- Mitchells & Butlers (market capitalisation fell too low)
- National Westminster Bank (acquired by Royal Bank of Scotland Group)
- NFC (merged with Ocean Group to form Exel, now part of Deutsche Post)
- Northern Foods (market capitalisation fell too low, before being acquired by Ranjit Boparan)
- Northern Rock (market capitalisation fell too low, before being nationalised)
- Norwich Union (merged with CGNU to form Aviva)
- Nycomed Amersham (acquired by GE)
- O2 (renamed Telefónica Europe following acquisition by Telefónica)
- Orange (acquired by Mannesmann and then by France Télécom, now Orange)
- PartyGaming (market capitalisation fell too low, before merging with Bwin to become bwin.party digital entertainment)
- P&O (acquired by Dubai Ports World)
- P&O Princess Cruises (merged with Carnival Corporation and re-listed as Carnival PLC)
- Pennon Group (market capitalisation fell too low)
- Persimmon (market capitalisation fell too low)
- Petrofac (market capitalisation fell too low)
- Pilkington (acquired by Nippon Sheet Glass)
- Plessey (acquired by GEC and Siemens)
- Polly Peck (collapsed in 1990)
- Polymetal (market capitalisation fell too low)
- PowerGen (acquired by E.ON UK)
- Provident Financial (market capitalisation fell too low)
- Psion (market capitalisation fell too low)
- Punch Taverns (market capitalisation fell too low)
- Racal Electronics (acquired by Thomson-CSF and then Thales Group)
- Railtrack (collapsed in 1993)
- Rank Hovis McDougall (acquired by Premier Foods)
- Reckitt and Coleman (merged with Benckiser to form Reckitt Benckiser)
- Redland (acquired by Lafarge)
- Reed International (merged with Elsevier to form Reed Elsevier)
- Rentokil Initial (market capitalisation fell too low)
- Resolution plc (acquired by Pearl Group)
- RMC Group (acquired by Cemex)
- Rothmans International (acquired by British American Tobacco)
- J Rothschild (renamed St. James's Place and market capitalisation fell too low)
- Rowntree's (acquired by Nestlé)
- Royal Insurance (merged with Sun Alliance Group to form Royal & SunAlliance)
- Saatchi & Saatchi (acquired by Publicis)
- Safeway (acquired by Morrisons)
- Scottish & Newcastle (acquired by a consortium formed of Heineken & Carlsberg)
- Scottish Hydro Electric (merged with Southern Electric to form Scottish and Southern Energy)
- Scottish Power (acquired by Iberdrola)
- Sears (acquired by January Investments - itself controlled by Philip Green)
- Securicor (merged with Group 4 Falck to form G4S)
- Sedgwick (acquired by Marsh & McLennan)
- Segro (market capitalisation fell too low)
- Sema Group (acquired by Schlumberger)
- Serco Group (market capitalisation fell too low)
- Shell Transport and Trading Company (now re-organised with Royal Dutch Petroleum Company as Royal Dutch Shell)
- Siebe (merged with BTR to form Invensys)
- SmithKline Beecham (merged with Glaxo Wellcome to form GlaxoSmithKline)
- Smiths Industries (renamed to Smiths Group)
- Southern Electric (merged with Scottish Hydro Electric to form Scottish and Southern Energy)
- Spirent (market capitalisation fell too low)
- Stagecoach Group (market capitalisation fell too low)
- Standard Telephones and Cables (renamed STC and acquired by Nortel)
- Storehouse (renamed Mothercare)
- Sun Alliance Group (merged with Royal Insurance to form Royal & Sun Alliance)
- Sun Life Assurance (acquired by Axa)
- Sun Life & Provincial Holdings (acquired by Axa)
- Tarmac (acquired by Anglo American)
- Taylor Wimpey (market capitalisation fell too low)
- Taylor Woodrow (merged with George Wimpey to form Taylor Wimpey)
- Telewest Communications (merged with NTL to form NTL:Telewest now Virgin Media)
- Thames Water (acquired by RWE and then sold to Macquarie Bank)
- The Energy Group (acquired by Texas Utilities and then by E.ON UK)
- Thomas Cook Group (market capitalisation fell too low)
- Thomson Reuters (delisted shares from the London Stock Exchange as it ceased to be a dual-listed company)
- Thorn (acquired by Nomura Group)
- Thorn EMI (renamed EMI Group and then acquired by Terra Firma Capital Partners)
- Thus (market capitalisation fell too low, subsequently acquired by Cable & Wireless Worldwide)
- TI Group (acquired by Smiths Group)
- Tomkins (acquired by Onex Corporation and Canada Pension Plan Investment Board)
- Trafalgar House (acquired by Kværner)
- TSB Group (merged with Lloyds Bank to form Lloyds TSB)
- Trusthouse Forte (acquired by Granada)
- TUI Travel (market capitalisation fell too low)
- Ultramar (acquired by LASMO and now part of Eni)
- Unigate (renamed Uniq, then market capitalisation fell too low)
- United Biscuits (acquired by consortium of financial investors)
- United Business Media (market capitalisation fell too low)
- Warburg SG (acquired by Swiss Bank Corporation, now part of UBS)
- Wellcome (merged with Glaxo to form Glaxo Wellcome, then with SmithKline Beecham to form GlaxoSmithKline)
- W H Smith (market capitalisation fell too low)
- William Hill (market capitalisation fell too low)
- Williams Holdings (demerged into Kidde and Chubb Security, both now part of United Technologies Corporation)
- Willis Corroon (acquired by Trinity Acquisition on behalf of Kohlberg Kravis Roberts and renamed Willis Group)
- Willis Faber (acquired by Trinity Acquisition on behalf of Kohlberg Kravis Roberts and renamed Willis Coroon and then Willis Group)
- Wood Group (market capitalisation fell too low)
- Woolwich (acquired by Barclays)
- Yell Group (market capitalisation fell too low)
- Zeneca (merged with Astra to form AstraZeneca)
source: PDF (57.9 KB)
The oldest continuous index in the UK is the FT 30, also known as the Financial Times Index or the FT Ordinary Index (FTOI). It was established in 1935 and nowadays is largely obsolete due to its redundancy. It is similar to the Dow Jones Industrial Average, and companies listed are from the industrial and commercial sectors. Financial sector companies and government stocks are excluded.
Of the original constituents, four are currently in the FTSE 100: Guest Keen & Nettlefolds (GKN), Tate & Lyle, Imperial Tobacco and Rolls-Royce, although Rolls-Royce has not been continuously listed and Imperial Tobacco was a subsidiary of Hanson for a number of years. ICI was removed when it was taken over by Akzo Nobel in January 2008. Two of the original FT 30 companies are still in that index: GKN and Tate & Lyle (membership is not strictly based on market capitalisation, so this does not mean they are necessarily among the top thirty companies in the FTSE 100). The best performer from the original lineup has been Imperial Tobacco.
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- Financial Times Global 500, the BBC Global 30 and the Fortune Global 500, list the world's largest corporations by market capitalisation
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- Dow Jones and the DAX 30, equivalent to the FT 30 in the US and Germany
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- AEX index
- "FTSE 100 Index Factsheet". FTSE Group. Retrieved 30 October 2012.
- FTSE 100 closes at highest level since September 2000
- Ground Rules for the Management of The UK Series of the FTSE Actuaries Share Indices (section 5)
- FTSE UK Quarterly Review
- FTSE Capitalisation methodology via Wikinvest
- See 'FTSE All-Share Index Ranking (unofficial guide)'
- See also, "Top ten most valuable companies in the FTSE 100: in pictures". The Telegraph. 10 March 2011. Retrieved 16 April 2011.
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