(Sin-ka-pho Hok-kiàn ōe)
|1.2 million (2010)|
Singaporean Hokkien (Chinese: 新加坡福建话; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Sin-ka-pho Hok-kiàn-ōe;Tâi-lô:Sin-ka-pho Hok-kiàn-uē) is a local variant of the Hokkien dialect spoken in Singapore. In Chinese academic circles, this dialect is known as Singaporean Banlamgu "新加坡闽南語"(Sin-ka-pho bân-lâm-gu). It is closely related to the Southern Malaysian Hokkien (南马福建话) spoken in Southern Malaysia as well as Riau Hokkien (廖内福建话) spoken in the Indonesian province of Riau. It also bears close resemblance with Amoy (厦门话) spoken in Xiamen of China and Taiwanese Hokkien (台灣閩南語/台語/台灣話) spoken in Taiwan.
Hokkien, is the Minnan pronunciation for Fujian (province of China) and is generally the term used by the Chinese in South-East Asia to refer to the Banlam dialect (闽南语). Singaporean Hokkien generally holds Amoy dialect as its own standard, and its accent is predominantly based on a mixture of Quanzhou speech (泉州话) and Zhangzhou speech (漳州话), but with a greater inclination towards Quanzhou accent.
Like many spoken languages in Singapore, Singaporean Hokkien is also subjected to influence from various languages or dialects spoken in Singapore. For instance, Singaporean Hokkien is influenced to a certain degree by Teochew, and is sometimes regarded as a combined Hokkien-Teochew speech (福潮话). In addition, it has also borrowed many loanwords from Malay and English.
Nevertheless, the grammar and tones of Singaporean Hokkien are still largely based on Minnan. When compared to Taiwanese's prestige accent, Singaporean Hokkien has a greater inclination towards Quanzhou accent and is also closer to Taipei and Amoy accent and less close to the Tainan accent.
A Singaporean would likely not have trouble conversing with Taiwanese speakers in Singaporean Hokkien, with the exception of some Japanese loanwords. Similarly, Singaporean Hokkien is understood by Taiwanese speakers, with the exception of some Malay and English loanwords.
- 1 History
- 2 Current status
- 3 Numerals
- 4 Differences from Taiwanese Hokkien
- 5 Influences from other local languages
- 6 Phonology
- 7 Grammar
- 8 Old Chinese Words in Singaporean Hokkien
- 9 Religion, Arts Entertainment and Culture
- 10 Footprints of Peh-oe-ji
- 11 Places in Singapore
- 12 See also
- 13 References
- 14 Further reading
- 15 External links
From the 19th until the early half of the 20th century, there was a large influx of Chinese migrants from southern China into Singapore. This led to Chinese constituting almost 75% of Singapore's population. Out of these Chinese, many originated from the regions of Quanzhou and Zhangzhou in Fujian province. They brought Min Nan to Singapore, which was then propagated around the region of Singapore and Malaysia. As there was no formal Chinese name for Min Nan in the early 20th century, these migrants began to use their place of origin as the name of their speech, and thus called the dialect "Hokkien 福建" (which means "Fujian" province).
During the 19th century, many old-style private Chinese schools in Singapore (known as "su-sio̍k-á 私塾仔") generally used Hokkien to teach Chinese classics and Classical Chinese. But by the early 20th century, Mandarin began to replace Hokkien as the medium of instructions in Chinese schools after the founding of many Mandarin-medium schools.
The large influx of Hokkien speakers from southern Fujian province in the first half of 20th century led to the widespread use of Hokkien in Singapore. During the 1950s and 1960s, many political speeches in Singapore had to be done entirely in Hokkien in order to reach out to the Chinese community in Singapore. There was also a thriving Hokkien cultural scene such as Hokkien story-telling, Hokkien opera and media in Singapore. Nevertheless, Hokkien has never become widespread among other Chinese dialect groups in Singapore, unlike how Cantonese in Malaysia has great influence among Chinese Malaysians.
However, after 1979, the Singapore government began to push for the use of Mandarin in Singapore, spearheaded by the Speak Mandarin Campaign. Following this, the Singapore government also began to employ a more stringent censorship or ban on Hokkien media in the Singaporean Chinese media. Consequently, all dialect media in Singapore had to be dubbed in Mandarin before being allowed to stream on national TV. In addition, the 1980s also saw the replacement of Chinese-medium education with that of English, causing English to emerge as the most widely used language in Singapore. The emergence of the English language, coupled with heavy promotion of Mandarin, generally led Hokkien to decline in Singapore after 1979.
Today, the lingua franca of the Chinese Community in Singapore is Mandarin. Although Hokkien is still spoken in Singapore today (particularly by the elderly Chinese population), it is not as widespread as before.
There is also variation in the speech abilities amongst the different age groups of the Hokkien Singaporeans. The elderly generation of Hokkien Singaporeans are generally able to communicate effectively in Hokkien. On the other hand, the middle and younger generations of Hokkien Singaporeans have generally lost the ability to communicate as fluently. With the "Mandarin campaign" from the government, the Hokkien speaking population has declined greatly.
Revival through online Social Media Group
There is however a minority of Hokkien Singaporeans and Taiwanese living in Singapore working to help preserve, spread and revive the dialect.
The ease of access to online Hokkien entertainment media and pop music from Taiwan helps to connect to the language and culture. Many Singaporeans are increasingly using online and social media platform such as Facebook and meetup group to learn, discuss, meet and interact with each other in Hokkien.
Some of the groups include:
Facebook Singapore Hokkien Language and Culture Society - Discussion forum on all aspects of Hokkien language, with also a primary focus on Singaporean Hokkien dialect and its variations from other variants of Hokkien.
Facebook Singapore Hokkien Meetup- Group that organizes regular meetups for language practice. It also organizes free language courses and sharing sessions for all who are interested.
Hok Heng — The Revival - A project by four Singaporean students established in 2013, which aims to promote awareness of Hokkien's beauty beneath the surface. Their online wiki for beginners seeking to learn Singaporean Hokkien will be released in January 2015.
The following list shows the colloquial readings of the numerals used to count objects.
|lêng||〇||0||〇 is an informal way to represent zero
also 空 [khòng]
also 么(T) or 幺(S) [io] when used in phone numbers etc.
also [lī]/[jī] (二)
Most ordinal numbers are formed by adding 第 [tē] in front of a cardinal number. In some cases, the literary reading of the number must then be used. For example, 第一 = tē-it, 第二 = tē-jī. See: Literary and colloquial readings of Chinese characters.
Differences from Taiwanese Hokkien
There are differences between Singaporean Hokkien and Taiwanese Hokkien in terms of vocabulary, pronunciation and grammar.
|Singaporean Hokkien (Hanji)||POJ||Definition||Compare Taiwanese Hokkien|
|掠無球||lia̍h-bô-kiû||Completely do not understand (literally "catch no balls")||毋捌 (m̄ bat)|
|假勥||kê-khiàng||Act "smart" (overdo it)||假𠢕 (ké-gâu)|
|俏母||chhiò bú||Pretty girl||帅查某 (súi cha-bó͘)|
|督公||tok-kong||superb, originated from Na Tok Kong||贊 (chàn）|
Same meaning, different words
|Singaporean Hokkien||Definition||Compare Taiwanese Hokkien||Notes|
|爱 (ai)||Want||欲 / 卜 (beh)||爱(ài) in Taiwanese Hokkien means "love" or "must". "欲" in Singaporean Hokkien can be classified as an auxiliary verb denoting volition of the following verb.|
|汝 (lɯ2/lér/lú)||You||汝/你 (lí)||"你 (lí)" (used in Taiwanese) is also used in Singaporean Hokkien, originating from Amoy/Zhangzhou speech, but is now also used in new Quanzhou speech 新泉音. The pronunciation of lɯ2 汝 originated from Old Quanzhou accent 老泉音, while lú 汝 came from Tong'an accent 同安音. As for "lér 汝", it came from Teochew pronunciation, pronounced like Mandarin's "樂“ (le4).|
|恁侬 or 恁人 (lín lâng)||You-all||恁 (lín)||The use of "侬/人 lâng" in Singaporean Hokkien pronoun (I, you, we) originated from Teochew grammar.|
|我侬 or 我人 (góa lâng)||We||阮 (gún / guán ) or 咱 (lán)||"阮侬 or 阮人 gún lâng" and "咱/咱侬 lán/lán lâng" are also used in Singaporean Hokkien. Quanzhou and Zhangzhou uses 阮 (gún) whereas Amoy uses 阮 (gún / guán ) similar to Taiwanese.|
|伊侬 (i lâng)||They||(亻因 /怹) (in)||The addition of 侬lâng originates from Teochew.|
|错 chhò||Wrong||毋着 m̄-tio̍h||The Malay word "salah" is actually more commonly used to mean 'wrong' in Singaporean Hokkien. "毋着" (m̀-tio̍h) is also used in Singaporean Hokkien|
|食饱未? chia̍h-páh bē||Have you eaten?||你好！ lí-hó||"食饱未? chia̍h-páh bē" is also used in Taiwan, but generally means "have you eaten already?".|
|佗落 to lo̍h||Where?||佗位 tó-uī||E.g. 去佗落? khì to lo̍h, "Where are you going?"|
|徛 khiā||Live||蹛 tòa||E.g. 徛佗落? khiā to lo̍h',' "Where do you live?". 蹛 tòa' is also used in Amoy and Zhangzhou.|
|旧早 kū-chá||In the past||永摆 (éng-pái) or 以前 í-chêng||All variants are used in Singapore Hokkien|
|斗跤手 tàu-kha-chhiú||Help||斗相共 tàu-saⁿ-kāng||"斗跤手 (tàu-kha-chhiú)" is also used in Taiwan. 斗相共 tàu-saⁿ-kāng is also used in Amoy, Quanzhou. In Zhangzhou, it's 斗相共 tàu-sio-kāng|
|这头 chit-tau||This place||这边 chit-pêng or 遮 chia||这边 chit-pêng is also commonly used in Singapore, 遮 chia less so|
|按呢款 án-ne-khóan||In this way, so||按呢 án-ne||款 khóan is not generally appended in Taiwan|
|几镭 (kui-lui) or 几箍 kui kho||How much?||偌齐钱 jōa-chōe chîⁿ||The word "lui" is a Malay loan.|
|转厝 tńg-chhū (pron. tn̂g-chhū)||Go home||转去 tńg—khì||转去 tńg—khì is used in Singapore as well, but with a more general meaning of "going back", not specifically home.|
|‘今仔’日 kiaⁿ-ji̍t||Today||今仔日 kin-á-ji̍t||Singapore ‘今仔’日 kiaⁿ-ji̍t is a concatenation of Taiwan 今仔日 kin-á-ji̍t. Also heard in Singapore is 今日 (kin-ji̍t).|
|当今 tong-kim||Nowadays||现此时 hián-chú-sî (pron. hiān-chū-sî)||Both Singapore and Taiwan more commonly use 这阵 chit-chūn to encompass the meaning of "nowadays"|
|这阵 chit-chūn||Now||这马 chit-má or 这站 chit-chām||这阵 chit-chūn is also used in Taiwan|
|四散 sì-sōaⁿ (pron. sí-sóaⁿ)||anyhow/casual/random||乌白 (o͘-pe̍h)||E.g. 伊四散讲 i sì-sōaⁿ kóng - He speaks casually (or nonsense). 四散 (sì-sōaⁿ) is sometimes also used in Taiwan.|
|定着 tiāⁿ-tio̍h||surely||一定 it-tīng or 绝对 cho̍at-tùi (pron. chòat-tùi)||定着 tiāⁿ-tio̍h is sometimes also used in Taiwan. 一定 it-tīng is a loan from Mandarin.|
|攑 gia̍h or giâ||Take||提 thêh||攑 gia̍h is also used in Taiwan, while 提 thêh in Singapore has the specific meaning of "carry".|
|惊输 kiaⁿ-su||Fear of losing out/failure - kiasu||惊失败 (kiaⁿ sit-pāi)|
|公司 kong-si||Share||分 pun or 公家 kong-ke||公司 kong-si means "company" in Taiwanese|
|正 chiā||Very||真 chin, 诚 chiâⁿ or 足 chiok|
|伤 siong||Very tough or difficult||艰难/困難 kan-lân/khùn-lân||"伤 siong" literally means "injurious", but has become slang in Singapore for "tough" or "difficult"|
|幸 heng||Luckily, fortunately||好佳在 hó-ka-chài||In Taiwanese Hokkien, "幸运 hīng-ūn" is also used.|
|相像/像款 sioⁿ-siâng/siang-khuan||same||仝款/共款 kāng-khóan or 親像 chhin-chhiūⁿ||仝款 kāng-khóan originates from Zhangzhou. 相像/像款 sioⁿ-siâng/siang-khuan is also used in Taiwanese/Amoy/Quanzhou.|
|食风 chia̍h-hong||To go on holiday, or more generally to live in luxury||𨑨迌 thit-thô||In Taiwanese Hokkien, "食风 (chia̍h-hong)" is also used but means "facing the wind". In Singapore, 𨑨迌 thit-thô means simply "to play" (as in children playing).|
Same word, different pronunciation
There are some words used in Singaporean Hokkien, which are the same in Taiwanese Hokkien, but are pronounced differently.
|Hokkien Words||Definition||Singaporean Hokkien||Taiwanese Hokkien||Notes|
|咖啡||Coffee||ko-pi||ka-pi||ko-pi is a loan word from Malay word "kopi" which in turn is taken from the English word "coffee." The Mandarin word "Ka-fei" and the Taiwanese Hokkien "Ka-pi" are derived from the European continental version "Café" (French / Spanish / Portuguese) or "Kaffee" (German). As Hokkien does not have an f-sound, this turned into a p-sound. Filipino-Chinese Hokkien which is very close to the Taiwanese variety pronounces the word for "coffee" as "ka-peh" which derives from the Filipino pronunciation of the Spanish word "café" which is "kape."|
|按怎||How||án-chóaⁿ||án-nuá||"án-chóaⁿ" is also commonly used in Taiwan. The pronunciation of "án-nuá" originates from Zhangzhou.|
|啥物 / 甚物||What||si-mih/sim-mih||siáⁿ-mi̍h||"si-mih/sim-mih" is based on the word 甚物 (used in Amoy/Zhangzhou), whereas "siáⁿ-mi̍h" is based on the word 啥物 (used in Quanzhou). Taiwan typically uses "啥物 siáⁿ-mi̍h" more often, although "甚物 sim-mih" is also used. Singapore also uses "啥物 siáⁿ-mi̍h", though less often.|
Influences from other local languages
Due to the fact that Singapore is a multilingual country, Singaporean Hokkien was also subjected to influence from many other languages spoken in Singapore. As a result, there were many non-hokkien words that were infused into Singaporean Hokkien, such as Malay, Teochew, Cantonese and English words etc.
Loanwords from other Chinese dialects
There are some words used in Singaporean Hokkien, which originated from some other Chinese dialects spoken in Singapore.
|Singaporean Hokkien||Definition||Taiwanese Hokkien||Notes|
|偏 (phiⁿ)||Cheap||俗 (sio̍k)||偏 (phiⁿ) originates from Teochew. 俗 (sio̍k) also used in Amoy/Quanzhou/Zhangzhou|
|死父(sî-bēh)||Very||真 (chin) or 足 (chiok)||Originated from Teochew word 死父 (si2-bê6). Interchangeably used in Singaporean Hokkien, which can coincide with the Hokkien pronunciation of 死爸(sí-pēh). The word 死爸(sí-pēh) in original Hokkien is a vulgar word that means "to the extent that your/my father dies".|
|山龟 (soāⁿ-ku)||Country-bumpkin||土包仔 (thó͘-pau-á)||Originated from Teochew, lit. "mountain tortoise"|
|无便 (bô-piàn)||There is no way (nothing can be done)||无法度 (bô-hoat-tō)||Originated from Teochew|
|做儛 (chò-bú), 做阵(chò-tīn)||together||做伙 (chò-hóe), 同齐(tâng-chê) or 斗阵 (tàu-tīn)||Originated from Teochew|
|紧张 (gan tʂiong)||Nervous||紧张 (kín-tiuⁿ)||Originated from Cantonese|
The following are the common Malay loanwords used in Singaporean Hokkien. The large mix of Malay loanwords in Singaporean Hokkien makes it quite different from Amoy or Taiwanese.
|Malay loanwords in Singaporean Hokkien||Hanzi||Definition||Compare Taiwanese Hokkien||Notes|
|Su-ka (soeka)||舒合 (su-kah)||Like||合意 (kah-ì)|
|Sabun||雪文 (sap-bûn)||Soap||茶箍 (tê-kho͘)||雪文 (sap-bûn) is also used in Taiwan. Amoy, Quanzhou and Zhangzhou also uses 雪文 (sap-bûn). Originates from old Portuguese "sabon" (modern Portuguese uses "sabão") which also gave Malay its word for soap. 茶箍/茶枯 (tê-kho͘) is also used in Amoy/Quanzhou/Zhangzhou.|
|Kah-win (kawin)||交寅 (kau-ín)||Marry||結婚 (kiat-hun)||交寅 (kau-ín) is also used in Amoy. Originates from Malay.|
|Ba-Lu (Baru）||Recently||最近 (chòe-kīn)|
|Pa-sak (Pasar)||巴刹 （pa-sat)||Market||市場 (chhī-tiûⁿ) or 菜市仔 (chhài-chhī-á)|
|Ma-ta (Mata Mata)||Police||警察 (kéng-chha)|
|Si-nang (Senang)||Easy||簡單 (kán-tan)|
|Lui (Duit)||镭 (lui)||Money||錢 (chîⁿ)||镭 (lui) is also used in Amoy and Zhangzhou. 镭 (lui) used to be used in Taiwan in ancient times, but is no longer used in Taiwan today. It actually means "bronze money 銅錢"|
|To-long||Help||拜托 (pài-thok)，幫忙 (pang-bâng) or 鬥相共 (tàu-saⁿ-kāng)|
|Sa-lah||Offence, Wrong||犯法 (hōan-hoat)|
|Ta-pi (Tetapi)||But||但是 (tān-sī)， 毋過 （m̄-koh/m-ku） or 猶毋過(iáu m̄-koh)||毋過 is also used in Amoy/Quanzhou/Zhangzhou. Quanzhou typically pronounces 毋過 as "m̄-ku", whereas Zhangzhou pronounces 毋過 as "m̄-koh".|
|Loti||Bread||麵包 (mī-pau) or 'phang' (Japanese loanwords)|
|Pun||本(pun)||Also||嘛是 (mā sī) or 也是 (iā-sī)||E.g. 伊本是真帅 (i pun-sī chin suí) - She is also very pretty|
|Saman||summons (fine)||罰款 (ho̍at-khóan)|
|Agak Agak||Guess/Estimate||臆 (ioh)|
|Botak||Bald||光頭 (kng-thâu) or 禿頭 (thut-thâu)|
|Pakat||巴结 (pá-kat)||Conspire||串通 (chhòan-thong)|
|Buaya||磨仔 (buá à)||Crocodile||鱷魚 (kho̍k-hî)|
|Beh Ta-han||袂扙捍||Cannot tolerate||擋袂牢 (tòng bē tiâu)||Formed by Hokkien word "beh 袂" and Malay word "tahan"|
|Mana Eh Sai||Mana 會使||How can this be?||敢會使 (kam ē-sái）||Formed by Malay word "mana" and Hokkien word "e-sai 會使"|
|Lokun||老君||Doctor||醫生 (i-seng）||From Malay word "Dukun", which means shaman or medicine man. Alternatively, 老君 lo-kun is related to Taoist's deity Daode Tianzun, which is commonly known as Taishang Laojun (太上老君) "The Grand Supreme Elderly Lord". Many Chinese in Singapore practised Taoism and visited Taoist temple to prescribe medicine to cure their disease. Naturally, the deity became like a doctor. Lokun 老君 can also mean a wise man.|
There are also many English loanwords used in Singaporean Hokkien. They are usually used when the speaker does not know what the equivalent of the Hokkien word for a certain term is. Some of these English terms are related to working and living in Singapore
|English loanwords in Singaporean Hokkien||Compare Taiwanese Hokkien|
|MRT||捷運 （chia̍t ūn） or 地下鐵 (tē-hā-thih)|
Anxi, Nan'an, Jin-jiang, Tong'an and Teochew accent
When Singaporeans are speaking Hokkien, they will carry with them accents and tones from Anxi, Nan'an, Jin'jiang, Tong'an District region, as well as Teochew accent. In practice, it's common for Singaporeans to mix English conjunction word such as "and" into a Hokkien sentence, some would include "hngo2" (used as an exclamation remark in Jin'jiang /Nan'an).
No differentiation between Literary and Vernacular Pronunciation
When reading "years" or "numbers", Singaporean Hokkien normally does not differentiate between Literary (文讀音）or Vernacular pronunciations (白讀音). In Taiwan or Amoy, differentiation is usually made. For instance, the Year "1980" should be pronounced in Literary pronunciation（一九八空年 it kiú pat khòng nî）, but in Singapore, no differentiations are made (literary/vernacular are mixed together) and it's pronounced as “一九八空年 it káu pueh khòng nî”.
For telephone numbers, Taiwan would pronounce using literary pronunciations while Singapore would use vernacular pronunciations instead. For e.g. the telephone number "98444678" will be pronounced in Taiwan using literary pronunciation as "kiú pat sù sù sù lio̍k tshit pat". Whereas Singapore would pronounce it using vernacular pronunciations as "káu pueh sì-sì sì la̍k tshit pueh".
Influence from Southern Zhangzhou and Teochew Phonology
A change of vowel from "ing" to "eng"
Although Singaporean Hokkien is inclined towards Quanzhou accent, certain pronunciations are influenced by accent from regions towards south of Zhangzhou (漳南 - Dongshan County/Yunxiao County/Zhangpu County/Pinghe County）, Haifeng as well as Teochew and Cantonese.
For many Singaporeans, there is a vowel change in pronunciation from "ing" /iəŋ/ to "eng" /eŋ/, as compared to Standard Hokkien such as Amoy Hokkien or Taiwanese Hokkien which uses "ing". In Quanzhou, Zhangzhou, Amoy and Taiwan, a number of words are pronounced by the vowel "ing", but in Singaporean Hokkien, it's pronounced as "eng". This is similar to the pronunciation in the region towards south of Zhangzhou, Teochew and Cantonese. Typically, the Southern Zhangzhou accent (漳南腔) pronounces "eng" /eŋ/ or /ɛŋ/ instead of "ing" /iŋ/.
Below is a table illustrating this difference
|Hanzi||Standard Hokkien (Amoy/Taiwanese)||Singaporean Hokkien|
|生||sing||seng （Teochew ）|
|明||bîng||bêng （Southern Zhangzhou） / mêng （Teochew）|
|冷||líng||léng (Southern Zhangzhou/Teochew)|
|英||ing||eng (Southern Zhangzhou/Teochew)|
Pronunciation of "我" (I)
In standard Hokkien pronunciation, "我" ("I" or "me") is pronounced as /gʊa52/ but in Singapore, it's pronounced lazily as /wa52/. This is influenced by the Teochew pronunciation /ʊa52/.
There are some differences in the sentence structure used by Singaporean Hokkien and Taiwanese Hokkien.
For instance, when asking a question for "do you want to..?", Singaporean Hokkien typically uses the sentence structure "愛(ai)...莫(mài)?", whereas Taiwanese Hokkien uses the structure "欲(beh)..無(bô)". Singaporean Hokkien typically uses the word "愛(ai)" to mean "want to", but in Taiwanese Hokkien, the word "欲/卜(beh)" is used instead to mean "want to"."愛(ai)" in Taiwanese Hokkien typically means "love to" or "need to".
Also, unlike Taiwanese Hokkien which typically uses the word "敢 kám" (meaning "whether or not 是否 /是不是") when asking a question. It's a more formal or polite way of asking a question. Singaporean Hokkien does not use the word "敢 kám". Instead, it simply adds the word "無(bô)" at the back of the sentence to indicate that it's a question (similar to Mandarin's 嗎）or adds a Cantonese intonation "meh 咩" at the back. Adding the word "無(bô)" at the back of the sentence is also used in Taiwanese Hokkien, when one is asking a question in an informal way.
|Singaporean Hokkien||Taiwanese Hokkien||English|
|愛食飯莫? (ai chia̍h-pn̄g mài?）||欲食飯無? (beh chia̍h-pn̄g bô?)||Do you want to eat?|
|汝有睏飽無? (lé ū khùn-pá bô?)||你敢有睏飽? (lí kám ū khùn-pá?)||Did you have enough sleep?|
Old Chinese Words in Singaporean Hokkien
Certain colloquial pronunciations of Singaporean Hokkien words are directly inherited from the Consonant system of Old Chinese. Hokkien did not experience a great phonological change throughout the transition period from Old Chinese to Middle Chinese. It preserved a unique feature of Old Chinese; it does not have the consonant "f", for instance the word “分” is not pronounced as "fen", but rather as "pun" in Hokkien. This marks a major difference between Middle Chinese and Old Chinese. Hokkien also preserved the Nasal vowel and the 'sai' vowel of Old Chinese.
|Old Chinese Words/Hokkien pronunciation (IPA)||Meaning in Mandarin||English||Notes|
|枵/iao/||肚子饿||Hungry||Eg.我个腹肚真枵。（My stomach is very hungry）|
|蹛/tua/||在/居住||Live||E.g.：汝蹛底落？ (where do you live？）|
|佇/ti/||在||at||E.g.：汝佇底落？（Where are you at？）|
|徛/khia/||居住/站||live||E.g.：我徛佇牛车水。（I live in Chinatown）|
|遘/kao/||到||get to||e.g：我遘厝了（I've reached home。）|
|转/təng/||回去||go back||E.g.：我转去学堂提物件。（I got back to get my things）|
|还未/ia-bue/||还没||not yet||E.g.：我还未食饭。（I've not yet eaten。）|
Religion, Arts Entertainment and Culture
Some of the Buddhist temples in Singapore continue to have Buddhist sutra being recited in Hokkien. The sutra contains Singapore-style Hokkien romanization to help in the recitation. Some of the Chinese Christian Churches in Singapore also have services conducted in Singaporean Hokkien. Many of the Taoism services continue to be done in Hokkien.
Hokkien Folks Song and Music
There existed some Hokkien writings, folk adage and ballad in Singapore written by early Chinese immigrants to Singapore. Amongst the various Hokkien folk ballad in Singapore, a few outstanding writings include the history and hardship of early Chinese immigrants to Singapore. For instance, 《雪梅思君》 (Soat-m̂-su-kun) (Snow and plum thinking of a gentlemen) is a folk ballad written about the loyalty and chastity of love.
Another Singapore Hokkien Love Poetry is 《針線情》 (Chiam-sòaⁿ-chiâⁿ） (The emotions of needle and thread) has the following beautiful Hokkien writing:
lí sī chiam ， góa sī sòaⁿ ，chiam-sòaⁿ éng-óan liâm siòng óa
lâng kóng chiam pó͘ chiam hiam tio̍h sòaⁿ， ūi-hô pàng gún leh ko͘-toaⁿ
Ah, lí góa pún sī tâng phōe-toaⁿ, chóaⁿ-iūⁿ lâi thiah-sòaⁿ
ū chiam bô sòaⁿ kiò gún ài an-chóaⁿ， su-liām sim-chiâⁿ bô-tè khòaⁿ
There is another 18 sections in the poetry ballad 《行船歌》 (Hâng-chûn-koa) (Songs of traveling on boat), which talks about how early immigrants migrated to Singapore.
There is also another ballad called 《砰嘭水中流》 (Pin-pong-chúi-tiong-lâu) (Flow in the midst of water):
kih kok bo̍k ūi tsiu
pin pong chúi tiong lâu
si suit kàu chôan-chiu
Singapore also held Getai during traditional Chinese festivals, for instance Hungry Ghost Festivals. During the Getai event, it is common to speak a varieties of Chinese dialects, including Hokkien, Teochew and Cantonese. During the 1960s, Hokkien Song was particularly popular. The Singapore Hokkien star Chen Jin Lang 陳金浪 was once the main compere and singer during the Hungry ghost festival. For instance, his famous song "10 levels of Hade" 《十殿閻君》 was especially popular.
Singapore Hokkien Opera
The early Singaporean Hokkien opera had its origin from Gaojia opera, which was brought from Quanzhou to Singapore during late 19th century. In 1927, the Taiwanese Gezai opera spread to Singapore. Because its lyrics and singing style were easier to understand, it had a huge impact and influence on Singapore. Consequently, by mid 20th century, it had replaced Gaojia opera to become the mainstream hokkien opera in Singapore.
At the moment, the performance of Singapore Hokkien opera is done by two oldest troupe such as Sin Sai Hong Hokkien Opera Troupe (新賽風閩劇團), Xiao Kee Lin Hokkien Opera Troupe (筱麒麟閩劇團) and two other new troupe such as Sio Gek Leng Hokkien Opera Troupe (筱玉隆閩劇團) and Ai Xin Hokkien Opera Troupe (愛心歌仔戲團).
Singapore also has a Singapore Chinese Opera school to nurture talents in Opera, including Hokkien opera.
Singapore Hokkien Movies
Singapore Hokkien Movies began to develop in the late 1990s, notably by infusing Hokkien language into mainstream Chinese movies made by Singapore. Amongst these, movies directed by Jack Neo such as "I not stupid", "Money No Enough" were popular. They reflected the social environment of local Singaporeans.
Although Singapore radios started to ban Hokkien in the 1980s, Rediffusion Singapore continued to use Hokkien. This radio continued to broadcast programs in hokkien, and had great contribution to the culture of Singapore. For instance, the hokkien story-telling program (Amoy folks story 《廈語民間故事》 ) by Xu Shumei 許淑梅 was very popular.
Nanyin (Southern Music) was first spread to Singapore in 1901. Many immigrants from Quanzhou began to establish various Nanyin organization. At this moment, the one which had survived include Siong Leng Musical Association.
Siong Leng Musical Association was established in 1941; it was responsible for promoting Nanyin, an important Chinese culture heritage as well as Liyuan opera. In 1977, then the Chairman of the association, Mr. Ting Ma Cheng (丁馬成), advocated the ASEAN Nanyin Performance (亞細安南樂大會奏), which helped to revive Nanyin. In addition, in order to educate the young people about this performance art, he also published two books on Nanyin and Liyuan opera.
The current Siong Leng Musical Association is led by Ding Honghai (丁宏海) and it continues to promote Nanyin in Singapore.
Footprints of Peh-oe-ji
There were some past letters written in Peh-oe-ji from early Hokkien migrants in Singapore.
|POJ Letter (in romanized Hokkien)||Hanzi transcription|
12 ge̍h 26 ji̍t
Jí-bô phah-sǹg ê tiong-kan, chiap-tio̍h lâi phoe chit hong, lāi-bīn sō kóng long chai siông-sè . lūn lín hiân-chek ê sin-khu, kūn lāi ū khah iōng, lín bián khoà-lū. lūn jī á nā-sī khah kín tò-lâi pó khah hó. Nā tò-lâi chia, ū sî iā thang hō͘ in hiân-chek khah I kàu-hùn, bián-lē. sǹg hiân-sî nî-hè iáu chió, bē bián tit-siū ín-iń, ng-bāng nî-hè kàu gia̍h i chiū ē bat siūⁿ . lí m̄-thang khoà-lū. lūn chhin-chiâⁿ goá ta̍k lé-pài lo̍h khì Ē-Mn̄g thām thiā, long boē hó-sè. Tā-chiah chia bān-bān koh chhōe, goá iā chin tì-ì . lūn su-chē hiân-chai bô tī the, iā thang chai ié ī-sū. Lái heⁿ lun̄ mā ái kóng hó, chiaⁿ-ge̍h chiah beh tò-lâi. Lūn chō sō ê seng-khu ū ióng-ióng á-bô. Chin siàu-liân ǹg-bāng mê-nî ē long tò-lâi, koh $100.00 kho ě sū. Suá bô ti-teh thēng hāu-lâi,góa chiah mn̄g I ê siông-sè, chit ê kì-hō,lí chai āu-pái m̄-thang kià kòe lâi sàng góa, ū chōe chōe êhùi khì. Chhéng an put it.
Ông pheh lîm
佇無拍算的中間，接著來批一封，內面所講攏知詳細。論恁賢叔的身軀，近來有較勇，恁免掛慮。論兒仔若是較緊倒来保較好，若倒來遮，有時也通予(亻因) 賢叔共伊教訓、勉勵。算現時年歲猶少，袂免得受引誘，向望年歲夠額 伊就會捌想，汝毋通掛慮。論親情，我逐禮拜落去廈門探聽，攏袂好勢，踮遮則慢慢閣揣，我也真致意。論師姐現在無佇咧，也無通知伊的意思，來衡論嘛愛講好，正月才欲倒來。論做嫂用身軀有勇勇抑無？真少年，向望明年會攏倒來，閣$100.00箍的事。師也無佇咧，聽後來，我才問伊的詳細，這個記號，汝知後擺汝毋通寄過來送我，有濟濟的費氣。請安不一。
Places in Singapore
Singapore's Chinese name "新加坡" (sin-ka-pho) originated from Hokkien's transliteration of "Singapore". In addition, there were also many places in Singapore that originated from Hokkien, for instance Ang Mo Kio, Toa Payoh etc.
- Adrien Tien. "Chinese Hokkien in Singapore: evidence for an indigenised Singapore culture". National University of Singapore. Retrieved August 2013.
- "闽江茶座——周长楫教授谈闽南话在新加坡 (Professor Zhou Changyi talks about Singaporean Hokkien)" (in Chinese). 國際在線(Online international).
- "Siong Leng Musical Association". Lukechua.
- "新加坡湘靈音樂社訪臺文化藝術交流音樂會(Performance of Siong Leng Musical Association in Taiwan)" (in Chinese). rimhncfta.
- Bukit Brown: Our Roots,Our Heritage
- Chua, B. H. (2000). Taiwan's present/Singapore's past mediated by Hokkien language. Singapore: Dept. of Sociology, National University of Singapore. ISBN 981-3033-43-6
- The Rev. Carstairs Douglas, Chinese-English Dictionary of the Vernacular or Spoken Language of Amoy, with the Principal Variations of the Chang-chew and Chin-chew Dialects, 2nd corrected ed., London, Publishing Office of the Presbyterian Church of England, 1899 (first published 1873), bound with the Supplement by Thomas Barclay [Shanghai, 1923]), ISBN 1-86210-068-3
- 周長揖、周清海（著），《新加坡閩南話詞典》 ，中國社會科學出版社， 2002年，ISBN 9787500435303 (Zhou Changyi,Zhou Qinghai (2002), "Singaporean Hokkien Dictionary", China Social Science Pub.)
- 周長揖（著），《新加坡閩南話概説》 ，廈門大學出版社， 2000年，ISBN 9787561516924(Zhou Changyi (2000), "An Overview over Singaporean Hokkien", Xiamen University Pub.)
- 周長揖（著），《新加坡閩南話俗語歌謠選》 ，廈門大學出版社， 2003年，ISBN 7561521588(Zhou Changyi (2003), "Collection of Singaporean Hokkien Folk Adage and Ballad", Xiamen University Pub.)
- Holopedia - Wikipedia in Peh-oe-ji (Wikipedia in Hokkien)
- Online Hokkien Forum (in English)
- 闽江茶座——周长楫教授谈闽南话在新加坡 (Professor Zhou Changyi discusses Singaporean Hokkien)
- Malaysian/Singaporean Hokkien
- Teochew and Singaporean Hokkien Words
- 闽南人 The Hokkiens——新加坡国家图书馆馆藏选介