List of muscles of the human body

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This is a table of muscles of the human anatomy.

There are approximately 642 skeletal muscles within the typical human, and almost every muscle constitutes one part of a pair of identical bilateral muscles, found on both sides, resulting in approximately 320 pairs of muscles, as presented in this article. Nevertheless, the exact number is difficult to define because different sources group muscles differently, e.g. regarding what is defined as different parts of a single muscle or as several muscles. Examples range from 640 to 850.[1]

The muscles of the human body can be categorized into a number of groups which include muscles relating to the head and neck, muscles of the torso or trunk, muscles of the upper limbs, and muscles of the lower limbs.

The action refers to the action of each muscle from the standard anatomical position. In other positions, other actions may be performed.

These muscles are described using anatomical terminology.

Head[edit]

Scalp/Eyelid[edit]

Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
occipitofrontalis 2 occipital bellies and 2 frontal bellies. galea aponeurotica facial nerve raises the eyebrows
     occipitalis superior nuchal line of the occipital bone
mastoid part of the temporal bone
galea aponeurotica occipital artery posterior auricular nerve (facial nerve)
     frontalis galea aponeurotica mastoid process ophthalmic artery facial nerve wrinkles eyebrow
orbicularis oculi frontal bone; medial palpebral ligament; lacrimal bone lateral palpebral raphe ophthalmic, zygomatico-orbital, angular zygomatic branch of facial closes eyelids levator palpebrae superioris
corrugator supercilii superciliary arches forehead skin, near eyebrow facial nerve wrinkles forehead
depressor supercilii medial orbital rim medial aspect of bony orbit facial nerve Depresses the eyebrow

Extraocular muscles[edit]

Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
levator palpebrae superioris sphenoid bone tarsal plate, upper eyelid ophthalmic artery oculomotor nerve retracts//elevates eyelid orbicularis oculi muscle
superior tarsal underside of levator palpebrae superioris superior tarsal plate of the eyelid sympathetic nervous system raise the upper eyelid
orbicularis oculi frontal bone, medial palpebral ligament, and lacrimal bone lateral palpebral raphe ophthalmic artery, zygomatico-orbital artery, angular artery facial nerve closes the eyelids levator palpebrae superioris muscle
Rectus muscles
     superior annulus of Zinn at the orbital apex 7.5 mm superior to the corneal limbus oculomotor nerve elevates, adducts, and rotates medially the eye
     inferior 6.5 mm inferior to the corneal limbus inferior branch of oculomotor nerve depression and adduction
     medial 5.5 mm medial to the corneal limbus inferior division of the oculomotor nerve adducts the eyeball
     lateral 7 mm temporal to the corneal limbus abducens nerve abducts the eyeball
Oblique muscles
     superior annulus of Zinn at the orbital apex, medial to optic canal outer posterior quadrant of the eyeball lateral muscular branch of the ophthalmic artery trochlear nerve primary: intorsion. secondary:abduct (laterally rotate) and depress the eyeball
     inferior orbital surface of the maxilla, lateral to the lacrimal groove laterally onto the eyeball, deep to the lateral rectus, by a short flat tendon oculomotor nerve extorsion, elevation, abduction

Intraocular[edit]

Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
ciliary long posterior ciliary arteries oculomotor nerve (parasympathetics) accommodation
iris dilator superior cervical ganglion (sympathetics) pupil dilation iris sphincter muscle
iris sphincter short ciliary nerves constricts pupil iris dilator muscle

Ear[edit]

Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
auriculares galeal aponeurosis front of the helix, cranial surface of the pinna facial nerve (Wiggle ears)
temporoparietalis auriculares muscles galea aponeurotica
stapedius neck of stapes facial nerve control the amplitude of sound waves to the inner ear
tensor tympani Eustachian tube handle of the malleus superior tympanic artery medial pterygoid nerve from mandibular nerve tensing the tympanic membrane

Nose[edit]

Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
procerus from fascia over the lower of the nasal bone skin of the lower part of the forehead between the eyebrows buccal branch of the facial nerve Draws down the medial angle of the eyebrow, giving expressions of frowning
nasalis maxilla nasal bone Compresses bridge, depresses tip of nose, elevates corners of nostrils
dilator naris margin of the nasal notch of the maxilla, greater and lesser alar cartilages skin near the margin of the nostril dilation of nostrils
depressor septi nasi incisive fossa of the maxilla nasal septum and back part of the alar part of nasalis muscle depression of nasal septum
levator labii superioris alaeque nasi maxilla nostril and upper lip superior labial artery dilates the nostril; elevates the upper lip and wing of the nose

Mouth[edit]

Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
levator anguli oris
(caninus)
maxilla modiolus of mouth facial artery facial nerve smile (elevates angle of mouth)
depressor anguli oris
(triangularis)
tubercle of mandible modiolus of mouth facial artery mandibular branch of facial nerve depresses angle of mouth
levator labii superioris medial infra-orbital margin skin and muscle of the upper lip (labii superioris) superior labial artery buccal branch of the facial nerve Elevates the upper lip
depressor labii inferioris oblique line of the mandible, between the symphysis and the mental foramen integument of the lower lip, orbicularis oris fibers, its fellow of the opposite side inferior labial artery facial nerve Depresses the lower lip
mentalis anterior mandible chin mandibular branch of facial nerve elevates and wrinkles skin of chin, protrudes lower lip
buccinator alveolar processes of the maxillary bone and mandible, pterygomandibular raphe in the fibres of the orbicularis oris buccal artery buccal branch of the facial nerve compress the cheeks against the teeth (blowing), mastication.
orbicularis oris maxilla and mandible skin around the lips pucker the lips
risorius parotid fascia modiolus facial artery draw back angle of mouth
Zygomatic muscles
     major anterior of zygomatic bone modiolus of mouth facial artery buccal branch of the facial nerve draws angle of mouth upward and laterally
     minor zygomatic bone skin of the upper lip facial nerve, buccal branch elevates upper lip

Mastication[edit]

Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
masseter zygomatic arch and maxilla coronoid process and ramus of mandible masseteric artery masseteric nerve (V3) elevation (as in closing of the mouth) and retraction of mandible platysma muscle
temporalis temporal lines on the parietal bone of the skull coronoid process of the mandible deep temporal third branch (mandibular nerve) of the trigeminal nerve elevation and retraction of mandible
Pterygoid muscles
     lateral great wing of sphenoid and pterygoid plate condyle of mandible pterygoid branches of maxillary artery external pterygoid nerve from the mandibular nerve depresses mandible
     medial deep head: medial side of lateral pterygoid plate behind the upper teeth
superficial head: pyramidal process of palatine bone and maxillary tuberosity
medial angle of the mandible mandibular nerve via nerve to medial pterygoid elevates mandible, closes jaw, helps lateral pterygoids in moving the jaw from side to side

Tongue[edit]

Extrinsic[edit]

Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
genioglossus Superior part of mental spine of mandible (symphysis menti) Dorsum of tongue and body of hyoid Lingual artery hypoglossal nerve Complex - Inferior fibers protrude the tongue, middle fibers depress the tongue, and its superior fibers draw the tip back and down
hyoglossus hyoid side of the tongue hypoglossal nerve depresses tongue
chondroglossus lesser cornu and body of the hyoid bone intrinsic muscular fibers of the tongue hypoglossal nerve depresses tongue (some consider this muscle to be part of hyoglossus)
styloglossus Styloid process of temporal bone tongue Hypoglossal nerve elevates and retracts tongue inferior and middle fibers of genioglossus
palatoglossus palatine aponeurosis tongue vagus nerve and cranial accessory nerve raising the back part of the tongue

Intrinsic[edit]

Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
superior longitudinal close to the epiglottis, from the median fibrous septum edges of the tongue hypoglossal nerve shortens, turns tip upward, turns lateral margins upward
transversus median fibrous septum sides of the tongue hypoglossal nerve narrows and elongates
inferior longitudinal root of the tongue apex of the tongue Hypoglossal nerve shortens, retracts, pulls tip downward
verticalis muscle dorsum of tongue inferior surface borders of tongue hypoglossal nerve flattens

Soft palate[edit]

Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
levator veli palatini temporal bone, Eustachian tube palatine aponeurosis facial artery vagus nerve Aids in swallowing by elevating the soft palate
tensor veli palatini medial pterygoid plate of the sphenoid bone medial pterygoid of mandibular nerve Aids in swallowing by controlling the tension of the soft palate
musculus uvulae hard palate pharyngeal plexus Moves and changes shape of the uvula
palatoglossus palatine aponeurosis tongue vagus nerve and cranial accessory nerve Aids in respiration by raising the back part of the tongue
palatopharyngeus palatine aponeurosis and hard palate upper border of thyroid cartilage (blends with constrictor fibers) facial artery vagus nerve and cranial accessory nerve Aids in respiration by pulling the pharynx and larynx

Pharynx[edit]

Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
stylopharyngeus temporal styloid process thyroid cartilage (pharynx) pharyngeal branches of ascending pharyngeal artery glossopharyngeal nerve elevate the larynx, elevate the pharynx, swallowing
salpingopharyngeus cartilage of the Eustachian tube posterior fasciculus of the pharyngopalatinus muscle vagus nerve and cranial accessory nerve raise the nasopharynx
Pharyngeal muscles
     inferior cricoid and thyroid cartilage pharyngeal raphe pharyngeal branches of ascending pharyngeal artery external laryngeal branch of the vagus Swallowing
     middle hyoid bone pharyngeal raphe vagus nerve Swallowing
     superior medial pterygoid plate, pterygomandibular raphé, alveolar process pharyngeal raphe, pharyngeal tubercle vagus nerve Swallowing

Larynx[edit]

Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
cricothyroid anterior and lateral cricoid cartilage inferior cornu and lamina of the thyroid cartilage external laryngeal branch of the vagus tension and elongation of the vocal folds (has minor adductory effect)
arytenoid arytenoid cartilage on one side arytenoid cartilage on opposite side recurrent laryngeal branch of the vagus approximate the arytenoid cartilages (close rima glottidis)
thyroarytenoid inner surface of the thyroid cartilage (anterior aspect) anterior surface of arytenoid cartilage recurrent laryngeal branch of the vagus thickens the vocal folds and decreases length; also helps to adduct the vocal folds during speech
Cricoarytenoid muscles
     posterior posterior part of the cricoid muscular process of the arytenoid cartilage recurrent laryngeal branch of the vagus abducts and laterally rotates the cartilage, pulling the vocal ligaments away from the midline and forward and so opening the rima glottidis lateral cricoarytenoid muscle
     lateral lateral part of the arch of the cricoid muscular process of the arytenoid cartilage recurrent laryngeal branch of the vagus adduct and medially rotate the cartilage, pulling the vocal ligaments towards the midline and backwards and so closing off the rima glottidis

Neck[edit]

Cervical[edit]

Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
platysma inferior clavicle and fascia of chest mandible branches of the submental artery and suprascapular artery cervical branch of the facial nerve (CN VII) Draws the corners of the mouth inferiorly and widens it (as in expressions of sadness and fright). Also draws the skin of the neck superiorly when teeth are clenched Masseter, Temporalis
sternocleidomastoid manubrium sterni, medial portion of the clavicle mastoid process of the temporal bone, superior nuchal line occipital artery and the superior thyroid artery motor: accessory nerve
sensory: cervical plexus
Acting alone, tilts head to its own side and rotates it so the face is turned towards the opposite side.

Acting together, flexes the neck, raises the sternum and assists in forced inspiration. ||

Suprahyoid[edit]

Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
digastric anterior belly - digastric fossa (mandible); posterior belly - mastoid process of temporal bone Intermediate tendon (hyoid bone) anterior belly - mandibular division of the trigeminal (CN V) via the mylohyoid nerve; posterior belly - facial nerve (CN VII) Opens the jaw when the masseter and the temporalis are relaxed.
stylohyoid styloid process (temporal) greater cornu of hyoid bone facial nerve (CN VII) Elevate the hyoid during swallowing
mylohyoid Mylohyoid line (mandible) Median raphé mylohyoid branch of inferior alveolar artery mylohyoid nerve, from inferior alveolar branch of mandibular nerve [V3] Raises oral cavity floor, elevates hyoid, depresses mandible
geniohyoid Symphysis menti hyoid bone C1 via hypoglossal nerve carry hyoid bone and the tongue upward during deglutition

Infrahyoid/Strap[edit]

Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
sternohyoid manubrium of sternum hyoid bone ansa cervicalis depress hyoid bone
sternothyroid manubrium thyroid cartilage Ansa cervicalis Elevates larynx, may slightly depress hyoid bone
thyrohyoid thyroid cartilage hyoid bone first cervical nerve depress hyoid bone
omohyoid Upper border of the scapula Hyoid bone Ansa cervicalis Depresses the larynx and hyoid bone. Carries hyoid bone backward and to the side

Vertebrate[edit]

Anterior[edit]

Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
longus colli Transverse processes of C-3 - C-6 Inferior surface of the occipital bone C2, C3, C4, C5, C6 Flexes the neck and head
longus capitis anterior tubercles of the transverse processes of the third, fourth, fifth, and sixth cervical vertebrae basilar part of the occipital bone C1, C2, C3/C4 flexion of neck at atlanto-occipital joint
rectus capitis anterior atlas occipital bone C1 flexion of neck at atlanto-occipital joint
rectus capitis lateralis upper surface of the transverse process of the atlas under surface of the jugular process of the occipital bone C1 Sidebend at atlanto-occipital joint

Lateral[edit]

Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
scalene muscles cervical vertebrae first and second ribs ascending cervical artery (branch of inferior thyroid artery) cervical nerves (C3, C4, C5, C6, C7 elevation of ribs I&II
     anterior C3-C6 first rib ascending cervical artery (branch of inferior thyroid artery) ventral ramus of C5, C6 When the neck is fixed, elevates the first rib to aid in breathing or when the rib is fixed, bends the neck forward and sideways and rotates it to the opposite side
     medius C2-C6 first rib ascending cervical artery (branch of inferior thyroid artery) ventral rami of the third to eighth cervical spinal nerves Elevate 1st rib, rotate the neck to the opposite side
     posterior transverse processes of C4 - C6 2nd rib ascending cervical artery, superficial cervical artery C6, C7, C8 Elevate 2nd rib, tilt the neck to the same side
levator scapulae Posterior tubercles of transverse processes of C1 - C4 Superior part of medial border of scapula dorsal scapular artery cervical nerve (C3, C4) and dorsal scapular nerve (C5) Elevates scapula and tilts its glenoid cavity inferiorly by rotating scapula
rectus capitis lateralis upper surface of the transverse process of the atlas (C1) under surface of the jugular process of the occipital bone C1
obliquus capitis superior lateral mass of atlas lateral half of the inferior nuchal line suboccipital nerve
inferior spinous process of the axis lateral mass of atlas suboccipital nerve

Posterior[edit]

Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
rectus capitis posterior minor the tubercle on the posterior arch of the atlas (C1) the medial part of the inferior nuchal line of the occipital bone and the surface between it and the foramen magnum a branch of the dorsal primary division of the suboccipital nerve extends the head at the neck, but is now considered to be more of a sensory organ than a muscle
rectus capitis posterior major spinous process of the axis (C2) inferior nucheal line of the occipital bone Dorsal ramus of C1 (suboccipital nerve)
semispinalis capitis articular processes of C4-C6; transverse processes of C7 and T1-T7 occipital bone between the superior and inferior nuchal lines greater occipital nerve Extension of the head
longissimus capitis articular processes of C4-C7; transverse processes ot T1-T5 posterior margin of the mastoid process lateral sacral artery posterior branch of spinal nerve Laterally: Flex the head and neck to the same side. Bilaterally: Extend the vertebral column.
splenius capitis ligamentum nuchae, spinous processes of C7-T6 Mastoid process C3, C4 Extend, rotate, and laterally flex the head

Torso[edit]

Back[edit]

Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
erector spinae on the spines of the last four thoracic vertebrae both the spines of the most cranial thoracic vertebrae and the cervical vertebrae lateral sacral artery posterior branch of spinal nerve extends the vertebral column rectus abdominis muscle
     iliocostalis lateral sacral artery
     longissimus transverse process transverse process lateral sacral artery posterior branch of spinal nerve rectus abdominis muscle
     spinalis spinous process spinous process lateral sacral artery posterior branch of spinal nerve rectus abdominis muscle
latissimus dorsi spinous processes of thoracic T6-T12, thoracolumbar fascia, iliac crest and inferior 3 or 4 ribs floor of intertubercular groove of the humerus subscapular artery, dorsal scapular artery thoracodorsal nerve pulls the forelimb dorsally and caudally deltoid, trapezius
transversospinales transverse process spinous process posterior branches
     semispinalis dorsi transverse processes of the sixth to the tenth thoracic vertebrae spinous processes of the upper four thoracic and lower two cervical vertebrae
     semispinalis cervicis transverse processes of the upper five or six thoracic vertebræ cervical spinous processes, from the axis to the fifth
     semispinalis capitis transversal process of lower cervical and higher thoracal columna area between superior and inferior nuchal line greater occipital nerve Extends the head
     multifidus sacrum, erector spinae aponeurosis, PSIS, and iliac crest spinous process posterior branch of spinal nerve Stabilizes vertebrae in local movements of vertebral column
     rotatores transverse process spinous process posterior branch
interspinales spinous process spinous process posterior rami of spinal nerves Extension, flexion and rotation of vertebral column.
intertransversarii transverse process transverse process above anterior rami of spinal nerves Lateral flexion of trunk
Splenius muscles
     capitis ligamentum nuchae, spinous process of C7-T6 Mastoid process of temporal and occipital bone C3, C4 Extend, rotate, and laterally flex the head
     cervicis spinous processes of T3-T6 transverse processes of C1, C2, C3 C5, C6

Chest[edit]

Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
intercostales ribs 1-11 ribs 2-12 intercostal arteries intercostal nerves
     external intercostal arteries intercostal nerves Inhalation internal
     internal rib - inferior border rib - superior border intercostal arteries intercostal nerves hold ribs steady external
     innermost intercostal arteries intercostal nerves
subcostales inner surface of one rib inner surface of the second or third rib above, near its angle intercostal nerves
transversus thoracis costal cartilages of last 3-4 ribs, body of sternum, xiphoid process ribs/costal cartilages 2-6 intercostal arteries intercostal nerves depresses ribs
levatores costarum transverse processes of C7 to T12 vertebrae superior surfaces of the ribs immediately inferior to the preceding vertebrae dorsal rami - C8, T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, T7, T8, T9, T10, T11 Assists in elevation of the thoracic rib cage
Serratus posterior muscles
     inferior vertebrae T11 - L3 the inferior borders of the 9th through 12th ribs intercostal arteries intercostal nerves depress the lower ribs, aiding in expiration
     superior nuchal ligament (or ligamentum nuchae) and the spinous processes of the vertebrae C7 through T3 the upper borders of the 2nd through 5th ribs intercostal arteries 2nd through 5th intercostal nerves elevate the ribs which aids in inspiration
diaphragm pericardiacophrenic artery, musculophrenic artery, inferior phrenic arteries phrenic and lower intercostal nerves respiration

Abdomen[edit]

Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
transversus abdominis ribs and the iliac crest inserts into the pubic tubercle via the conjoint tendon, also known as the falx inguinalis intercostal nerves T7, T8, T9, T10, T11, subcostal nerve (T12), iliohypogastric nerve, ilioinguinal nerve, genitofemoral nerve compress the ribs and viscera, providing thoracic and pelvic stability
rectus abdominis pubis costal cartilages of ribs 5-7, xiphoid process of sternum inferior epigastric artery segmentally by thoraco-abdominal nerves (T7, T8, T9, T10, T11, T12) flexion of trunk/lumbar vertebrae erector spinae
pyramidalis pubic symphysis and pubic crest linea alba subcostal nerve (T12) tensing the linea alba
cremaster inguinal ligament cremasteric artery genital branch of genitofemoral nerve raise and lower the scrotum
quadratus lumborum iliac crest and iliolumbar ligament last rib and transverse processes of lumbar vertebrae lumbar arteries, iliolumbar artery anterior branches of T12, L1, L2, L3, L4 Alone, lateral flexion of vertebral column; Together, depression of thoracic rib cage
Oblique muscles
     external Lower 8 costae Crista iliaca, ligamentum inguinale intercostal nerves T5, T6, T7, T8, T9, T10, T11, subcostal nerve (T12) Rotates torso
     internal inguinal ligament, iliac crest and the lumbodorsal fascia linea alba, xyphoid process and the inferior ribs. intercostal nerves T8, T9, T10, T11, subcostal nerve (T12), iliohypogastric nerve, ilioinguinal nerve Compresses abdomen and rotates vertebral column.

Pelvis[edit]

Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
coccygeus sacrospinous ligament sacral nerves: S4, S5 or S3-S4 closing in the back part of the outlet of the pelvis
Levator ani
     iliococcygeus ischial spine and from the posterior part of the tendinous arch of the pelvic fascia coccyx and anococcygeal raphe supports the viscera in pelvic cavity
     pubococcygeus back of the pubis and from the anterior part of the obturator fascia coccyx and sacrum controls urine flow and contracts during orgasm
     puborectalis lower part of the pubic symphysis S3, S4. levator ani nerve inhibit defecation

Perineum[edit]

Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
Scphincter ani
     externus S4 and twigs from inferior anal nerves of pudendal nerve keep the anal canal and anus closed, aids in the expulsion of the feces
     internus pudendal nerve keep the anal canal and anus closed, aids in the expulsion of the feces
Superficial perineal pouch
     transversus perinei superficialis anterior part of ischial tuberosity central point of perineum pudendal nerve
     bulbospongiosus median raphé perineal artery pudendal nerve in males, empties the urethra; in females, clenches the vagina
     ischiocavernosus perineal artery pudendal nerve assists the bulbospongiosus muscle
Deep perineal pouch
     transversus perinei profundus inferior rami of the ischium its fellow of the opposite side pudendal nerve
     sphincter urethrae membranaceae junction of the inferior rami of the pubis and ischium to the extent of 1.25–2 cm., and from the neighboring fasciæ its fellow of the opposite side perineal branch of the pudendal nerve (S2, S3, S4) Constricts urethra, maintain urinary continence

Upper limbs[edit]

Vertebral column[edit]

Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
trapezius down the midline, from the external occipital protuberance, the nuchal ligament, the medial part of the superior nuchal line, and the spinous processes of the vertebrae C7-T12 at the shoulders, into the lateral third of the clavicle, the acromion process and into the spine of the scapula transverse cervical artery major nerve supply is the cranial nerve XI. cervical nerves C3 and C4 receive information about pain in this muscle retraction and elevation of scapula. Serratus anterior muscle
latissimus dorsi spinous processes of thoracic T6-T12, thoracolumbar fascia, iliac crest and inferior 3 or 4 ribs floor of intertubercular groove of the humerus subscapular artery, dorsal scapular artery thoracodorsal nerve pulls the forelimb dorsally and caudally deltoid, trapezius
rhomboids nuchal ligaments, spinous processes of C7-T5 vertebrae medial border of the scapula dorsal scapular artery dorsal scapular nerve (C4 and C5) Retracts the scapula and rotates it to depress the glenoid cavity. fixes the scapula to the thoracic wall. Serratus anterior muscle
     rhomboid major spinous processes of the T2 to T5 vertebrae medial border of the scapula, inferior to the insertion of rhomboid minor muscle dorsal scapular artery dorsal scapular nerve (C4 and C5) Retracts the scapula and rotates it to depress the glenoid cavity. It also fixes the scapula to the thoracic wall. Serratus anterior muscle
     rhomboid minor nuchal ligaments and spinous processes of C7- to T1 vertebrae medial border of the scapula, superior to the insertion of rhomboid major muscle dorsal scapular artery dorsal scapular nerve (C4 and C5) Retracts the scapula and rotates it to depress the glenoid cavity. It also fixes the scapula to the thoracic wall. Serratus anterior muscle
levator scapulae posterior tubercles of transverse processes of C1 - C4 vertebrae superior part of medial border of scapula dorsal scapular artery cervical nerve (C3, C4) and dorsal scapular nerve (C5) Elevates scapula and tilts its glenoid cavity inferiorly by rotating scapula

Thoracic walls[edit]

Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
pectoralis major anterior surface of the medial half of the clavicle.
Sternocostal head: anterior surface of the sternum, the superior six costal cartilages
intertubercular groove of the humerus pectoral branch of the thoracoacromial trunk lateral pectoral nerve and medial pectoral nerve
Clavicular head: C5 and C6
Sternocostal head: C7, C8 and T1
Clavicular head: flexes the humerus
Sternocostal head: extends the humerus
As a whole, adducts and medially rotates the humerus. It also draws the scapula anteriorly and inferiorly.
pectoralis minor 3rd to 5th ribs, near their costal cartilages medial border and superior surface of the coracoid process of the scapula Pectoral branch of the thoracoacromial trunk Medial pectoral nerves (C8, T1) stabilizes the scapula by drawing it inferiorly and anteriorly against the thoracic wall
subclavius first rib subclavian groove of clavicle thoracoacromial artery, clavicular branch nerve to subclavius Depresses the clavicle
serratus anterior fleshy slips from the outer surface of upper 8 or 9 ribs costal aspect of medial margin of the scapula lateral thoracic artery (upper part), thoracodorsal artery (lower part) long thoracic nerve (from roots of brachial plexus C5, C6, C7) protract and stabilize scapula, assists in upward rotation Rhomboid major, Rhomboid minor, Trapezius

Shoulder[edit]

Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
deltoid clavicle, acromion, spine of the scapula deltoid tuberosity of humerus primarily posterior circumflex humeral artery Axillary nerve shoulder abduction, flexion and extension Latissimus dorsi
teres major posterior aspect of the inferior angle of the scapula medial lip of the intertubercular sulcus of the humerus Subscapular and circumflex scapular arteries Lower subscapular nerve (segmental levels C5 and C6) Internal rotation of the humerus
Rotator cuff
supraspinatus supraspinous fossa of scapula superior facet of greater tubercle of humerus suprascapular artery suprascapular nerve abduction of arm and stabilizes humerus infraspinatus, teres minor, pectoralis major, and latissimus dorsi
infraspinatus infraspinous fossa of the scapula middle facet of greater tubercle of the humerus suprascapular and circumflex scapular arteries suprascapular nerve Lateral rotation of arm & Adduction of arm and stabilizes humerus subscapularis, pectoralis major, and latissimus dorsi
teres minor lateral border of the scapula inferior facet of greater tubercle of the humerus posterior circumflex humeral artery and the circumflex scapular artery axillary nerve laterally rotates and adducts the arm subscapularis, pectoralis major, and latissimus dorsi
subscapularis subscapular fossa lesser tubercle of humerus subscapular artery upper subscapular nerve, lower subscapular nerve (C5, C6) rotates medially humerus; stabilizes shoulder infraspinatus and teres minor

Arm[edit]

Anterior compartment[edit]

Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
coracobrachialis coracoid process of scapula medial humerus brachial artery musculocutaneous nerve flexes at shoulder joint
biceps brachii short head: coracoid process of the scapula. long head: supraglenoid tubercle radial tuberosity brachial artery Musculocutaneous nerve (Lateral cord: C5, C6, C7) flexes elbow and supinates forearm Triceps brachii muscle
brachialis anterior surface of the humerus, particularly the distal half of this bone coronoid process and the tuberosity of the ulna radial recurrent artery musculocutaneous nerve flexion at elbow joint

Posterior compartment[edit]

Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
triceps brachii long head:Infraglenoid tubercle of the scapula
lateral head: posterior humerus - above radial grove
medial head: posterior humerus-under radial groove
olecranon process of ulna Profunda brachii radial nerve extends forearm, caput longum adducts shoulder Biceps brachii muscle
anconeus Lateral epicondyle of the humerus lateral surface of the olecranon process and the superior part of the posterior ulna Profunda brachii, recurrent interosseous artery radial nerve (C7, C8, and T1) partly blended in with the triceps, which it assists in extension of the forearm. Stabilises the elbow and abducts the ulna during pronation.

Forearm[edit]

Anterior compartment[edit]

Superficial[edit]
Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
pronator teres humeral head: medial epicondyle of humerus (common flexor tendon)
ulnar head: coronoid process of the ulna
radius pronator tuberosity ulnar artery and radial artery median nerve pronation of forearm, flexes elbow Supinator muscle
flexor carpi radialis medial epicondyle of humerus (common flexor tendon) Bases of second and third metacarpal bones ulnar artery Median nerve Flexion and abduction at wrist Extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle, Extensor carpi radialis longus muscle
palmaris longus medial epicondyle of humerus (common flexor tendon) palmar aponeurosis ulnar artery median nerve wrist flexor Extensor carpi radialis brevis, Extensor carpi radialis longus, Extensor carpi ulnaris
flexor carpi ulnaris medial epicondyle of the humerus (common flexor tendon) pisiform ulnar artery muscular branches of ulnar nerve flexion and adduction of wrist Extensor carpi ulnaris muscle
flexor digitorum superficialis medial epicondyle of the humerus (common flexor tendon), as well as parts of the radius and ulna. phalanges II-IV ulnar artery median nerve flexor of fingers (primarily at proximal interphalangeal joints) Extensor digitorum muscle
Deep[edit]
Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
pronator quadratus medial, anterior surface of the ulna lateral, anterior surface of the radius anterior interosseous artery median nerve (anterior interosseous nerve) pronates the forearm Supinator muscle
flexor digitorum profundus ulna distal phalanges anterior interosseous artery median (anterior interosseous), muscular branches of ulnar flex hand, interphalangeal joints Extensor digitorum muscle
flexor pollicis longus The middle 2/4 of the volar [disambiguation needed] surface of the radius and the adjacent interosseus membrane. (Also occasionally a small origin slightly on the medial epicondyle of the ulna.) The base of the distal phalanx of the thumb Anterior interosseous artery Anterior interosseous nerve (branch of median nerve) (C8, T1) Flexion of the thumb Extensor pollicis longus muscle, Extensor pollicis brevis muscle

Posterior compartment[edit]

Superficial[edit]
Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
extensor digitorum lateral epicondyle (common extensor tendon) 2nd-4th phalange posterior interosseous nerve (C7, C8) extension of hand and fingers Flexor digitorum superficialis muscle, Flexor digitorum profundus muscle
extensor digiti minimi the anterior portion of the lateral epicondyle of the humerus (common extensor tendon) extensor expansion, located at the base of the proximal phalanx of the finger on the dorsal side posterior interosseous artery which originates from the common interosseous artery and more proximally, the ulnar artery posterior interosseous nerve (C7, C8) extends the little finger at all joints Flexor digiti minimi brevis
extensor carpi ulnaris Common extensor tendon (lateral epicondyle), ulna 5th metacarpal ulnar artery posterior interosseous nerve (C7, C8) extends and adducts the wrist Flexor carpi ulnaris
Mobile wad
     brachioradialis Lateral supracondylar ridge of the humerus Distal radius (Radial styloid process) radial recurrent artery radial nerve Flexion of forearm
     extensor carpi radialis longus lateral supracondylar ridge 2nd metacarpal radial artery radial nerve extensor at the wrist joint, abducts the hand at the wrist Flexor carpi radialis muscle
     extensor carpi radialis brevis humerus at the anterior of lateral epicondyle (common extensor tendon) base of the 3rd metacarpal radial artery posterior interosseus nerve extensor and abductor of the hand at the wrist joint Flexor carpi radialis muscle
Deep[edit]
Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
supinator Lateral epicondyle of the humerus, supinator crest of ulna, radial collateral ligament, annular ligament Lateral proximal radial shaft radial recurrent artery posterior interosseus nerve (C7, C8) supinates forearm Pronator teres, Pronator quadratus
extensor indicis ulna index finger (extensor hood) posterior interosseous nerve (C7, C8) extends index finger, wrist
Anatomical snuff box
          abductor pollicis longus ulna, radial styloid process first metacarpal posterior interosseous nerve (C7, C8) abduction, extension of thumb Adductor pollicis muscle
extensor pollicis brevis radius thumb, proximal phalanx posterior interosseous artery posterior interosseous nerve (C7, C8) extension of thumb at metacarpophalangeal joint Flexor pollicis longus muscle, Flexor pollicis brevis muscle
     extensor pollicis longus ulna thumb, distal phalanx posterior interosseous nerve (C7, C8) extension of the thumb (metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal) Flexor pollicis longus muscle, Flexor pollicis brevis muscle

Hand[edit]

Lateral volar[edit]

Thenar[edit]
Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
opponens pollicis trapezium and transverse carpal ligament metacarpal bone of the thumb on its radial side median nerve Opposition of the thumb
flexor pollicis brevis trapezoid, flexor retinaculum thumb, proximal phalanx median nerve, deep branch of ulnar nerve (medial head) Flexes the thumb Extensor pollicis longus muscle, Extensor pollicis brevis muscle
abductor pollicis brevis Transverse carpal ligament, the scaphoid and trapezium Radial base of proximal phalanx of thumb and the thumb extensors Median nerve Abducts the thumb Adductor pollicis muscle
adductor pollicis Transverse head: anterior body of the third metacarpal
Oblique head: bases of the second and the third metacarpals and the adjacent trapezoid and capitate bones
medial side of the base of the proximal phalanx of the thumb and the ulnar sesamoid deep branch of ulnar nerve (T1) adducts the thumb at the carpometacarpal joint Abductor pollicis longus muscle, Abductor pollicis brevis muscle

Medial volar[edit]

Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
palmaris brevis flexor retinaculum (medial), palmar aponeurosis palm superficial branch of ulnar nerve wrinkle skin of palm
Hypothenar
     abductor digiti minimi pisiform base of the proximal phalanx of the 5th digit on the ulnar or medial side ulnar artery deep branch of ulnar nerve Abduction of little finger
     flexor digiti minimi brevis hamate bone little finger ulnar artery deep branch of ulnar nerve flexes little finger extensor digiti minimi muscle
     opponens digiti minimi Hook of hamate and flexor retinaculum Medial border of 5th metacarpal ulnar artery deep branch of ulnar nerve (C8 and T1) Draws 5th metacarpal anteriorly and rotates it, bringing little finger (5th digit) into opposition with thumb

Intermediate[edit]

Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
lumbrical flexor digitorum profundus extensor expansion superficial palmar arch, common palmar digital arteries, deep palmar arch, dorsal digital artery deep branch of ulnar nerve, median nerve flex metacarpophalangeal joints, extend interphalangeal joints
dorsal interossei metacarpals proximal phalanges Dorsal metacarpal artery and palmar metacarpal artery deep branch of ulnar nerve abduct finger Palmar interossei muscles
palmar interossei metacarpals proximal phalange deep branch of ulnar nerve adduction

Lower limb[edit]

Iliac region[edit]

Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
iliopsoas iliac fossa (iliacus), sacrum (iliacus), spine (T12, L1, L2, L3, L4, L5) & intervertebral discs (psoas major, psoas minor) [2] femurlesser trochanter (psoas major/minor), shaft below lesser trochanter (iliacus), tendon of psoas major & femur (iliacus) [2] medial femoral circumflex artery, iliolumbar artery femoral nerve, Lumbar nerves L1, L2 flexion of hip (psoas major/minor, iliacus), spine rotation (psoas major/minor) Gluteus maximus, posterior compartment of thigh
     psoas major transverse processes, bodies and discs of T12-L5 in the lesser trochanter of the femur Iliolumbar artery Lumbar plexus via anterior branches of L1, L2, L3[3] flexes and rotates laterally thigh Gluteus maximus
     psoas minor Side of T12+L1 and IV Disc between Pectineal line and iliopectineal eminence L1 Weak trunk flexor Gluteus maximus
     iliacus iliac fossa lesser trochanter of femur medial femoral circumflex artery, Iliolumbar artery femoral nerve (L2, L3[3]) flexes hip[4] Gluteus maximus

Gluteal[edit]

Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
tensor fascia latae iliac crest iliotibial tract primarily lateral circumflex femoral artery, Superior gluteal artery Superior gluteal nerve (L4, L5) Thigh - flexion, medial rotation. Trunk stabilization.
Gluteal muscles
     gluteus maximus muscle Gluteal surface of ilium, lumbar fascia, sacrum, sacrotuberous ligament Gluteal tuberosity of the femur, iliotibial tract superior and inferior gluteal arteries inferior gluteal nerve (L5, S1, S2 nerve roots) external rotation and extension of the hip joint, supports the extended knee through the iliotibial tract, chief antigravity muscle in sitting Iliacus, Psoas major, Psoas minor
     gluteus medius muscle Gluteal surface of ilium, under gluteus maximus Greater trochanter of the femur superior gluteal artery superior gluteal nerve (L4, L5, S1 nerve roots) abduction of the hip; preventing adduction of the hip. Medial rotation of thigh. lateral rotator group
     minimus Gluteal surface of ilium, under gluteus medius. Greater trochanter of the femur superior gluteal artery superior gluteal nerve (L4, L5, S1 nerve roots) Works in concert with gluteus medius: abduction of the hip; preventing adduction of the hip. Medial rotation of thigh. lateral rotator group
lateral rotator group at or below the acetabulum of the ilium on or near the greater trochanter of the femur Inferior gluteal artery, Lateral sacral artery, Superior gluteal artery Obturator nerve, nerve to the Piriformis, nerve to quadratus femoris lateral rotation of hip Gluteus minimus muscle, Gluteus medius muscle
     piriformis sacrum greater trochanter Inferior gluteal artery, Lateral sacral artery, Superior gluteal artery nerve to the Piriformis (S1 and S2 nerve roots) [5] laterally rotate (outward) the thigh
     obturator externus obturator foramen and obturatory membrane medial aspect of greater trochanter of femur obturator artery posterior branch of obturator nerve (L3, L4) adduct thigh, rotate laterally thigh
     obturator internus Ischiopubic ramus & obturator membrane medial aspect of the Greater trochanter Nerve to obturator internus (L5, S1, S2) Abducts & rotates laterally thigh, and stabiliser of the hip during walking
     inferior gemellus Ischial tuberosity Obturator internus tendon Nerve to Quadratus femoris (L4, L5, S1) Rotates laterally thigh
superior gemellus spine of the ischium Obturator internus tendon Sacral plexus (S1, S2, S3) Rotates laterally thigh
     quadratus femoris ischial tuberosity intertrochanteric crest inferior gluteal artery nerve to quadratus femoris (L4, L5, -S1) lateral rotation of thigh

Thigh[edit]

anterior compartment[edit]

Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
articularis genu femur suprapatellar bursa femoral artery femoral nerve Pulling the suprapatellar bursa during extension of the knee.
sartorius superior to the anterior superior iliac spine medial side of the upper tibia in the pes anserinus femoral artery femoral nerve flexion, lateral rotation and abduction of thigh; flexion and medial rotation of leg
quadriceps femoris combined rectus femoris and vastus muscles Patella and Tibial tuberosity via the Patellar ligament femoral artery Femoral nerve Knee extension; Hip flexion (R.Fem. only) Hamstring
     rectus femoris anterior inferior iliac spine and the exterior surface of the bony ridge which forms the iliac portion of the acetabulum Patella and Tibial tuberosity via the Patellar ligament femoral artery femoral nerve knee extension; hip flexion Hamstring
     vastus lateralis Greater trochanter, Intertrochanteric line, and Linea aspera of the femur patella and tibial tuberosity via the patellar ligament femoral artery femoral nerve Extends and stabilizes knee hamstring
     vastus intermedius antero/ lateral femur patella and tibial tuberosity via the patellar ligament femoral artery femoral nerve extends knee Hamstring
     vastus medialis femur patella and tibial tuberosity via the patellar ligament femoral artery femoral nerve extends knee hamstring

posterior compartment/hamstring[edit]

Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
biceps femoris long head: tuberosity of the ischium, short head: linea aspera, femur[6] the head of the fibula[6] which articulates with the back of the lateral tibial condyle inferior gluteal artery, perforating arteries, popliteal artery long head: medial (tibial) part of sciatic nerve, short head: lateral (common fibular) part of sciatic nerve[6] flexes knee joint, laterally rotates leg at knee (when knee is flexed), extends hip joint (long head only)[6] Quadriceps muscle
semitendinosus tuberosity of the ischium[6] pes anserinus inferior gluteal artery, perforating arteries sciatic[6] (tibial, L5, S1, S2) flexes knee, extends hip joint, medially rotates leg at knee[6] Quadriceps muscle
semimembranosus tuberosity of the ischium[6] Medial surface of tibia[6] profunda femoris, gluteal artery sciatic nerve[6] flexes knee, extends hip joint, medially rotates leg at knee[6] Quadriceps muscle

medial compartment[edit]

Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
adductor muscles of the hip pubis femur, tibia obturator nerve adduction of hip
     gracilis inferior pubic ramus[7] tibia (pes anserinus) obturator artery anterior branch of obturator nerve[7] adduction of hip, flexion of hip, medial rotation of knee[7]
     pectineus superior pubic ramus[7] lesser trochanter, linea aspera Obturator artery femoral nerve, sometimes obturator nerve[7] flexion & adduction of hip[7]
     adductor brevis anterior surface of the inferior pubic ramus[7] the lesser trochanter and linea aspera of the femur obturator artery anterior branch of obturator nerve[7] adduction of hip[7]
     adductor longus pubic body just below the pubic crest middle third of linea aspera obturator artery anterior branch of obturator nerve[7] adduction & medial rotation of hip[7]
     adductor magnus tuberosity of the ischium[7] femur and adductor tubercle of femur obturator artery posterior branch of obturator nerve (adductor) and tibial part of sciatic nerve[7][8] adduction of hip[7]

Leg[edit]

anterior compartment[edit]

Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
tibialis anterior body of tibia medial cuneiform and first metatarsal bones of the foot anterior tibial artery Deep Fibular (peroneal) nerve dorsiflex and invert the foot Fibularis longus, Gastrocnemius, Soleus, Plantaris, Tibialis posterior
extensor hallucis longus middle portion of the fibula on the anterior surface and the interosseous membrane dorsal side of the base of the distal phalanx of the Hallux anterior tibial artery Deep Fibular (peroneal) nerve Extends the big toe and assists in dorsiflexion of the foot at the ankle. Also is a weak invertor Flexor hallucis longus, Flexor hallucis brevis
extensor digitorum longus Lateral Condyle of tibia and superior ¾ of interosseous membrane Middle and Distal phalanges of lateral four digits anterior tibial artery Deep Fibular (peroneal) nerve extension of toes and ankle Flexor digitorum longus, Flexor digitorum brevis
fibularis tertius distal anterior surface of the fibula dorsal surface of metatarsal 5 anterior tibial artery Deep Fibular (peroneal) nerve dorsi flexes and everts foot

posterior compartment[edit]

Superficial[edit]
Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
triceps surae achilles tendon, calcaneus posterior tibial artery tibial nerve plantarflexion
     gastrocnemius medial and Lateral condyle of the femur calcaneus sural arteries tibial nerve from the sciatic, specifically, nerve roots S1, S2 plantarflexion, flexion of knee (minor) Tibialis anterior muscle
     soleus fibula, medial border of tibia (soleal line) tendo calcaneus sural arteries tibial nerve, specifically, nerve roots L5–S2 plantarflexion tibialis anterior muscle
plantaris lateral supracondylar ridge of femur above lateral head of gastrocnemius tendo calcaneus (medial side, deep to gastrocnemius tendon) sural arteries tibial nerve Plantar flexes foot and flexes knee Tibialis anterior muscle
Deep[edit]
Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
popliteus middle facet of the lateral surface of the lateral femoral condyle posterior tibia under the tibial condyles popliteal artery tibial nerve Medial rotation and flexion of knee
tarsal tunnel
     flexor hallucis longus fibula, posterior aspect of upper 1/3 base of distal phalanx of hallux Peroneal artery (peroneal branch of the posterior tibial artery tibial nerve, S1, S2 nerve roots flexes all joints of the Hallux, plantar flexion of the ankle joint Extensor hallucis longus muscle
     flexor digitorum longus medial tibia distal phalanges of lateral four digits posterior tibial artery Tibial nerve Primary action is Flex digits Extensor digitorum longus, Extensor digitorum brevis
     tibialis posterior tibia, fibula navicular, medial cuneiform posterior tibial artery tibial nerve inversion of the foot, plantar flexion of the foot at the ankle Tibialis anterior muscle

lateral compartment[edit]

fibularis muscles:

Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
longus fibula first metatarsal, medial cuneiform fibular (peroneal) artery superficial fibular (peroneal) nerve plantarflexion, eversion Tibialis anterior muscle
brevis fibula fifth metatarsal fibular (peroneal) artery superficial fibular (peroneal) nerve plantarflexion, eversion

Foot[edit]

Dorsal[edit]

Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
extensor digitorum brevis calcaneus toes deep peroneal nerve extends digits 2, 3, and 4 Flexor digitorum longus, Flexor digitorum brevis
extensor hallucis brevis calcaneus base of proximal phalanx of hallux deep peroneal nerve Extension of hallux Flexor hallucis brevis muscle

Plantar[edit]

1st layer[edit]
Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
abductor hallucis medial process of calcaneus, flexor retinaculum, plantar aponeurosis medial side of base of proximal phalanx of first digit medial plantar nerve abducts hallux Adductor hallucis muscle
flexor digitorum brevis medial process of calcaneus, plantar aponeurosis, intermuscular septa middle phalanges of digits 2-5 medial plantar nerve flexes lateral four toes Extensor digitorum longus, Extensor digitorum brevis
abductor digiti minimi Plantar aponeurosis Fifth toe or Phalanges lateral plantar artery lateral plantar nerve (S1, S2) flex and abduct the fifth toe Flexor digiti minimi brevis muscle
2nd layer[edit]
Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
quadratus plantae Calcaneus Tendons of Flexor Digitorum Longus lateral plantar nerve (S1, S2) Assists Flexor Digitorum Longus in flexion of DIP joints
lumbrical muscle tendons of flexor digitorum longus medial aspect of extensor expansion of proximal phalanges of lateral four digits lateral plantar artery and plantar arch, and four plantar metatarsal arteries lateral plantar nerve (lateral three lumbricals) and medial plantar nerve (first lumbrical) maintain extension of digits at interphalangeal joints
3rd layer[edit]
Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
flexor hallucis brevis medial plantar nerve flex hallux Extensor hallucis longus muscle
adductor hallucis Plantar nerve adducts hallux Abductor hallucis muscle
flexor digiti minimi brevis fifth metatarsal bone phalanx of the fifth toe lateral plantar nerve (superficial branch) extend and adduct the fifth toe Abductor digiti minimi muscle
4th layer[edit]
Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
dorsal interossei plantar nerve [disambiguation needed] abduct toes Plantar interossei muscles
plantar interossei metatarsals proximal phalanges plantar nerve [disambiguation needed] adduct toes Dorsal interossei of the foot

Innervation overview[edit]

Mind Map showing a summary of Upper Limb Muscle Innervation
Mind Map Showing a summary of Lower Limb Muscle innervation

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Enotes
  2. ^ a b exrx.net
  3. ^ a b Essential Clinical Anatomy. K.L. Moore & A.M. Agur. Lippincott, 2 ed. 2002. Page 193
  4. ^ Gosling et al. 2008, p. 200
  5. ^ Essential Clinical Anatomy. K.L. Moore & A.M. Agur. Lippincott, 2 ed. 2002. Page 217
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Gosling 2008, p. 273
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Gosling et al. 2008, p. 266
  8. ^ Mnemonic medicalmnemonics.com 255

References[edit]

External links[edit]

  • [1] Tutorial & Quizzes on Skeletal Muscular Anatomy