1510s in England
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- Monarch – Henry VIII
- Regent – Catherine, Queen Consort (starting 30 June, until 22 October 1513)
- Parliament – 1st of King Henry VIII (starting 21 January, until 23 February 1510), 2nd of King Henry VIII (starting 4 February 1512, until 4 March 1514), 3rd of King Henry VIII (starting 5 February, until 22 December 1515)
- c. January – Erasmus begins his period of residence in Cambridge.
- 21 January – Parliament grants Henry VIII generous tax subsidies.
- 31 January – Catherine of Aragon gives birth to her first child, a stillborn daughter.
- 17 August – Richard Empson and Edmund Dudley executed for 'constructive treason'.
- 9 April – St John's College, Cambridge, receives its charter.
- July – Henry VIII's flagship the Mary Rose launched at Portsmouth.
- 13 November – War of the League of Cambrai: Henry joins the Holy League against France.
- 17 November – the Treaty of Westminster signed between England and Spain forming an alliance against France.
- Archery Act attempts to ensure competence in use of the English longbow by most adult males.
- Edward Stafford, 3rd Duke of Buckingham, begins reconstruction of Thornbury Castle in South Gloucestershire as a residence.
- Major fire at Sherston, Wiltshire.
- February – following Strode's case – that of Member of Parliament Richard Strode imprisoned by a stannary court due to his attempts to introduce a bill alleviating the harsh conditions of tin miners – Parliament passes an act granting MPs immunity from such prosecutions.
- March – Parliament authorises a new poll tax to pay for the War of the League of Cambrai.
- 10 August – War of the League of Cambrai: the English fleet, commanded by Admiral Sir Edward Howard, secures victory at the Battle of Saint-Mathieu over the French-Breton fleet, though with loss of its flagship, the Regent, through explosion.
- Woolwich Dockyard established for the Royal Navy.
- Wolverhampton Grammar School is founded by Sir Stephen Jenyns.
- 5 April – Treaty of Mechlin signed by Henry, Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand II of Aragon and Pope Leo X against France.
- 30 April – execution of Edmund de la Pole, 3rd Duke of Suffolk.
- July – War of the League of Cambrai: Scotland declares war on England, in breach of the Treaty of Perpetual Peace.
- 16 August – War of the League of Cambrai: Henry VIII leads his troops to victory over the French at the Battle of Guinegate.
- 9 September – War of the League of Cambrai: at the Battle of Flodden, King James IV of Scotland is defeated and killed by an English army under Thomas Howard, Earl of Surrey.
- 24 September – War of the League of Cambrai: the city of Tournai surrenders to England.
- Deptford Dockyard established for the Royal Navy.
- April – Henry VIII declares a truce with France in the War of the League of Cambrai.
- 20 May – Trinity House is established as a guild of mariners at Deptford to regulate pilotage.
- June – Battle of Hornshole in the Scottish Borders: young men from Hawick defeat a raiding party from England.
- 13 June – Henry Grace à Dieu, at over 1,000 tons the largest warship in the world at this time, built at the new Woolwich Dockyard, is dedicated at Erith.
- 7 August – Henry VIII concludes an independent peace treaty with France in the War of the League of Cambrai, negotiated by Thomas Wolsey.
- 15 September – Thomas Wolsey is appointed Archbishop of York and begins to build York House in London.
- 9 October – marriage of Louis XII of France and Mary Tudor (sister of Henry VIII) as part of the peace with France.
- 2 July – Manchester Grammar School endowed by Hugh Oldham, the first free grammar school in England.
- 10 September – Thomas Wolsey invested as a Cardinal.
- 24 December – Wolsey is named the Lord Chancellor.
- Wolsey commissions the rebuilding of Hampton Court Palace.
- Structural completion of King's College Chapel, Cambridge.
- August – construction of the Manchester Grammar School is completed.
- 23 September – Royal College of Physicians founded in London.
- 3 October – Cardinal Wolsey's Treaty of London is signed by France, England, the Holy Roman Empire, the Papacy, Spain, Burgundy and the Netherlands allying the European powers against the Ottoman Empire.
- 15 June – Anne Herbert, Countess of Pembroke, born Anne Parr (died 1552)
- 22 September – Anne of Cleves, German-born fourth queen of Henry VIII (died 1557)
- approx. date
- Powicke, F. Maurice; Fryde, E. B., eds. (1961). Handbook of British Chronology (2nd ed.). London: Butler & Tanner Ltd. p. 39.
- "Erasmus, Desiderius (ERSS465D)". A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge.
- Palmer, Alan; Palmer, Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 139–142. ISBN 0-7126-5616-2.
- Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. pp. 197–204. ISBN 0-304-35730-8.
- Text of the 1510s in England as in force today (including any amendments) within the United Kingdom, from legislation.gov.uk.
- "Hornshole Battle Site". Discover the Borders. Retrieved 2013-08-06.
- Paine, Lincoln P. (1997). Ships of the World: an Historical Encyclopedia. Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-85177-739-2.
- Henry Grace à Dieu.
- Sutton, Ian (1999). Architecture, from Ancient Greece to the Present. London: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 978-0-500-20316-3.
- "BBC - History - Historic Figures: Mary I (1516 - 1558)". www.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 27 March 2019.