List of armed groups in the Syrian Civil War

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

A number of armed groups have involved themselves in the ongoing Syrian Civil War.

Generic list[edit]

Overall conflict (2011–present)[edit]

Syria Syrian government and allies Syria Opposition government
al-Qaeda network
and allies
Syrian Kurdistan Kurdish self-administration
and allies
Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant and allies
Syria Syrian government forces

Allied armed groups:

InfoboxHez.PNG Hezbollah[26]

Armament support:

Non-lethal military support:

Syria Syrian National Coalition Armed Forces


Allied armed groups

Armament support:

Non-lethal military support:

Kurdish Self-Administration

Iraqi Kurdistan

Syriac Union Party

Armament support:

 Saudi Arabia
Against IS

Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant

See: Syrian opposition–ISIL Conflict

Against Coalition Airstrikes

Current military situation in the Syrian Civil War.
  Controlled by the Syrian government
  Controlled by Kurdish forces
  Controlled by al-Nusra Front
  Controlled by other rebels

(For a more detailed map, see Cities and towns during the Syrian Civil War)



Spillover in Lebanon (2011–present)[edit]

Syria Allies of the Syrian government al-Qaeda network
Syria Syrian National Council
and allies
Syria Arab Democratic Party[11]

Syrian Social Nationalist Party[100]

Al-Nusra Front

Fatah al-Islam
Jund al-Sham
Syria Free Syrian Army
Abdullah Azzam Brigade
Supported by:
Future Movement


Turkish border incidents (2012–present)[edit]

Syria Syrian government Turkey Turkish government
 Syria  Turkey

Golan Heights ceasefire line incidents (2012-present)[edit]

Syria Syrian government
and allies
Syria Syrian National Council  Israel
 Syria Syria Free Syrian Army

Al-Nusra Front


Alleged Israeli attacks on supposed Hezbollah weapon convoys (2013)[edit]

Syria Syrian government
and allies
Allegedly Israel
Hezbollah  Israel

Spillover in Jordan (2012-present)[edit]

 Jordan Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant
 Jordan Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant

Spillover in Iraq (2013–present)[edit]

Syria Syrian government
and allies
al-Qaeda network


Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant

Al-Nusra Front
Iraq Free Iraqi Army

Detailed list[edit]

Syrian government and allies[edit]

Name Leader Involved since Strength Description Ideology
Syrian Armed Forces Bashar al-Assad March 2011 Approximately 178,000[101] Government's primary military force. Ba'athism
National Defense Force Bashar al-Assad 2013[102] 60,000[103] Government counter-insurgency force. Secularism
Syrian Resistance Mihraç Ural 2011 2,000 Pro-government Marxist militia. Socialism
Ba'ath Brigades Bashar al-Assad 2012 7,000[104] Pro-government counter-insurgency militia. Ba'athism
Lebanese Militias:
Hezbollah Hassan Nasrallah 2012[102] 2,000[105] Militant group based in Lebanon, designated by the US as a terrorist group. Ideology of Hezbollah
Shia Militias:
Liwa Abu al-Fadhal al-Abbas Abu Ajeeb 2012 10,000[1] Shia Syrian militant group formed due to desecration of shrines, heritage sites and place of worship by the rebels. It is Active around Damascus. Shia Islamism
Asa'ib Ahl al-Haq Akram al-Kaabi 2012 An offshot of Iraqi Shia insurgent group. It is active around Aleppo. Shia Islamism
Kata'ib Hezbollah 2012 An Iraqi Shia militia Shia Islamism
Badr Organization 2012 An Iraqi Shia militia Shia Islamism
Pan-Arab Militias:
Arab Nationalist Guard 2013 1,000+[106] Pan-Arabic group from various Arab Countries. Secularism

Syrian National Coalition, al-Qaeda Network and allies[edit]

Name Leader Involved since Strength Description Ideology
Islamic Front Amad Essa Al-Sheikh[107] November 2013[107] 45,000[108] Merger of major rebel groups.[107] Sunni Islamism[109]
Free Syrian Army Abdul-Ilah al-Bashir July 2011 40,000[111] Main opposition group. Initially an umbrella term for defected Syrian soldiers, later became more organized. Diverse, Mostly Islamism
Al-Nusra Front Abu Mohammad al-Golani[112] January 2012 7,000[113]–15,000[114] Designated by the US as a terrorist group. Pledged allegiance to Al-Qaeda. Sunni Islamism
Salafist jihadism
Islamic fundamentalism
Ajnad al-Sham Islamic Union Muhammad Abu al-Fatih December 2013 15,000[115] Merger of Damascus area rebel groups[115] Islamism
Authenticity and Development Front Khalid al-Hammad November 2012 13,000[116] Islamism
Army of Mujahedeen January 2014[117] ≈5,000[118] Coalition of Aleppo area Islamist rebels formed to fight ISIL. Islamism[119]
Supporters of the Religion Front[51] 25 July 2014[51] Alliance of independent jihadist groups[51][120]
Jaysh al-Sham 18 February 2014[121] Merger of Idlib area rebel groups Islamism
Suqour al-Ezz Saqr al-Jihad[62] February 2013[122]
Sham Legion Mondher Saras[70] 10 March 2014[70] Alliance of 19 different groups[123] Islamic democracy[70]
Jund al-Aqsa

Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant[edit]

Name Leader Involved since Strength Description Ideology
Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi April 2013 80,000 (up to 50,000 in Syria and 30,000 in Iraq)[124] [1] Formerly Al-Qaeda's branch in Iraq, it has declared itself a Caliphate and is now in conflict with most other rebel groups, the Assad government and Kurdish militias. Designated or called a terrorist group by the United Nations Security Council, the US and other states. Sunni Islamism
Salafist Jihadism

Kurdish Supreme Committee and allies[edit]

Name Leader Involved since Strength Description Ideology
People's Protection Units (YPG) /
Women's Protection Units (YPJ)
Sipan Hemo 2012 15,000[125]–40,000[126] YPG and YPJ are the armed forces of the People’s Council of West Kurdistan (MGRK), which is dominated by the Democratic Union Party (PYD). While the PYD wants it to be the armed forces of all Kurdish Supreme Committee, the Kurdish National Council (ENKS) member parties prefer their own parties' militias. Socialism,
Kurdish autonomy[127]
Jabhat al-Akrad Hajji Ahmed Kurdi 2012 7,000[128] Ex-Free Syrian Army brigade, close to YPG Pro-Kurdish rights
Anti-Assad government
Kurdish National Council (KNC) Feysel Yusuf 2012 1,500[90]
Note: Figure claimed by the leader of one minor party within the bloc, but no known participation in any conflict.
Opposition alliance of smaller Kurdish parties within the Supreme Committee
Note: Largely dominated by the KDP-S, which also formed a separate caucus called the Syrian Kurdish Democratic Union. Most members are politically tied to either the KDP or the PUK in Iraqi Kurdistan.
Kurdish nationalism
Kurdish autonomy
Liberal democracy



  • Groups that are part of multiple coalitions or sub-groups are listed twice, although their subsequent sub-groups will not necessarily be repeated.
  • This section aims to include all sub-groups involved in the Syrian Civil War. It is incomplete.

Rebel coalitions[edit]

Syria Free Syrian Army
Syria Farouq Brigades

Syria Syria Revolutionaries Front[129]

Syria Hazzm Movement

  • Kataib Farouq al-Shamal
  • 9th Special Forces Brigade
  • 1st Brigade of Madraat
  • Liwa Ayman Bil Allah
  • Katibat Abi Harith - Farouq Hama
  • Katibat Ahrar al-Salmiya - Farouq Hama
  • Liwa Ahbab Allah
  • 60th Brigade
  • Katibat Shaheed Abdul Ghaffar Hamish
  • Katibat Shaheed Abdullahi Bukar
  • Saraya Sawt al-Haq
  • Katibat Abu Asad al-Nimr[132]

Syrian Turkmen Brigades[133]
Syria Ghuraba al-Sham[134]
Syria National Unity Brigades[116][135]

  • Syria Abdel Rahman al-Shabandar Brigade
  • Syria Martyrs of the Syrian Revolution Brigade
  • Syria Joul Jamal Brigade
  • Syria Martyrs of Badama Brigade
  • Syria Martyrs of the Wastani Mountains Brigade
  • Syria Ahmad Maryoud Brigade
  • Syria Youssef Al-Admeh Brigade
  • Syria Tamer Al-Awam Brigade

Syria Ammar bin Yassir Battalion (Idlib province)[136]
Syria Hamzah Al-Khateeb Battalion (Idlib city)
Syria Al-Furqan Battalion (Idlib province)[137]
Syria Harmoush Battalion (Idlib province)[138]
Syria Martyrs Ma'arat Nu'man Battalion (Idlib province)[139]
Syria Shield of Islam Battalion (Idlib province)[140]
Syria Salaheddine Al-Ayoubi Battalion (Jisr ash-Shugur)
Syria Qashoush Battalion (Hama city)[141]
Syria Aboul Fidaa Battalion (Hama province)
Syria Hizb ut-Tahrir

  • Syria Saad Bin Moaz Battalion (Hama province)
    • Syria al-Nasser Brigades
    • Syria Ziaab al-Ghab Brigade

Syria Liwa Ahrar Souriya [116]
Syria Moawiyah Bin Abi Sufian (Damascus city)
Syria Houriyeh Battalion (Aleppo city)
Syria Ababeel Battalion (Aleppo province)
Syria Lions of Shahba Battalion (Aleppo province)[142]
Syria Saad Allah Al-Jabiri Battalion (Aleppo province)[143]
Syria Omari Battalion (Daraa/Hauran)
Syria Qassam Battalion (Jableh)
Syria Suqur Battalion (Latakia)
Syria Samer Nunu Battalion (Baniyas)
Syria Mishaal Tammo Battalion (Qamishli)
Syria Odai Al-Tayi Battalion (Hasakah)
Syria Omar Ibn al-Khattab Battalion (Deir ez-Zor city)[144]
Syria Moaz Al-Raqad Battalion (Deir ez-Zor province)

Syria Allahu Akbar Battalion (Abu Kamal)
Syria Dawn of Freedom Battalion (Homs province)
Syria Bakkour Battalion (Homs province)[145]
Syria Ramy Al-Sayeed Battalion (Homs province)[146]

  • Syria Rijal al-Umma Brigade (Homs province)

Syria Tel Kalakh Martyrs' Battalion (Homs province)

  • Syria Shuhada al-Badiya Brigade (Homs province)
  • Syria al-Karama Brigade (Homs province)

Syria Ahmad Nayif al-Sukhni Battalion (Ar-Raqqah)
Syria Abu Obeidah bin al-Jarrah Battalion (Damascus province)
Syria Souqour Dimashq Battalion (Damascus city)

Syria Jesus Christ Brigade[149]

  • Syria Ansar Allah (God's Supporters) Battalion
  • Syria Saint George Battalion (all-Christian)

Syria Saint George Battalion[150]
Syria Ansar Brigade
Syria 19th Division
Syria Northern Storm Brigade
Syria Ahrar al-Jazeera[85]
Syria Tahrir Souriya Brigade
Syria Liwa Abd Aziz Brigade
Syria Jeish Mohammad Brigade[151]
Syria Hazzm Movement[121]
Syria Liwa Thuwwar al-Raqqa[152][153]
Syria Euphrates Islamic Liberation Front[154]

Syria Jihad in the Path of God Brigade[156]
Syria Dawn of Freedom Brigades[157]

Battalion of the Free Men of Hadr (Quneitra) [158]
Sultan Pasha Al-Atrash Battalion (As-Suwayda) [159]
Syria Free Alawite Front [160]
Syria Al-Tawhid Brigade (Eastern branch)
Syria Jarabulus Brigade
Syria Raqqa Guardians Rebels
Syria Al-Qassas Army[161]
Syria Southern Front

Syria Jaysh al-Ummah

Syria United Sham Front

  • Damascus Martyrs’ Brigade
  • Lions of Al-Rahman Brigade[167]

Syria Southern Command

  • Division 70
  • Infantry Brigade 71
  • Brigade Corps 72
  • Infantry Brigade 73
  • Division 90
  • Brigade 91
  • Brigade 92
  • Brigade 93
  • Brigade 94
  • Brigade 95
  • Tank Battalion 911
  • Sapper Battalion 50
  • Brigade 51
  • Brigade 52
  • Brigade 53
  • "Knights of Sharia" Battalion
  • "Horan" Commando Battalion
  • Martyrs Brigade of Nawa
  • The Banner of the Liberation of Nawa
  • Omar Mukhtar Brigade
  • Supporters of the Rightfulness Brigade
  • Abdullah Hourani Brigade
  • Special Brigade of South Farouk
  • Assault Brigade Horan
  • Homs Walid Brigade
  • Infantry Brigade 305
  • Special Tasks Battalion[168]

First Army

Hawks of the South

Former members
Suqour al-Sham Brigade defected to the Islamic Front[171]
Liwaa al-Umma defected to the Muhajirin wa-Ansar Alliance[56]
Syria Division 19 joined the Army of Mujahedeen, although it never fully defected.
Syria Jabhat al-Akrad was expelled after having connections to the PKK. It has allied itself with the People's Protection Units and has cooperated with the Free Syrian Army.

Islamic Front
Al-Tawhid Brigade (Aleppo)

Ahrar ash-Sham
Liwa al-Haqq (Homs)
Suqour al-Sham (Idlib)
Jaysh al-Islam (Damascus)
Ansar al-Sham (Lattakia)
Kurdish Islamic Front

Levant Front[172]
Islamic Front (Aleppo only)

Army of Mujahedeen
Harakat Nour al-Din al-Zenki
Fastaqim Kama Umirt
Authenticity and Development Front (Aleppo only)

Ajnad al-Sham Islamic Union [50]
al-Habib al-Mustafa Brigades

Sahaba Brigades
Shabab al-Huda Brigades
Amjad al-Islam Rally
Capital's Shield Brigade

Muhajirin wa-Ansar Alliance[121][56]
Jund al-Aqsa

Liwaa al-Umma
Liwa al-Haqq
Omar Brigade

Syria Authenticity and Development Front
Syria Southern Front
  • Syria Battalion for the People of Damascus
  • Syria Saarim Battalion
  • Syria Muawiyah Battalion
  • Syria The Zamalka Martyrs Brigade
  • Syria Originality Battalion
  • Syria Imam Bukhari Battalion

Syria Northern Front

  • Syria Impacting People Brigade
  • Syria Criterion Brigades
    • Syria Free Izzat Circuit Brigade
    • Syria Right Jund
  • Syria Armour Brigade of the Nation
  • Syria Right Brigade
  • Syria Alababil Brigade
  • Syria Banner of Freedom
  • Syria Black Brigade of War
  • Syria Battalion of the Martyr Ismail Al-Abdullah

Syria Western Front

  • Syria First Brigade
  • Syria Brigade of the Martyr Hamza al-Khatib
  • Syria Brigade of the Martyr Riyad Abdeen

Syria Central Front

  • Syria I Corps
  • Syria People Brigades
  • Syria Miqdad ibn al-Aswad Battalion
  • Syria Short Brigade
  • Syria Ancestors Battalion
  • Syria Sincerity Brigade

Syria Eastern Front

  • Syria Promise of Victory Brigade
  • Syria Impact on People Brigade
  • Syria Black Tawhid Year Brigade
  • Syria Stationed Brigades
  • Syria Hudhaifah bin al-Yaman Battalion
  • Syria Muawiyah Battalion
  • Syria Impact on People Battalion
  • Syria Hawks of the Year Brigade
  • Syria Ahl al-Athar Brigade
  • Syria Hamza Brigade[59][60]

Syria Nour al Din al Zengi Battalion[173]

  • Syria Allahu Akhbar Brigades[155]
Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant[174]

Former members
Jaish al-Muhajireen wal-Ansar[175] withdrew due to preexisting oath to the Caucasus Emirate.[176]
Jund al-Aqsa withdrew and joined the Muhajirin wa-Ansar Alliance.[56]

Syria Free Syrian Union[177]
Syria Division 77 (Northern Region)

Syria Third Division (Qalamoun)
Syria Lightning Victory Brigade (Rural Idlib, Hama)
Syria 90th Brigade (West Damascus)
Syria Dawn Brigade(Gota Bank)
Syria Saif al-Sham Brigade (Gota Bank)
Syria Umayyad Brigade (Damascus region)
Syria Badia Martyrs Brigade (Idlib)
Syria Peace in the Levant Brigade (Idlib)
Syria Soldiers Rahman Brigade (Idlib and Abu Aldhor)
Syria Flag Brigade (Abou Aldhor)
Syria The Banner of Jesus Christ (Damascus)
Syria Omar Mukhtar Brigade (Idlib countryside)
Syria Beloved Prophet Brigade
Syria Billah Brigade (Idlib)
Syria Abu Bakr Brigade (Aleppo)
Syria Hussein Harmoush Brigade (Lattakia)
Syria Sincere Promise Brigade (Lattakia)
Syria The Martyrs of Islam and the Al-Sham Brigade (Aleppo and Homs)
Syria Unity and Liberaton Front (including al-Raqqa and Deir ez-Zor brigades)
Syria Muawiyah Brigade (Rastan)
Syria Martyrs of Islam Brigade (Qalamoun)
Syria Hamzah Brigade (Barada Valley)
Syria Martyrs of Dignity Brigade (Barada Valley)
Syria Martyr Samir Aldhak Brigade (Rastan)
Syria Eagles Brigade
Syria بيارق Islam Brigade
Syria Saifullah Maslool Brigade
Syria Dawn of the Mujahideen Brigade
Syria Hittin Brigade
Syria Flag Brigade(Khanasser)
Syria Soldiers Rahman Brigade (Aleppo countryside)
Syria Martyr Mazen Brigade
Syria Martyrs Secretariat Brigade (Hama)
Syria Martyrs Dignity Brigade (Khan Shaikhoun)
Syria Victory in God Brigade(Khan Shaikhoun)
Syria 533 Commando Brigade (Hama Northern)
Syria 633 Infantry Brigade (Khan Shaikhoun)
Syria Caliph Brigade (Ma'arrat Nu'man)
Syria Hawks Mountain Brigade (Mount Hhacbo)
Syria Pottery Hill Battalion (Aleppo countryside)
Syria Tasks Battalion (Damascus Madaya)
Syria Punishment Brigade (Qalamun)
Syria Rebels Brigade (Khan Shaikhoun)
Syria 465 Martyrs Regiment (Khan Shaikhoun)
Syria Martyrs Brigade (Mount Hermon)
Syria The Banner of Free Rural Western Brigades
Syria Revolutionary Military Council (Damascus)

Army of Mujahedeen[178]
al-Noor Islamic Movement

Liwaa al-Islam
Division 19 of the Free Syrian Army:
Syria Liwaa Amjad al-Islam
Syria Liwaa Ansar al-Khilafa
Syria al-Quds Brigades
Syria Khan al-Assal Free Brigades
Syria al-Shuyukh Brigade
Syria Liwaa al-Mujahireen

Former members
Syria Nour al-Din al-Zanki Islamic Brigades[179]
Syria Liwaa al-Ansar[180]
Fastaqim Kama Umirt[172]

Ahl Al-Sham (only in Aleppo Governorate)[181]
Islamic Front

Al-Nusra Front
Jaish al-Muhajireen wal-Ansar
Army of Mujahedeen

Mujahideen Shura Council (only in Deir ez-Zor Governorate)[182]
Al-Nusra Front

Jaysh al-Islam
Army of Ahl al-Sunni wal Jamaa
Authenticity and Development Front
Jabhat al-Jihad wal Bina
Bayareq al-Shaaitat
Liwa al-Qadisiya
Army of Maoata al-Islami
Army of al-Ikhlas
Liwa al-Muhajireen wal-Ansar

Syrian Revolutionary Command Council
Hazzm Movement

Syria Revolutionaries Front
Shields of the Revolution Council
101st Division
Jabhat Haqq al-Muqatala
Helpers Brigades[183]
Knights of Justice Brigade
13th Division
Falcons of al-Ghab[184]

Liwa al-Haqq
Suqour al-Sham
Jaysh al-Islam[183]
Ahrar ash-Sham[185]
Al-Tawhid Brigade[186]

Army of Mujahedeen
Ajnad al-Sham Islamic Union
Harakat Nour al-Din al-Zenki
Sham Legion[183]
al-Jabha al-Suriyya lil-Tahrir[184]
Authenticity and Development Front[186]

Supporters of the Religion Front[187]
Green Battalion (absorbed into Jaish al-Muhajireen wal-Ansar)[188]

Harakat Sham al-Islam
Jaish al-Muhajireen wal-Ansar
Harakat Fajr Sham al-Islamiya[189]

Euphrates Volcano[190]
Al-Tawhid Brigade

Liwa Thuwwar al-Raqqa
Northern Sun Battalion (affiliated with the Dawn of Freedom Brigades)
People's Protection Units

Jarabulus Brigade
Jabhat al-Akrad
Al-Qassas Army[191]

Jaysh al-Sham[121] (defunct)
Liwa Suyuf al Haq

Liwa Ansar Allah
Liwa Suqour al Sharq
Liwa al Fuqara ila Allah
Liwa Fityati al Islam
Liwa Asood al Ghab
Liwa Nusoor al Islam
Former members
Liwa Dawood[192]

Syrian Islamic Front (defunct)
* Ahrar ash-Sham Islamic Movement
    • Ahrar ash-Sham Battalions
    • Islamic Vanguard Group
    • Islamic Dawn Movement
    • Fighting Faith Battalions
    • Moussaab bin Omeir Battalion
    • Hamza Bin Abdul Muttalib Brigade
    • Suqour al-Islam Battalions
    • Special Tasks Battalion
  • Liwa al-Haqq (Homs)
  • Ansar al-Sham (Latakia)
  • al-Fajr Islamic Movement
  • Jaysh al-Tawhid (Deir Ez-Zor)
  • Haqq Battalions Gathering (Hama)[193]
  • al-Ahrar Battalions
  • Jamaat al-Talia al-Islamiya
  • al-Iman Fighting Brigades
  • Musab Bin Umair Battalion[194]
Syrian Islamic Liberation Front (defunct)
Suqour al-Sham Brigade
    • Fajr al-Islam
    • Souyouf al-Haqq Brigades
    • Daoud Brigades[194]
    • al-Kansaa Brigades
    • al-Mujahideen Brigades
    • al-Mohagren wal Ansar Brigades
    • Suqour al-Maraa Brigades
    • Suqour al-Sharq Brigades
    • Ansar Allah Brigades
    • Aby Hajar Brigades
    • al-Safwa Brigades
    • Horas al-Aqeda Brigades
    • Suqour al-Sona Brigades
    • Swoar ash-Amal Brigades
    • Atawhed Brigades
    • Asideeq Brigades
    • Suqour Halab Brigades[195]
  • Jaysh al-Islam
    • Islam Brigades
    • Islamic Army Brigades
    • The Army of Muslims Brigades
    • Sword of Truth Brigades
    • Signs of Victory Brigades
    • Conquest of Sham Brigades
    • Ghouta Shield Brigades
    • Siddiq Brigades
    • Tawheed Al-Islam Brigades
    • South of the Capital Brigades
    • Badr Brigades
    • Omar bin Abdulaziz Brigades
    • Tawheed Soldiers Brigades
    • Sword of Islam Brigades
    • Omar bin Khattab Brigades
    • Muath bin Jabal Brigades
    • Zubayir bin Al-Awam Brigades
    • Dhul Nurayin Brigades
    • Ansar Brigades
    • Hamzeh Brigades
    • Air Defense Brigades
    • Missile Defense Brigades
    • Tank Brigades
    • Military Direction Brigades
    • Dahir Bebers Brigades
    • Sword of Truth 2 Brigades
    • Gamloon Warriors Brigades
    • Slaves of the Merciful Brigades
    • Murabiteen Brigades
    • Bedouin Brigades
    • Sunnah Supporters Brigades
    • Ahul ul Bayt Brigades
    • Martyrs of Atarib Brigades
    • Coastal Defense Brigades
    • Ain Jalout Brigades
    • Tawheed Supporters Platoons
    • Mujahideen Platoons
    • Abu Dujana Falcons Platoons
    • Sunnah Platoons
    • Ansar Platoons
    • Bara’a bin Azab Platoons
  • Al-Tawhid Brigade
    • Fursan al-Jabal Brigade
    • Daret Izza Brigade
    • Kurdish Salaheddine Battalion[196][197]
  • Farouq Brigades
  • Ansar al-Islam Gathering Council
  • Liwa al-Fath, Battalion of Conquest, (Aleppo)[116]
  • Deir ez-Zor Revolutionary Council
  • Tajamo Ansar al-Islam
  • Amr Ibn al-Aas Brigade
    • Army of Mohammed
    • Hawks Brigades
    • Qamishli Kurds
  • al-Naser Salaheddin Brigade[199]
  • Liwa Dawud[200]
  • Hawks Sham brigades
  • Farouq Islamic Brigades
  • Banner of Islam
  • Unification Brigade
  • Deir ez-Zor Revolutionary Council
  • Furqan Brigade (Damascus)
  • Furqan Brigade (Al-Quneitra)
    • Hamza al-Ansar Brigade
  • Ahrar al-Shamal Brigades (Idlib, Hama)[201][202]
    • Andan Battalion
    • Mare Battalion
    • Huriyatan Battalion
    • Azaz Battalion
    • al-Bab Battalion
    • Tell Rifaat Battalion[194]
  • Ebad Idlib al-Rahman Brigades of Maarat al-Naaman[194]
  • Open Brigade (Aleppo)
  • Brigade of Homs (Homs)
  • Mohammed bin Abdullah Brigade (Homs)
  • Return of the Martyr Ahmed Battalion (Homs)
  • National Liberation Movement (Homs)
  • Household Brigade (Hama)
  • Brigades of God (Lattakia)
  • Izz ibn Abd al-Salam Brigades (Lattakia)
  • Council of Banias (Tartous)
  • Tartous Military Council (Tartous)[203]
  • Amr Ibn al-Aas Brigades
  • Fateh Brigades
  • Kurdish Suqour Brigades
  • Iman Brigades
  • Independence Gathering[194]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b "Syrian war widens Sunni-Shia schism as foreign jihadis join fight for shrines". The Guardian. 4 June 2013. Retrieved 7 June 2013. 
  2. ^ a b Omar al-Jaffal Contributor, Iraq Pulse (29 October 2013). "Iraqi Shiites Join Syria War". Al-Monitor. Retrieved 2013-11-04. 
  3. ^ al-Salhy, Suadad (10 April 2013). "Iraqi Shi'ite militants start to acknowledge role in Syria". Reuters. Retrieved 4 December 2013. 
  4. ^ "Syria rebels clash with army, Palestinian fighters". Agence France-Presse. 31 October 2012. 
  5. ^ a b Aymenn Al-Tamimi (13 November 2013). "The Druze Militias of Southern Syria". Retrieved 18 November 2013. 
  6. ^ "Palestinians in Syria Are Reluctantly Drawn Into Vortex of Uprising". The New York Times. 30 June 2012. Retrieved 5 October 2014. 
  7. ^ "A Case Study of “The Syrian Resistance,” a Pro-Assad Militia Force". Syria Comment. Retrieved 5 October 2014. 
  8. ^ Smyth, Phillip (11 May 2013). "Hizballah Cavalcade: Roundup of Iraqis Killed in Syria, Part 1". Hizballah Cavalcade. Jihadology. Retrieved 22 September 2013. 
  9. ^ "Syrian Ba'ath militia commander goes rags-to-riches". Al Monitor. Retrieved 5 December 2013. 
  10. ^ Racha Abi Haidar (12 February 2014). "The Deal in Yarmouk: End of the Tragedy or Empty Words?". Al Akhbar. Retrieved 14 February 2014. 
  11. ^ a b "Tripoli clashes intensify as Eid declares all-out battle and Kabbara demands his arrest". Naharnet. 21 May 2013. Retrieved 31 August 2013. 
  12. ^ "Report: Yemen Houthis fighting for Assad in Syria". Jerusalem Post. 31 May 2013 2012.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  13. ^  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  14. ^ Liakos, Panagiotis (29 September 2013). "Syria: Greek Nationalist Socialists fighting with Assad's regime far more dangerous than Golden Dawn". Anarkismo. Retrieved 5 November 2013. 
  15. ^ Whelan, Brian (October 2013). "Are Greek Neo-Nazis Fighting for Assad in Syria?". Vice. Retrieved 5 November 2013. 
  16. ^ "National Guard: A new faction of the Arab Mercenaries after the exposure of the Persian Project". TelevisionOrient. Retrieved 13 January 2014. 
  17. ^ Bahaa, Jafra. "Shiite militia massacre in Nabek... Rape, killing and burning". Al Arabiya. Retrieved 13 January 2014. 
  18. ^ "Hizballah cavalcade: Liwa'a Zulfiqar; Birth of a new Shia militia in Syria?". Jihadology. Retrieved 13 January 2014. 
  19. ^ "The last battle of the Slavic Corps". Fontanka. Retrieved 13 January 2014. 
  20. ^ Phillip Smyth (13 January 2014). "Hizballah Cavalcade: Faylak Wa’ad al-Sadiq: The Repackaging of an Iraqi "Special Group" for Syria". 
  21. ^ Kat,Iskander (1 August 2012). "Syria rebels to target intel, as Assad hails army". The Daily Star. Retrieved 15 August 2013. 
  22. ^ "Syrian MP killed publicly by FSA firing squad". Al Jazeera. 1 August 2012. Retrieved 15 August 2013. 
  23. ^ Heras, Nicholas. "The tribal factor in Syria's rebellion". Fair Observer. Retrieved 17 February 2014. 
  24. ^ Muhammad, Bishwa. "Pro-Assad militants storm houses of Kurdish activists in Hasakah". ARA News. Retrieved 17 February 2014. 
  25. ^ "Syrian regime arms Arab tribes in Hasakah, Kurds express fears". ARA News. Retrieved 24 December 2014. 
  26. ^ a b "Rockets hit south Beirut after Hezbollah vows Syria victory". Reuters. 26 May 2013 2012.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  27. ^ Saeed Kamali Dehghan (28 May 2012). "Syrian army being aided by Iranian forces". The Guardian. 
  28. ^ Daftari, Lisa (28 August 2012). "Iranian general admits 'fighting every aspect of a war' in defending Syria's Assad". Fox News. 
  29. ^ "State Dept. official: Iranian soldiers are fighting for Assad in Syria". Washington Post. 21 May 2013. 
  30. ^ "Iran: Three IRGC members killed in Syria fighting for Assad regime". Foreign Affairs Committee of the National Council of Resistance of Iran. Retrieved 12 December 2013. 
  31. ^ Neriah, Jacques (29 May 2013). "Iranian forces on the Golan?". Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. Retrieved 15 July 2013. 
  32. ^ Gold, Dore (9 June 2013). "The Arab world fears the 'Safavid'". Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. Retrieved 15 July 2013. 
  33. ^ Gordon, Michael R. & Myers, Steven Lee (21 May 2013). "Iran and Hezbollah support for Syria complicates peace-talk strategy". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 July 2013. 
  34. ^ Sharon, Jeremy (19 January 2015). "Report: Six Iranians killed in Israeli strike in Syria, including Revolutionary Guards general". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 21 January 2015. 
  35. ^ Richard Galpin (10 January 2012). "Russian arms shipments bolster Syria's embattled Assad". BBC News. Retrieved 4 February 2012. 
  36. ^ "Russian military presence in Syria poses challenge to US-led intervention". The Guardian, 23 December 2012. Retrieved 26 February 2013.
  37. ^ Ryall, Julian (6 June 2013). "Syria: North Korean military 'advising Assad regime'". The Telegraph. Retrieved 2 August 2013. 
  38. ^ "North Korea violating sanctions, according to UN report". The Telegraph. 3 July 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012. 
  39. ^ "Report: Iran, North Korea Helping Syria Resume Building Missiles". Retrieved 18 November 2014. 
  40. ^ "It looks like Iraq has joined Assad's side in the Syrian war". Business Insider. Retrieved 16 February 2014. 
  41. ^
  42. ^
  43. ^ Paragga, Mariana. "Exclusive: Venezuela ships fuel to war-torn Syria: traders". Reuters. Retrieved 5 December 2013. 
  44. ^ Parraga, Mariana. "Venezuela to ship more fuel to Syria as crackdown spreads". Thomson Reuters Foundation. Retrieved 5 December 2013. 
  45. ^ Solomon, Jay. "To power Syria, Chavez sends diesel". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 5 December 2013. 
  46. ^ "Chavez slams West, expresses support for Syria". Press TV. Retrieved 5 December 2013. 
  47. ^ "Chavez supports Syrian President Bashar al-Assad". Retrieved 5 December 2013. 
  48. ^ "AP Enterprise: al-Qaida's Syrian cell alarms US". The Big Story. Retrieved 5 October 2014. 
  49. ^ "Syria rebels unite and launch new revolt, against jihadists". AFP. 4 January 2014. Retrieved 13 January 2014. 
  50. ^ a b Lund, Aron (6 January 2014). "Pushing Back Against the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant: The Path to Conflict". Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Retrieved 15 January 2014. 
  51. ^ a b c d "Syria Update: July 17 - 25, 2014". Institute for the Study of War Syria Updates. 25 July 2014. Retrieved 26 July 2014. 
  52. ^ AFP (18 January 2013). "Raging clashes pit Syrian Kurds against jihadists". NOW. 
  53. ^ a b O'Bagy, Elizabeth (September 2012). "Jihad in Syria". Institute For The Study Of War. Retrieved 4 November 2013. 
  54. ^ Lund, Aron (15 October 2012). "Holy Warriors". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 4 November 2013. 
  55. ^ Baker, Aryn & Aysha, Rami (23 April 2013). "Lebanon’s Most Wanted Sunni Terrorist Blows Himself Up in Syria". Ya Libnan. Retrieved 8 June 2013. 
  56. ^ a b c d e Aron Lund (27 January 2014). "The Other Syrian Peace Process". Carnegie Endowment for Peace. Retrieved 14 October 2014. 
  57. ^ "TIP Division in Syria Releases Video Promoting Cause, Inciting for Jihad". SITE Institute. 2014-06-06. Retrieved 2014-06-10. 
  58. ^ Sherlock, Ruth. "Muslim Brotherhood establishes militia inside Syria". The Telegraph. Retrieved 21 February 2014. 
  59. ^ a b "أُعلن اليوم الأحد في مدينة انطاكية التركية عن تأسيس "جبهة الأصالة والتنمية" كأول إطار جامع للجناحين العسكري والمدني التنموي في سورية". Aks Alser. Retrieved 12 July 2013. 
  60. ^ a b "من نحن؟". Asala Tanmia. Retrieved 12 July 2013. [dead link]
  61. ^ "For a civil, secular state: 100+ groups unite in the union of free Syrians". Democratic Revolution, Syrian Style. 
  62. ^ a b "Rebels Reopen the Latakia Front". Institute for the Study of War. 10 April 2014. Retrieved 10 April 2014. 
  63. ^ Glasman, Frantz. "Deir ez-Zor in eastern Syria: Islamists, tribes and oil". Le Monde. Retrieved 17 February 2014. 
  64. ^ Yezdani, Ipek (1 September 2012). "Rebels fighting against al-Assad rule fragmented, disorganized in Syria". Hurriyet Daily News. Retrieved 15 August 2013. 
  65. ^ "Syrian rebels set up camp on hilltop base 46". al-Arabiya. Retrieved 17 February 2014. 
  66. ^ al-Tamimi, Aymenn Jawad. "The fall of Yaroubiya to YPG in context". Brown Moses. Retrieved 17 February 2014. 
  67. ^ Paraszczuk, Joanna. "'Capturing Yarmouk camp another Syrian rebel gain'". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 17 February 2014. 
  68. ^ Mouirtada, Hania. "Soldiers' mass execution reported by Syria group". New York Times. Retrieved 17 February 2014. 
  69. ^ "Revolutionary Left Current in Syria: Establishment of the "People’s Liberation Faction" to commemorate the third anniversary of the Syrian Revolution". 18 March 2014. Retrieved 2 April 2014. 
  70. ^ a b c d "The Sham Legion: Syria’s Moderate Islamists". Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. 15 April 2014. Retrieved 13 May 2014. 
  71. ^ "Syrian Muslim Brotherhood hesitant to plunge into militia game". The Daily Star. 31 October 2013. Retrieved 23 August 2014. 
  72. ^ "Muhammad Majid al-Khatib: A Rising Leader in the Free Syrian Army". Jamestown Foundation. 28 February 2014. Retrieved 25 August 2014. 
  73. ^ "Chechen-led jihadist group in Syria releases video of training camp". Long War Journal. 12 August 2014. Retrieved 12 September 2014. 
  74. ^ "Syrian Kurd leader urges Turkey to join fight against jihadists". Al Monitor. 6 May 2014. Retrieved 12 September 2014. 
  75. ^ a b Schmitt, Eric (21 June 2012). "C.I.A. Said to Aid in Steering Arms to Syrian Opposition". The New York Times. 
  76. ^ Risen, James, Mazzetti, Mark & Schmidt, Michael S. (5 December 2012). "U.S. approved arms for Libya rebels fell into Jihadis' hands". The New York Times. Retrieved 2 August 2013. 
  77. ^ El Deeb, Sarah (20 June 2013). "Rivalries complicate arms pipeline to Syria rebels". San Jose Mercury News. Retrieved 24 August 2013. 
  78. ^ Hosenball, Mark (1 August 2012). "Exclusive: Obama authorizes secret U.S. support for rebels". Reuters. Retrieved 2 August 2013. 
  79. ^ Londono, Ernesto & Miller, Greg (12 September 2013). "U.S. weapons reaching Syrian rebels". The Washington Post. Retrieved 13 September 2013. 
  80. ^ Sherlock, Ruth. "Libya's new rulers offer weapons to Syrian rebels". The Telegraph. Retrieved 25 May 2014. 
  81. ^ "Hollande confirms French delivery of arms to Syrian rebels". AFP. 21 August 2014. Retrieved 25 January 2015. 
  82. ^ "Syria conflict: UK to give extra £5m to opposition groups". BBC. 10 August 2012. Retrieved 2 August 2013. 
  83. ^ Glioti, Andrea (7 May 2013). "Kurdish group gaining autonomy in northern Syria". Al-Monitor. Retrieved 12 August 2013. 
  84. ^ "Meet the PKK 'Terrorists' Battling the Islamic State on the Frontlines of Iraq". Vice News. 22 August 2014. Retrieved 26 September 2014. 
  85. ^ a b van Wigenburg, Wladimir. "Kurdish strategy towards ethnically-mixed areas in the Syrian conflict". Refworld. Retrieved 17 February 2014. 
  86. ^ Heras, Nicholas. "The battle for Syria's al-Hasakah province". Combating Terrorism Center. Retrieved 17 February 2014. 
  87. ^
  88. ^ "Qandil Post report from Tal Hamis frontline". Retrieved 21 September 2014. 
  89. ^ "Die Welt: Die Christen in Syrien ziehen in die Schlacht". Die Welt (in German). 23 October 2013. Retrieved 18 November 2013. 
  90. ^ a b Wood, Josh (6 February 2013). "Syria's Kurds try to balance security and alliances". The New York Times. Retrieved 19 November 2013. 
  91. ^ a b Irish, John (13 November 2013). "Syrian Kurdish leader claims military gains against Islamists". Reuters. Retrieved 13 November 2013. 
  92. ^ "al-Qaeda disavows ISIS militants in Syria". BBC News. Retrieved 4 February 2014. 
  93. ^ "Belarus denies US allegations on selling arms to Syria". Breaking News Network. Retrieved 5 December 2013. 
  94. ^ Hussain, Ghaffar. "After the Arab Spring: Algeria's standing in a new world". The Commentator. Retrieved 5 December 2013. 
  95. ^ "Syrian Kurds, rebels find common enemy in ISIS". Al Monitor. 27 March 2014. Retrieved 27 March 2014. 
  96. ^ "Warring Syrian rebel groups abduct each other's members". Times of Israel (Jerusalem). 18 May 2013. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  97. ^ "Clashes Break Out Between Kurdish Groups In Syria". Al Monitor. 4 April 2013. Retrieved 30 November 2013. 
  98. ^ "Rival Kurdish Parties Clash in Syria". Al Monitor. 10 March 2013. Retrieved 30 November 2013. 
  99. ^ "PYD Leader Skeptical of Kurdish Agreement With Syrian Opposition". 9 March 2013. Retrieved 2013-11-04. 
  100. ^ "Clashes resume in Tripoli, several wounded". Al-Akhbar. 16 May 2012. Retrieved 31 August 2013. 
  101. ^ "Syria's diminished security forces". AFP. 28 August 2013. Retrieved 14 May 2014. 
  102. ^ a b Iranian Strategy in Syria, Institute for the Study of War, Executive Summary + Full report, May 2013
  103. ^ "Pro-regime militias may outlast Assad, threaten future state: report". The Daily Star. Retrieved 5 October 2014. 
  104. ^ Al-Akhbar. 30 December 2013. Retrieved 29 March 2014.
  105. ^ "The Qusayr Rules: The Syrian Regime's Changing Way of War". 31 May 2013. 
  106. ^ "Arab nationalists take up arms in the battle for Syria". The Daily Star. 5 May 2014. Retrieved 14 May 2014. 
  107. ^ a b c Atassi, Basma (22 November 2013). "Major Syrian rebel groups join forces". Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 22 November 2013. 
  108. ^ Richard Hall (22 November 2013). "Turning the tide? Six Syrian rebel groups join forces to counter rise of al-Qa'ida". The Independent. Retrieved 22 November 2013. 
  109. ^ "Syria Islamist rebel factions merge: Spokesman". AFP. 22 November 2013. Retrieved 22 November 2013. 
  110. ^ Michael Weiss (8 January 2014). "Has sahwa hit the fan in Syria?". NOW News. Retrieved 10 January 2014. 
  111. ^ "Top Western-Backed Rebel in Syria Is Forced to Flee". Wall Street Journal. 11 December 2013. Retrieved 28 October 2014. 
  112. ^ "TIME Exclusive: Meet the Islamist Militants Fighting Alongside Syria's Rebels". Time. 26 July 2012. Retrieved 29 November 2012. 
  113. ^ "Syria's Islamist fighters: Competition among Islamists". The Economist. 20 July 2013. Retrieved 26 July 2013. 
  114. ^ "Syria interactive: the rebels, their weapons and funds". Channel 4. 29 May 2013. Retrieved 14 November 2013. 
  115. ^ a b "الأخبار - عربي - تشكيل جديد لفصائل معارضة مسلحة بدمشق". 30 November 2013. Retrieved 2013-11-30. 
  116. ^ a b c d Sinjab, Lina (17 October 2013). "Syria crisis: Guide to armed and political opposition". BBC. Retrieved 3 December 2013. 
  117. ^ "Qaeda-Linked Insurgents Clash With Other Rebels in Syria, as Schism Grows". New York Times. 3 January 2014. Retrieved 6 January 2014. 
  118. ^ "Pushing Back Against the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant: The Syria Revolutionaries' Front and the Mujahideen Army". Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. 7 January 2014. Retrieved 7 January 2014. 
  119. ^ "Syria opposition says it backs rebel fight against al-Qaeda". Al Arabiya News. 4 January 2014. Retrieved 7 January 2014. 
  120. ^ "Jaish al-Muhajireen wal-Ansar Capture Claimed “Assad Spies” In Aleppo". From Chechnya To Syria. 10 September 2014. Retrieved 14 October 2014. 
  121. ^ a b c d e "The new face of the Syrian rebellion". The Arab Chronicle. Archived from the original on 26 March 2014. Retrieved 2 December 2014. 
  122. ^ "Muhajireen Battalions in Syria". 13 December 2013. Retrieved 19 May 2014. 
  123. ^ "Nineteen Syrian Opposition Groups Unite under ’Al-Sham Legion’". Syria 360°. 11 March 2014. Retrieved 13 May 2014. 
  124. ^ 80,000 in mid-2014 (up to 50,000 in Syria and 30,000 in Iraq)
  125. ^ "صالح مسلم: لدينا 15 الف مقاتل من وحدات الحماية الشعبية". Retrieved 2013-11-04. 
  126. ^ Sunday, October 13, 2013 - 10:24 (13 October 2013). "Kurds Build Bridges At Last". Retrieved 20 November 2013. 
  127. ^ Davies, Wyre (27 July 2012). "Crisis in Syria emboldens country's Kurds". BBC. Retrieved 1 September 2013. 
  128. ^ Civiroglu, Mutlu. "Kurdish commander: Jihadi groups in Syria have hijacked FSA". Rudaw. Retrieved 20 February 2014. 
  129. ^ Lund, Aron (13 December 2013). "The Syria Revolutionaries' Front". Carnegie Middle East Center. Retrieved 16 December 2013. 
  130. ^ "A day with the Free Syrian Army". Al Arabiya. 
  131. ^ "Harakat Hazm: America’s new favorite jihadist group". Al Akhbar. 25 May 2014. Retrieved 4 December 2014. 
  132. ^ "American Anti-Tank Weapons Appear in Syrian Rebel Hands (Updated)". Huffington Post. 11 April 2014. Retrieved 15 May 2014. 
  133. ^ "Syrian Turkmen Army officially announced". Fars Haber Ajansi. 8 August 2012. Retrieved 24 August 2013. 
  134. ^ Oweis, Khaled Yacoub. "RPT-INSIGHT-Beheadings and spies help al Qaeda gain ground in Syria". Reuters. Retrieved 20 December 2013. 
  135. ^ "Interview with member of the "National Unity Brigades" of the FSA". Darth Nader. 17 October 2012. Retrieved 20 November 2013. 
  136. ^ 28 2 Idlib أوغاريت ادلب , اعلان تشكيل كتيبة عمار بن ياسر. YouTube (2012-02-28). Retrieved on 2012-03-24.
  137. ^ ‫ادلب كللي تشكيل كتيبة الفرقان في الريف الشمالي27 2 2012. YouTube. Retrieved on 2012-03-24.
  138. ^ Mouterde, Perrine (14 October 2011). "'Free Syrian Army' poses growing threat to Assad". France 24. Retrieved 16 October 2011. 
  139. ^ ‫تشكيل كتيبة شهداء معرة النعمان تابعة للواء محمد الفاتح. YouTube (2012-02-28). Retrieved on 2012-03-24.
  140. ^ ‫الأعلان عن تشكيل كتيبة درع الاسلام 25. 2. 2012. YouTube. Retrieved on 2012-03-24.
  141. ^ Syria Revolts| Documenting the Syrian uprising. Retrieved on 2012-03-24.
  142. ^ ‫تشكيل الكتيبة أسود الشهباء تابعة للجيش السوري الحر. YouTube (2012-01-03). Retrieved on 2012-03-24.
  143. ^ ‫حلب تدخل الثورة من اوسع ابوابها كتيبة سعد الله الجابري.. YouTube. Retrieved on 2012-03-24.
  144. ^ Lebanon news – NOW Lebanon -Assad is growing weaker. NOW Lebanon (2011-10-03). Retrieved on 2012-03-24.
  145. ^ (04-09-13) Al-Rastan| Homs| Bakkour Battalion Announces Alawites Joining FSA. YouTube. Retrieved on 2013-04-09.
  146. ^ ‫تشكيل كتيبة تكريم لروح الشهيد رامي السيد في حمص. YouTube. Retrieved on 2012-03-24.
  147. ^ "The "Free Syrian Army" has a Brigade called "Osama bin Laden", same FSA that West wants to arm". Live Leak. 18 May 2013. Retrieved 21 August 2013. 
  148. ^ "الجيش الحر يستهدف حاجز ميلشيات شيعية على طريق مطار دمشق الدولي 18 35 201". YouTube. 18 May 2013. Retrieved 22 August 2013. 
  149. ^ Christian FSA Brigades in Syria ?. Published on 31 December 2012.
  150. ^ تشكيل أول كتيبة مسيحيه في ريف حماه. YouTube. Published on 2013-03-31.
  151. ^ "ISIS and al-Nusra reportedly lose their final presence in Reef Ras al-A'in: al-Hasaka". PUK Media. Retrieved 17 February 2014. 
  152. ^ "Syria rebels struggle for control over ISIL-held Raqqa". ARA News. 13 May 2014. Retrieved 16 May 2014. 
  153. ^ "Leader of Raqqa Rebels brigade killed". ARA News. 15 May 2014. Retrieved 17 May 2014. 
  154. ^ "Who's Who in the Syrian Civil War". The Clarion Project. Retrieved 21 May 2014. 
  155. ^ a b "Aymenn Jawad Al-Tamimi - Key Updates on Albukamal (Abu Kamal)". Brown Moses Blog. 29 April 2014. Retrieved 21 May 2014. 
  156. ^ "The Factions of Raqqa Province". Syria Comment. 29 July 2014. Retrieved 25 August 2014. 
  157. ^ a b "The Dawn of Freedom Brigades: Analysis and Interview". Syria Comment. 2 October 2014. Retrieved 6 October 2014. 
  158. ^ Aymenn Jawad (15 November 2013). "More On The Druze Militias in Southern Syria". Retrieved 6 October 2014. 
  159. ^ "Druze preachers in Swaida urge defections". 18 February 2013. Retrieved 10 October 2014. 
  160. ^ "The Free Alawite Front". 16 March 2013. Retrieved 9 November 2014. 
  161. ^ "YPG and FSA form a joint military chamber to combat ISIS in Syria". ARA News. 12 September 2014. Retrieved 25 November 2014. 
  162. ^ Aron Lund (21 March 2014). "Does the "Southern Front" Exist?". Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Retrieved 2 December 2014. 
  163. ^ "The Moderate Rebels: A Complete and Growing List of Vetted Groups". الثورة الديمقراطية، الطراز السوري Democratic Revolution, Syrian Style. 21 October 2014. Retrieved 2 December 2014. 
  164. ^ "FSA Southern Front’s Political Program for Post-Assad Syria". Democratic Revolution, Syrian Style. 6 December 2014. Retrieved 6 December 2014. 
  165. ^ Elijah J. Magnier: Twitter
  166. ^ Unknown gunmen assassinate 2 leaders in al-Omma army
  167. ^ "The Moderate Rebels A Complete abd Growing List of Vetted Groups Fielding TOW-Missiles". Hasan Mustafa's Blog. Retrieved 7 January 2015. 
  168. ^ "قيادة مشتركة موحدة للجيش الحر في درعا والقنيطرة". Al Arabiya. Retrieved 14 November 2014. 
  169. ^ "Three important Free Syrian Army factions decided, at this 2015 new year, to create the First Army". SRO. 1 January 2015. Retrieved 2 January 2015. 
  170. ^ العقيد "الدهني" تشكيل تحالف "صقور الجنوب" خطوة نحو توحيد فصائل حوران
  171. ^ Spencer, Richard. "Leading Syrian rebels defect, dealing blow to fight against al-Qaeda". The Telegraph. Retrieved 8 December 2013. 
  172. ^ a b "The Levant Front: Can Aleppo’s Rebels Unite?". Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. 26 December 2014. Retrieved 26 December 2014. 
  173. ^ "The Mujahedeen Army of Aleppo". Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. 8 April 2014. Retrieved 18 May 2014. 
  174. ^ Karouni, Mariam & Holmes, Oliver (12 July 2013). "New front opens in Syria as rebels say al-Qaeda attack means war". Reuters. Retrieved 19 November 2013. 
  175. ^ Roggio, Bill (28 May 2013). "Chechen commander forms 'Army of Emigrants,' integrates Syrian groups". Long War Journal. Retrieved 19 June 2013. 
  176. ^ Paraszczuk, Joanna. "Syria spotlight: Some North Caucasian militants swear allegiance to Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi". EA Worldview. Retrieved 12 December 2013. 
  177. ^ "Free Syrian Union founding charter". 13 October 2013. 
  178. ^ "Syria: Army of the Mujahideen Challenges ISIS Gains". Al Akhbar. 6 January 2014. Retrieved 7 January 2014. 
  179. ^ "Jeish al-Mujahideen Charter – Comment and Translation". Goha's Nail. 4 May 2014. Retrieved 14 May 2014. 
  180. ^ "جيش المجاهدين يعلن في بيان له فصل لواء الأنصار وعزل قائده المقدم أبو بكر عن قيادته بسبب "تورطه في بقضايا سرقات وخطف وتهريب سجناء من داعش". 3-6-2014". Mojez. Retrieved 5 October 2014. 
  181. ^ "Aleppo: Syria's Stalingrad?". National Interest. 22 April 2014. Retrieved 2 June 2014. 
  182. ^ "New Syrian jihadist body formed to fight ISIS". Al Monitor. 28 May 2014. Retrieved 3 June 2014. 
  183. ^ a b c "EXCLUSIVE – 18 Syrian revolutionary factions advancing toward a One Army project". The Arab Chronicle. 3 August 2014. Archived from the original on 26 August 2014. Retrieved 1 December 2014. 
  184. ^ a b "Translation: the Formation of the Syrian Revolutionary Command Council". Goha's Nail. 3 August 2014. Retrieved 13 October 2014. 
  185. ^ "Syria’s Ahrar al-Sham Leadership Wiped Out in Bombing". Carnegie Endowment of International Peace. 9 September 2014. Retrieved 13 October 2014. 
  186. ^ a b "The Revolutionary Command Council: Rebel Unity in Syria?". Carnegie Endowment of International Peace. 1 December 2014. Retrieved 1 December 2014. 
  187. ^ "Jaish al-Muhajireen wal-Ansar Capture Claimed “Assad Spies” In Aleppo". From Chechnya To Syria. 10 September 2014. Retrieved 12 September 2014. 
  188. ^ "Video: Saudi Faction Swears Allegiance To Jaish al-Muhajireen wal-Ansar Emir". From Chechnya To Syria. 4 October 2014. Retrieved 4 October 2014. 
  189. ^ "Syria Update: July 17 - 25, 2014". Institute for the Study of War Syria Updates. 25 July 2014. Retrieved 26 July 2014. 
  190. ^ "YPG and FSA form a joint military chamber to combat ISIS in Syria". ARA News. 12 September 2014. Retrieved 18 September 2014. 
  191. ^ "YPG and FSA set up 'Joint Action Centre'". Firat News. 11 September 2014. Retrieved 18 September 2014. 
  192. ^ "1,000 Syrian rebels defect to Islamic State in sign it’s still strengthening". McClatchy News Service. 8 July 2014. Retrieved 9 July 2014. 
  193. ^ Lund, Aron (3 May 2013). "New addition to the Syrian Islamic Front". Joshua Landis. Retrieved 17 July 2013. 
  194. ^ a b c d e f "A cross-section of Islamist rebel forces in Syria". Al Monitor. 2 December 2013. Retrieved 15 December 2013. 
  195. ^ "The Staff". Suqour al-Sham Brigades. Retrieved 6 December 2013. 
  196. ^ "Rebel groups work to contain Kurd-Arab, intra-Kurd tensions". The Daily Star. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 19 November 2013. 
  197. ^ Weiss, Michael (2 November 2012). "The impending Syrian-Kurdish conflict". Now. Retrieved 22 July 2013. 
  198. ^ O'Bagy, Elizabeth. "The Free Syrian Army". Institute for the Study of War. Retrieved 6 December 2013. 
  199. ^ Lund, Aron (5 October 2012). "Holy warriors". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 17 July 2013. 
  200. ^ "Syria's moderate rebels wane as extremist forces dominate". The National. 31 July 2013. 
  201. ^ "Kataeb.Ahrar.Alshamal Idlib". YouTube. Retrieved 20 November 2013. 
  202. ^ Higgins, Elliott (23 May 2013). "Brown Moses Blog: DIY Weapons In Syria - The Hell Cannon". Retrieved 20 November 2013. 
  203. ^ "Front components". Syrian Islamic Liberation Front. Retrieved 10 August 2013. 

External links[edit]