Lymphotoxin alpha, a member of the tumor necrosis factor family, is a cytokine produced by lymphocytes. LTA is highly inducible, secreted, and exists as homotrimeric molecule. LTA forms heterotrimers with lymphotoxin-beta, which anchors lymphotoxin-alpha to the cell surface. LTA mediates a large variety of inflammatory, immunostimulatory, and antiviral responses. LTA is also involved in the formation of secondary lymphoid organs during development and plays a role in apoptosis.
In LTα knockout mice, all Peyer's patches and lymph nodes will fail to develop indicating LTα's importance in immunological development.
^Aggarwal BB, Eessalu TE, Hass PE (February 1986). "Characterization of receptors for human tumour necrosis factor and their regulation by gamma-interferon". Nature318 (6047): 665–7. doi:10.1038/318665a0. PMID3001529.
^Akirav, Eitan; Liao, Shan; Ruddle, Nancy (2008). "Chapter 2: Lymphoid Tissues and Organs". In Paul, William. Fundamental Immunology (Book) (6th ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 27–55. ISBN0-7817-6519-6.
^Williams-Abbott, L; Walter B N, Cheung T C, Goh C R, Porter A G, Ware C F (August 1997). "The lymphotoxin-alpha (LTalpha) subunit is essential for the assembly, but not for the receptor specificity, of the membrane-anchored LTalpha1beta2 heterotrimeric ligand". J. Biol. Chem. (UNITED STATES) 272 (31): 19451–19456. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.31.19451. ISSN0021-9258. PMID9235946.Cite uses deprecated parameters (help)
^Browning, J L; Sizing I D, Lawton P, Bourdon P R, Rennert P D, Majeau G R, Ambrose C M, Hession C, Miatkowski K, Griffiths D A, Ngam-ek A, Meier W, Benjamin C D, Hochman P S (October 1997). "Characterization of lymphotoxin-alpha beta complexes on the surface of mouse lymphocytes". J. Immunol. (UNITED STATES) 159 (7): 3288–98. ISSN0022-1767. PMID9317127.Cite uses deprecated parameters (help)
^Browning, J L; Dougas I, Ngam-ek A, Bourdon P R, Ehrenfels B N, Miatkowski K, Zafari M, Yampaglia A M, Lawton P, Meier W (January 1995). "Characterization of surface lymphotoxin forms. Use of specific monoclonal antibodies and soluble receptors". J. Immunol. (UNITED STATES) 154 (1): 33–46. ISSN0022-1767. PMID7995952.Cite uses deprecated parameters (help)