Cleveland Hopkins International Airport

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Cleveland Hopkins International Airport
Cleveland Hopkins International Airport.svg
Cleveland Hopkins International Airport Terminal.jpg
Airport type Public
Owner City of Cleveland
Operator Cleveland Airport System
Serves Cleveland
Location Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.
Focus city for Frontier Airlines[1]
Elevation AMSL 791 ft / 241 m
Coordinates 41°24′42″N 081°50′59″W / 41.41167°N 81.84972°W / 41.41167; -81.84972Coordinates: 41°24′42″N 081°50′59″W / 41.41167°N 81.84972°W / 41.41167; -81.84972
FAA airport diagram
FAA airport diagram
CLE is located in Ohio
CLE is located in the US
Location of airport in Ohio / United States
Direction Length Surface
ft m
6L/24R 9,000 2,743 Concrete
6R/24L 9,956 3,034 Concrete
10/28 6,018 1,834 Asphalt/Concrete
Statistics (2016)
Aircraft operations 119,268
Total passengers 8,422,676[2]
Source: Federal Aviation Administration[3] and CLE airport.[4]

Cleveland Hopkins International Airport (IATA: CLEICAO: KCLEFAA LID: CLE) is a public airport located nine miles (14 km) southwest of the central business district of Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, Ohio, United States.[3] It is the primary airport serving Northeast Ohio and is the largest and busiest airport in the state of Ohio. The metropolitan area is also served by Burke Lakefront Airport and by Akron-Canton Regional Airport. Cleveland Hopkins International Airport and Cleveland Burke Lakefront Airport together comprise the Cleveland Airport System, operated by the City of Cleveland's Department of Port Control.

The airport is of particular importance to the history of commercial air travel due to a number of first-in-the-world innovations that would eventually become standard around the globe. Founded in 1925, it was the first municipality-owned facility of its kind in the United States.[5] It was the site of the first air traffic control tower, the first ground-to-air radio control system, and the first airfield lighting system, all in 1930; and it was the first U.S. airport to be directly connected to a local or regional rail transit system, in 1968. It was also the first airport to employ a two-level terminal design separating arrivals from departures.

The airport was named after its founder, former city manager William R. Hopkins, on his 82nd birthday in 1951.

Like many airports, Hopkins experienced a decline in passenger volume in the early years of the 21st century as a wave of airline mergers, increased fuel costs, and the Great Recession impacted commercial aviation. More recently, the airport has implemented initiatives to upgrade the airport facility and provide additional air services.[6]

Operational history[edit]

North American international service[edit]

Intercontinental service[edit]

There is no intercontinental service from Cleveland. However, there have been several past short-lived attempts to establish intercontinental service from the airport since it was first granted authority to operate such service in 1977.[7][8]

  • Circa 1982–1986, JAT Yugoslav Airlines operated once-weekly non-stop flights to Ljubljana, continuing on to Belgrade.[9][10]
  • From 1988 to 1992, JAT Yugoslav Airlines operated once-weekly service to Belgrade, the largest city in what was then the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.[11] Upon the break-up of Yugoslavia and UN sanctions that followed, JAT service was suspended, leaving Cleveland without transatlantic, non-stop flights for nearly eight years until Continental Airlines began flights to London in 1999.
  • Continental Airlines began offering seasonal nonstop flights from Hopkins to London Gatwick Airport in 1999.[12] This service continued for several summers, and in 2009, Continental switched to Heathrow Airport instead of Gatwick because of the airline's new access to Heathrow as part of the EU–U.S. Open Skies Agreement. However, this service was cancelled permanently following the summer of 2009.[13][14] Continental utilized a 757-200 for this route.
  • Continental launched a new route between Cleveland and Paris-Charles de Gaulle on May 22, 2008, but then announced elimination of the service in December 2008. The service was never resurrected. Continental had exited the SkyTeam Alliance, which included Air France. Because of the exit from SkyTeam, the incentive for Continental passengers in Cleveland to connect in Paris disappeared.[15]
  • In 2014, Cleveland was considered (along with other cities like Cincinnati, Columbus (OH), Indianapolis, Nashville, and St. Louis) for new service to London-Heathrow either on British Airways with a Boeing 787-8 or American Airlines' 757. This was likely due to the success British Airways had seen in its London-Austin service, which demonstrated the ability for mid-size U.S. markets to sustain nonstop service to Europe with the Boeing 787 after the economic downturn in 2008-2009, and with decreasing fuel prices.[16]

Widebody service[edit]

During the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s, CLE had scheduled widebody service. However, with the airlines' trend in the 1990s of using smaller aircraft with increased frequency, all passenger wide-body services were discontinued. Scheduled service included:

  • Air Canada: 747
  • Eastern: A300
  • United: 747, DC-10, 767,
  • Delta: A310
  • American: 767, DC-10
  • Northwest: DC-10
  • TWA: 767
  • JAT Jugoslovenski Aero Transport: DC-10
  • Pan Am: A310

For weather-related issues, United will sometimes divert EWR-bound international 767s and 777s into CLE; however, the only scheduled wide-body aircraft that serve CLE are freight carriers:

  • FedEx: A300-600, A310
  • UPS: MD-11, 767-300, A300-600

Airfield, facilities and concourses[edit]

Satellite view of the airport.
An American Eagle counter at gate A3 in concourse A.
Hopkins airport is known for its fanciful giant "paper" airplane sculptures located in the underground walkway between Concourses C and D.

Cleveland Hopkins International Airport covers 1402 acres (567 ha)[3] and has three runways:

  • 6R/24L: 9,956 x 150 ft. (3,034 x 46 m) concrete
  • 6L/24R: 9,000 x 150 ft. (2,743 x 46 m) concrete
  • 10/28: 6,018 x 150 ft. (1,834 x 46 m) asphalt/concrete

The older parallel runway, Runway 6C/24C, was 7,096 x 150 ft. (2163 x 46 m). Several years ago it was decommissioned as a runway, its width narrowed, and it is now designated Taxiway C. "TAXI" in large yellow letters on each end is intended to discourage approaching aircraft using it as a runway.

Recently the thresholds of Runway 10/28 were moved 330 feet to the east, thus allowing for the addition of Engineered Materials Arresting System (EMAS) at both ends. The usable runway length was not altered. During this project, some turnouts were rebuilt and the closed sections of 24L and the former 24C that intersected 10/28 were physically removed.

In 2011 the airport had 188,286 aircraft operations, average 516 per day: 64% air taxi, 31% scheduled commercial, 4.5% general aviation and <1% military. 29 aircraft are based at this airport: 18 jet, 5 single engine, 6 multi-engine and 6 military.[3]

Since 2008, Airmall Cleveland (formerly BAA Cleveland), has developed and managed retail and dining locations at the airport. A redevelopment project will add 76,000 square feet (7,100 m2) of new locations.[17]

Cleveland Airport has two airport lounges. A United Club in Concourse C and an Airspace Lounge at the foot of Concourse B near the Main Terminal.

Cleveland Airport consists of one passenger terminal which is divided into four concourses:

  • Concourse A (gates A1–A12, A14), originally known as "North Concourse", was the first of the airport's original two concourses and was designed by Outcalt & Guenther[18] and built in 1962 and rebuilt in 1978. During a short period from 1987 until the early 1990s, USAir held the majority of gates in this concourse from which it was the dominant carrier at the airport.[19] It houses Allegiant Air, Frontier Airlines, Spirit Airlines, charters, and all international arrivals.
  • Concourse B (gates B1–B11) was the first extension pier to the airport and was designed by Outcalt & Guenther[18] and built in 1966. The concourse was rebuilt and expanded from 1982 until January 1983. This project was designed by Richard L. Bowen and Associates Inc. and built by Seuffert Construction Company, Inc.[20] It is home to Delta Air Lines, Delta Connection, and Southwest Airlines.
  • Concourse C (gates C1–C12, C14, and C16–C29) houses Air Canada Express, American Airlines, American Eagle, JetBlue and all United Airlines services, except for international arrivals which are handled in Concourse A instead. The concourse (being the third-oldest one) was designed by Joint venture of The Outcalt Guenther Partners and Dyer Watson Spieth and was originally known as "South Concourse" when it opened in 1968.[21] Until 1985, it was one of the main hub operations for United Airlines (pre–Continental Airlines merger). United slowly cut flights from Hopkins as it built a new hub at Washington Dulles International Airport. By 1987, United had closed its hub at Hopkins and moved its operations to the B Concourse. Continental Airlines quickly established a hub in Cleveland to fill the void left by United. The concourse was renovated in 1992 at a cost of US$50 million. This project, designed by Robert P. Madison International, Inc. included the installation of a continuous skylight, a presidents Club, and a new Baggage Claim area.[22] However, after the merger of Continental and United, as well as Continental joining the Star Alliance, United and Air Canada Express have since relocated their Cleveland operations to Concourse C. United now leases 14 gates, C-16 through C-29, located at the far end of concourse C, through 2029 as The airline's use of several closer-in gates on the so-called "stem" of concourse C (C-3 through C-14, excluding C-6) expired at the end of 2015. American Airlines now uses the "stem" of concourse C (C-2, C-3, C-4, C-5, C-8, C-10, C-14).
  • Concourse D (gates D2–D12, D14, D17, D21, D25, and D28) was constructed in 1999 at a cost of US$80 million and is a separate terminal connected to Concourse C by an underground walkway. Although capable of handling larger jets such as United's Boeing 737,[23] it handled smaller regional aircraft exclusively for United Express and Air Canada Jazz. Concourse D contains 12 jet bridge gates and 24 ramp loading positions.[23] It was designed by KCF/SHG and Robert P. Madison International, Inc.[24] Concourse D is now vacant. On June 5, 2014, United closed its gates and consolidated all operations to Concourse C,[25] but United has to continue to pay the airport $1,112,482 a month for Concourse D until 2027.[26]

Airlines and Destinations[edit]


Airlines Destinations Refs
Air Canada Express Toronto–Pearson [27]
Allegiant Air Austin, Jacksonville (FL), Orlando/Sanford, Savannah, Punta Gorda (FL), St. Petersburg/Clearwater
Seasonal: Fort Lauderdale, Fort Walton Beach, Myrtle Beach, New Orleans, Phoenix/Mesa
American Airlines Charlotte, Dallas/Fort Worth [29]
American Eagle Charlotte, Chicago–O'Hare, Dallas/Fort Worth, Miami, New York–JFK, New York–LaGuardia, Philadelphia, Washington–National [29]
Apple Vacations Seasonal charter: Punta Cana [30]
Delta Air Lines Atlanta
Seasonal: Detroit, Minneapolis/St. Paul
Delta Connection Detroit, Hartford, Minneapolis/St. Paul, New York–JFK, New York–LaGuardia, Raleigh/Durham
Seasonal: Orlando
Frontier Airlines Cancún, Charlotte, Fort Myers, Houston–Intercontinental, Las Vegas, Minneapolis/St. Paul, Orlando, Phoenix–Sky Harbor, Tampa
Seasonal: Atlanta, Denver, Los Angeles, Portland (OR), Raleigh/Durham, San Diego, San Francisco, Seattle/Tacoma
JetBlue Airways Boston, Fort Lauderdale [33]
Southwest Airlines Atlanta, Baltimore, Chicago–Midway, Denver, Las Vegas, Milwaukee (begins November 5, 2017),[34] Nashville, Phoenix–Sky Harbor, St. Louis
Seasonal: Fort Myers
Spirit Airlines Atlanta, Fort Lauderdale, Las Vegas, Los Angeles, New Orleans, Orlando
Seasonal: Boston, Dallas/Fort Worth, Fort Myers, Myrtle Beach, Tampa
United Airlines Chicago–O'Hare, Denver, Houston–Intercontinental, Los Angeles, Newark, Orlando, San Francisco
Seasonal: Cancún, Fort Lauderdale, Fort Myers, San Juan
United Express Boston, Chicago–O'Hare, Houston–Intercontinental, Milwaukee, New York–LaGuardia, Newark, Washington–Dulles, Washington–National
Seasonal: Charleston
Vacation Express Seasonal charter: Montego Bay, Punta Cana [38]


Airlines Destinations
FedEx Express Indianapolis, Memphis, Newark
FedEx Feeder
operated by Mountain Air Cargo
UPS Airlines Louisville


Top destinations[edit]

Busiest domestic routes from CLE (February 2016 – March 2017)[39]
Rank City Passengers Carriers
1 Chicago–O'Hare, Illinois 412,000 American, United
2 Atlanta, Georgia 373,000 Delta, Frontier, Spirit
3 Denver, Colorado 216,000 Frontier, Southwest, United
4 Orlando, Florida 202,000 Delta, Frontier, Spirit, United
5 Chicago–Midway, Illinois 195,000 Southwest
6 Las Vegas, Nevada 180,000 Frontier, Southwest, Spirit
7 Charlotte, North Carolina 176,000 American
8 Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas 173,000 American, Spirit
9 New York–LaGuardia, New York 161,000 American, Delta, United
10 Boston, Massachusetts 144,000 JetBlue, Spirit, United
Busiest international routes from CLE (2013)[40]
Rank Airport Passengers Carriers
1 Toronto (Pearson), Canada 128,700 Air Canada Express
2 Cancún, Mexico 87,480 Frontier, United
3 Punta Cana, Dominican Republic 33,240 Frontier

Annual passenger traffic[edit]

Annual passenger traffic (enplaned + deplaned) at CLE, 1999 through 2016[41]
Year Passengers
1999 13,020,285 Steady
2000 13,288,059 Increase
2001 11,864,411 Decrease
2002 10,795,270 Decrease
2003 10,555,387 Decrease
2004 11,264,937 Increase
2005 11,463,391 Increase
2006 11,321,050 Decrease
2007 11,459,390 Increase
2008 11,106,196 Decrease
2009 9,715,604 Decrease
2010 9,492,455 Decrease
2011 9,176,824 Decrease
2012 9,004,983 Decrease
2013 9,072,126 Increase
2014 7,609,404 Decrease
2015 8,100,073Increase
2016[42] 8,422,676Increase

Ground transportation[edit]

Public transit[edit]

Cleveland RTA at the airport station
Airport welcome sign

Hopkins International Airport is connected to the Cleveland Rapid Transit system. Passengers can board Red Line trains at Cleveland Hopkins International Airport (RTA Rapid Transit station) airport terminal. One-way fare to any station on the line is $2.50. During late night/early morning hours, service is provided by the # 22 Lorain bus from Hopkins to Downtown Cleveland. The airport also offers a dedicated taxi service of 75 vehicles.[43]

Rental cars[edit]

In 1998, Hopkins moved rental car operations off the airport grounds to a new consolidated rental car facility. The facility has drawn mixed reviews from travelers because of its distance from the airport, inconsistent bus service and long bus rides, only partial canopy coverage for vehicles, and fees and taxes that are very high relative to those of other airports; the charges cover costs of not only operating the center but also supporting other local projects, such as the Cleveland Browns stadium.[44]

Accidents and incidents[edit]

  • In 1938 a United Air Lines twin-engined prop flying from Newark to Chicago via Cleveland crashed on approach to Hopkins killing all seven passengers and three crew members on board.[45]
  • In 1971 Jane Fonda was arrested by police at the airport for being belligerent and obstructing public safety because she refused to go through security screening. After an increase in aviation related skyjackings, the FAA had in 1969 ordered all airports to use metal detectors.
  • Hundreds of thousands of earthworms crawled onto the longest runway at Cleveland's Hopkins Airport in September 1972. It created so great a safety hazard that the strip had to be closed for 30 minutes. Workmen used a motorized broom to sweep them away. Four jet pilots complained that the worms caused poor braking. Officials said heavy rains apparently brought the worms to the surface on ground surrounding the runway.[46]
  • On January 4, 1985 Pan Am flight 558, a Boeing 727, was scheduled to fly from Cleveland to New York City's John F. Kennedy International Airport. While still on the ground at Cleveland, the aircraft was hijacked and the hijacker demanded to be taken to South America. The plane was stormed by Cleveland police and the hijacker arrested. The duration of the hijacking was less than one day.
  • On January 6, 2003, a Continental Express Embraer ERJ-145LR overran the runway upon landing from Bradley International Airport in Windsor Locks, CT. After touchdown, the flight crew was unable to stop the airplane on the runway. The airplane continued beyond the departure end, on extended runway centerline, and struck the ILS runway 6 localizer antenna. It came to rest with the nose about 600 feet (180 m) beyond the end of the runway. The nose landing gear had collapsed rearward and deformed the forward pressure bulkhead.[47]
  • On April 27, 2006 police officers confronted a man at the United Airlines ticket counter. The man fired a handgun, critically wounding a patrolman, but another officer shot and killed the attacker.
  • On February 18, 2007, at 3:14 pm, a Shuttle America Embraer 170 operating as Delta Connection flight 6448 from Atlanta skidded off snow-covered runway 28 and crashed through a fence. None of the 70 passengers and four crew on board were injured.
  • On January 10, 2010, the airport lost power for more than seven hours after a transformer exploded at about 6:50 am. All power inside the terminals was lost and air traffic was halted; however the control tower, runways, and taxiways remained lit, powered by backup generators. About 800 people were affected by the loss of power, and most flights didn't resume until 3:00 pm. According to a spokesperson, the transformer exploded due to a buildup of road salt, causing corrosion.[48]
  • On December 9, 2012, a shooting occurred at approximately 11:28 am in the Riveredge employee parking lot. A male was pronounced dead at the scene while a female was pronounced dead at MetroHealth hospital.[49][50]
  • On February 22, 2013, a Boeing 737 operating as United Airlines flight 1639, skidded off the taxiway after landing due to poor conditions on the runway. There were no injuries to the 103 passengers and crews.[51]

Relationship with United and Continental[edit]

From the postwar era until the mid-1980s, United Airlines maintained its eastern-most domestic hub at CLE. Beginning in 1985, United started the process of migrating its CLE hub capacity to Washington–Dulles; this process was completed in 1987. The same year, Continental Airlines, which was then a separate carrier and lacked a Midwest hub, quickly moved into fill the void left by United. This gave the then Continental hubs in five markets: Houston–International, Denver–Stapleton (subsequently dehubbed), Newark (per its acquisition of People Express in 1987), Guam and Cleveland.

Continental increased its hub capacity at Hopkins, becoming the airport's largest tenant and eventually accounting for upwards of 60 percent of passenger traffic. Continental and Hopkins both made substantial operational and capital investments in support of CLE; this included the construction of Concourse D in 1999 that accommodated Continental mainline and Continental Express flights.

Continental—United merger[edit]

On May 2, 2010, the Boards of Directors at Continental and United Airlines approved a stock-swap merger deal. The legal aspects of a full merger were completed on October 1, 2010.[52] The Continental-United marriage only heightened simmering concerns within the greater Cleveland area about the potential effect on Cleveland air service; Continental's previous merger talks with Star Alliance founding partner United had been viewed in some circles as a serious threat to Continental's future at Hopkins.[53][54] When the 2010 United/Continental tie-up was initially announced, it prompted Cleveland politicians to propose hearings to investigate the potential impact of the marriage on the community; these investigations ultimately had no effect on the companies' efforts to combine. There had been persistent worries that a post-merger United would reduce or eliminate direct service from Cleveland to a number of cities and instead route passengers through United's hubs in Chicago [315 miles (507 km) west by air] and Washington [217 miles (349 km) east by air].[55][56] On November 10, 2010, Continental CEO Jeff Smisek stated in a speech in Cleveland that "Cleveland needs to earn its hub status every day" and added that overall profitability would be the determining factor in whether the new United kept or shuttered the Cleveland hub operation.[57] However, after the agreement was signed, passenger volume at Cleveland continued to decline.[58]


On February 1, 2014, United's then-CEO Jeff Smisek announced that the airline would shut down its Cleveland hub the following June. "Our hub in Cleveland hasn't been profitable for over a decade, and has generated tens of millions of dollars of annual losses in recent years," Smisek stated in a letter to United employees. "We simply cannot continue to bear these losses."[59] As of June 5, 2014, United Airlines effectively terminated its hub operation at CLE; United listed Cleveland as a "key airport" for the airline following the dehubbing, but that status was subsequently dropped.[60]


After the announcement of United Airlines's departure in 2014, Cleveland saw greatly decreased flight operations, and by June, 2014, United Airlines' had cut more than 60% of its daily departures at the airport.[61] United moved its flights to the main terminal and mothballed the almost-new Concourse D, although it continues to pay the airport rent for the new facility. In the aftermath of United Airlines' schedule reductions, Frontier Airlines significantly increased its flight options from the airport and declared Cleveland a focus city.[1] After the dehubbing of United Airlines, more low-cost airlines such as Spirit Airlines and Allegiant Airlines came to Cleveland. As of 2015, enplanements at Hopkins were 60% of their peak during the time when the airport was a hub.


Ground Transportation Center[edit]

In May, 2015, the airport moved the pick-up and drop off location for most shuttles to the former limo lot, requiring most passengers to take two escalators underneath the former shuttle parking in the arrivals lane at the airport. Originally meant to be a temporary fix, the airport made the Ground Transportation Center a permanent fixture in May, 2017. This angered many travelers that complained on various social media platforms, as well as local media outlets, garnering negative publicity for the airport's plans.[62]


In May, 2013, the airport razed it's 2,600-space garage, replacing it with a 1,000 space surface lot for $24M.[63] This in turn created a parking shortage, and daily lot closings when parking lots would become full. The airport's Twitter account became a daily update of parking closures at the airport. The airport converted the long time Short Term Garage to a so-called Smart Garage, and valet parking garage. The airport eliminated the long time free half-hour courtesy parking perk, and began to charge $3 for a half-hour.[64]

See also[edit]


 This article incorporates public domain material from the Air Force Historical Research Agency website

  1. ^ a b Ben Mutzabaugh, USA TODAY (March 21, 2014). "Frontier Airlines tabs Cleveland as newest focus city". USA TODAY. 
  2. ^
  3. ^ a b c d FAA Airport Master Record for CLE (Form 5010 PDF), effective July 5, 2007
  4. ^ "History". CLE Going Places - Cleveland Hopkins Airport. 
  5. ^ Airport History
  6. ^ "OH – Cleveland – Cleveland-Hopkins International Airport – CLE". Retrieved January 19, 2013. 
  7. ^ "11 New 'Gateways' to Europe Proposed". The Milwaukee Journal. September 12, 1977. Retrieved July 5, 2012. 
  8. ^ "TWA Ponders Europe Flights". Observer-Reporter. December 23, 1977. Retrieved July 5, 2012. 
  9. ^ Bennett, Marcia (June 24, 1982). "Button-Box Band Tours Slovenia". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved July 5, 2012. 
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  13. ^ Grant, Alison (December 3, 2009). "Continental Airlines Cancels Non-Stop Seasonal Flights From Cleveland to London". The Plain Dealer. Retrieved April 30, 2010. 
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  15. ^ Grant, Alison (October 22, 2009). "Continental Airlines' New Alliance May Smooth Connections for Northeast Ohio Travelers". The Plain Dealer. Retrieved September 8, 2011. 
  16. ^ "Nonstop Port Columbus flight to London? It may happen". Archived from the original on August 29, 2014. Retrieved May 21, 2015. 
  17. ^ "Concessions Transformation at Cleveland Hopkins International Airport is Generating New Jobs, Creating Need for Qualified Applicants" (PDF). BAA Cleveland. June 11, 2009. Retrieved July 5, 2012. 
  18. ^ a b "Encyclopedia of Cleveland History: OUTCALT AND GUENTHER". 
  19. ^ "US Air Wants Mini-Hub in Cleveland". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. February 23, 1987. Retrieved July 5, 2012. 
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  24. ^ Continental Airlines Concourse D – RPMI
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  35. ^ "Check Flight Schedules". Retrieved January 7, 2017. 
  36. ^ "Where We Fly". Retrieved January 29, 2017. 
  37. ^ a b "Timetable". Retrieved January 7, 2017. 
  38. ^ "Flight Schedule". Retrieved March 29, 2017. 
  39. ^ "Cleveland, OH: Cleveland-Hopkins International (CLE)". Bureau of Transportation Statistics. Retrieved June 16, 2017. 
  40. ^ U.S. International Air Passenger and Freight Statistics Report | Department of Transportation. (July 8, 2013). Retrieved on August 16, 2013.
  41. ^ "History". CLE Going Places - Cleveland Hopkins Airport. 
  42. ^
  43. ^ "Taxis". Cleveland Airport System. Retrieved July 5, 2012. 
  44. ^ Beauprez, Jennifer (June 1, 1998). "Hopkins Rental Car Prices Flyin' Higher". Crain's Cleveland Business. Retrieved July 5, 2012. 
  45. ^ "Ship Crashes to Earth in Sight of Cleveland Airport". Evening Independent. May 25, 1938. Retrieved July 5, 2012. 
  46. ^ "Earthworms Stop Air Traffic in Cleveland". Milwaukee Journal. Cleveland. September 16, 1972. Retrieved January 21, 2012. 
  47. ^ "N16571 Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved January 21, 2012. 
  48. ^ "Power Back on at Cleveland Airport". CNN. January 10, 2010. Retrieved January 10, 2010. 
  49. ^ Richards, Leah (December 9, 2012). "Cleveland Hopkins International Airport employee parking lot shooting under investigation". News Net 5. Retrieved December 9, 2012. 
  50. ^ "Police: Airport security officer killed in Ohio". Associated Press. December 10, 2012. Retrieved December 10, 2012. 
  51. ^ Nist, Cassandra (February 22, 2013). "No injuries reported after United plane slides off taxiway at Cleveland Hopkins Airport". WEWS-TV. Retrieved March 2, 2013. 
  52. ^ Smisek, Jeffrey A. (October 1, 2010). "What Does the Merger Mean for You". Continental Airlines. Archived from the original on October 3, 2010. Retrieved October 1, 2010. 
  53. ^ Stacklin, Jeff (December 13, 2006). "Continental Merger Heating Up". Crain's Cleveland Business. Retrieved July 5, 2012. 
  54. ^ "Continental to Join Star Alliance". Continental Airlines. June 19, 2008. Archived from the original on June 28, 2008. Retrieved June 19, 2008. 
  55. ^ O'Donnell, Paul (June 19, 2008). "Continental, United Agree to Link Airline Networks". The Plain Dealer. Retrieved June 19, 2008. 
  56. ^ Koenig, David (April 7, 2009). "DOT Plans to OK Continental Joining Star Alliance". USA Today. Retrieved April 30, 2010. 
  57. ^ Miller, Jay (November 10, 2010). "United Airlines CEO Smisek Says Cleveland Must 'Earn Its Hub Status Every Day'". Crain's Cleveland Business. Retrieved July 5, 2012. 
  58. ^ Ramsey, Mike (September 28, 2011). "Airline Mergers Leave Airports Off the Radar". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved September 28, 2011. 
  59. ^ "Excite News - United Airlines drops Cleveland as hub airport". 
  60. ^ "Airports and terminal maps". 
  61. ^ "Frontier Airlines continues push from Cleveland as Dulles fires up. Now for?: US ULCCs Part 2". 
  62. ^
  63. ^
  64. ^

External links[edit]