|Native to||People's Republic of China|
|Region||Suzhou, Jiangsu province; also in Shanghai
Overseas, in the United States (New York City)
|approx. 5-7 million (date missing)|
The Suzhou dialect (Chinese: trad. 蘇州話, simp. 苏州话, pinyin Sūzhōuhuà; Suzhounese: 蘇州閒話, IPA: [səu55ʦøʏ55-21ɦᴇ13ɦo31-33]), formerly romanized as the Soochow dialect and now also known as Suzhounese, is a branch of the Wu languages, one of the families of oral Chinese. Suzhounese is spoken in the city of Suzhou in China's Jiangsu province and is the traditional prestige dialect of Wu. Considered one of the most flowing and elegant languages of China, even effeminate, it is rich in vowels and conservative in having many initials.
The Suzhou dialect is spoken within the city itself and the surrounding area, including migrants living in nearby Shanghai. There is also an increasing number of Suzhounese speakers in New York City in the United States.
The Suzhou dialect is mutually intelligible with dialects spoken in its satellite cities such as Kunshan, Changshu, and Zhangjiagang, as well as those spoken in its former satellites Wuxi and Shanghai. It is also partially intelligible with dialects spoken in other areas of the Wu cultural sphere such as Hangzhou and Ningbo. It is not mutually intelligible with modern Mandarin or Cantonese but, as all public schools and most broadcast communication in Suzhou use Mandarin exclusively, nearly all speakers of the dialect are at least bilingual. Owing to migration within China, many residents of the city cannot speak the local dialect but can usually understand it after a few months or years in the area.
A "ballad-narrative" (說晿詞話) known as "The story of Xue Rengui crossing the sea and Pacifying Liao" (薛仁貴跨海征遼故事), which is about the Tang dynasty hero Xue Rengui is believed to been written in the Suzhou dialect.
Third and second person pronouns are affixed with [to?] as a suffix in Suzhou dialect.
Some non native speakers of Suzhou dialect speak Suzhou dialect in a "stylized variety" to tell tales.
Suzhou dialect has a set of voiced initials and exhibits unvoiced unaspirated and aspirated stops, there are unvoiced and voiced fricatives sets. Moreover, palatized initials also feature.
|m, n, ŋ, l|
|i||iø, io, iæᵄ, iɒ||iøʏ||in, ioŋ, iã, iɒ̃||ɪʔ(iəʔ), ioʔ, iaʔ, iɒʔ|
|u||uø, uɛ, uɒ||uən, uɒ̃, uã||uɤʔ, uaʔ|
Suzhou has one triphthong rhyme, [iøʏ]. Unlike Shanghai, it has no nasalised rhymes, though it does have a set of rhymes that end in a nasal stop. Middle Chinese entering tone characters which end in [p t k] end as a glottal stop [ʔ] in Suzhou. Middle Chinese nasal endings [m] have merged with rhymes that end with [n] in Suzhou. Middle Chinese [ŋ] ending rhymes have split into two types in Suzhou. Those with a high-fronted main vowel merge with [n] ending rhymes. Those with a palatising medial [i] and back main vowel retain the [ŋ] ending.
Suzhou is considered to have seven tones. However, since the tone split dating from Middle Chinese still depends on the voicing of the initial consonant, these constitute just three phonemic tones: ping, shang, and qu. (Ru syllables are phonemically toneless.)
|Tone number||Tone name||Tone letters||Description|
|1||yin ping (陰平)||˦ (44)||high|
|2||yang ping (陽平)||˨˨˦ (224)||level-rising|
|3||shang (上)||˥˨ (52)||high falling|
|4||yin qu (陰去)||˦˩˨ (412)||dipping|
|5||yang qu (陽去)||˨˧˩ (231)||rising-falling|
|6||yin ru (陰入)||˦ʔ (4)||high checked|
|7||yang ru (陽入)||˨˧ʔ (23)||rising checked|
In Suzhou, the Middle Chinese Shang tone has partially merged with the modern yin qu tone.
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- Boudewijn Walraven, Remco E. Breuker (2007). Remco E. Breuker, ed. Korea in the middle: Korean studies and area studies : essays in honour of Boudewijn Walraven. Volume 153 of CNWS publications (illustrated ed.). CNWS Publications. p. 341. ISBN 9057891530. Retrieved 2012-03-10. "A prosimetrical rendition, entitled Xue Rengui kuahai zheng Liao gushi 薛仁貴跨海征遼故事 (The story of Xue Rengui crossing the sea and Pacifying Liao), which shares its opening prose paragraph with the Xue Rengui zheng Liao shilüe, is preserved in a printing of 1471; it is one of the shuochang cihua 說晿詞話 (ballad-narratives"()
- Boudewijn Walraven, Remco E. Breuker (2007). Remco E. Breuker, ed. Korea in the middle: Korean studies and area studies : essays in honour of Boudewijn Walraven. Volume 153 of CNWS publications (illustrated ed.). CNWS Publications. p. 342. ISBN 9057891530. Retrieved 2012-03-10. "for telling and singing) which were discovered in the suburbs of Shanghai in 1967.3 While these shuochang cihua had been printed in modern-day Beijing, their language suggests that they had been composed in the Wu-dialect area of Suzhou and surroundings,"()
- Graham Thurgood, Randy J. LaPolla (2003). Graham Thurgood, Randy J. LaPolla, ed. The Sino-Tibetan languages. Volume 3 of Routledge language family series (illustrated ed.). Psychology Press. p. 86. ISBN 0700711295. Retrieved 2012-03-10. "Note that the plural marker may differ for first vs second vs third persons, especially in the Wu dialects: the Suzhou dialect of Jiangsu sues the suffix [to?] for the second and the third persons, but a contraction form of [ni] for the first person, Shanghai uses the suffix 伲 for the first person, the suffix [lA53>44] for the third person, but a contraction form [nʌ 23] for the second person, the Hǎiyán dialect of Zhejiang uses the suffix [la] for the first and third person but a contraction form [na] for the second person, for example."
- George Melville Bolling, Linguistic Society of America, Bernard Bloch, Project Muse (2000). Language, Volume 76, Issues 1-2. Linguistic Society of America. p. 160. Retrieved 2012-03-10. "She also examines a stylized variety of Suzhou Wu as used to tell stories by native speakers of another dialect."(Original from the University of Michigan)(Digitized Dec 17, 2010)