Title card of the anime television series
|Genre||Neo-noir,[a] space Western[b]|
|Cowboy Bebop: Shooting Star|
|Written by||Cain Kuga|
|Published by||Kadokawa Shoten|
|Magazine||Monthly Asuka Fantasy DX|
|Original run||September 18, 1997 – June 18, 1998|
|Anime television series|
|Directed by||Shinichirō Watanabe|
|Produced by||Masahiko Minami
|Written by||Keiko Nobumoto|
|Music by||Yoko Kanno|
|Original network||TV Tokyo, Wowow|
|Original run||April 3, 1998 – April 23, 1999|
|Written by||Yutaka Nanten|
|Published by||Kadokawa Shoten|
|Magazine||Monthly Asuka Fantasy DX|
|Original run||October 18, 1998 – February 18, 2000|
Cowboy Bebop (カウボーイビバップ Kaubōi Bibappu) is a 1998 anime television series animated by Sunrise featuring a production team led by director Shinichirō Watanabe, screenwriter Keiko Nobumoto, character designer Toshihiro Kawamoto, mechanical designer Kimitoshi Yamane, and composer Yoko Kanno. The twenty-six episodes ("sessions") of the series are set in the year 2071, and follow the lives of a bounty hunter crew traveling on their spaceship called Bebop. Cowboy Bebop explores philosophical concepts including existentialism, existential ennui, and loneliness.
The series premiered in Japan on TV Tokyo from April 3 until June 26, 1998, broadcasting only twelve episodes and a special due to its controversial adult-themed content. The entire twenty-six episodes of the series were later broadcast on WOWOW from October 24 until April 24, 1999. The anime was adapted into two manga series which were serialized in Kadokawa Shoten's Asuka Fantasy DX. A film was later released to theaters worldwide.
The anime series was dubbed in the English language by Animaze and ZRO Limit Productions, and was licensed by Bandai Entertainment in North America and is now licensed by Funimation. In Britain, it was licensed by Beez Entertainment and is now licensed by Anime Limited. Madman Entertainment has licensed it for releases in Australia and New Zealand. In 2001, Cowboy Bebop became the first anime title to be broadcast on Adult Swim in the United States.
Cowboy Bebop became a critical and commercial success both in Japanese and international markets (most notably in the United States), garnered several major anime and science fiction awards upon its release, and received universal praise for its style, characters, story, voice acting, animation, and soundtrack. In the years since its release, critics and reviewers, from the United States in particular, have hailed Cowboy Bebop as a masterpiece and frequently cite it as one of the greatest anime titles of all time. Credited with helping to introduce anime to a new wave of Western viewers in the early 2000s, Cowboy Bebop has also been labelled a gateway series for the medium as a whole.
- 1 Plot
- 2 Genre and themes
- 3 Production
- 4 Distribution
- 5 Related media
- 6 Reception
- 7 Legacy
- 8 Notes
- 9 References
- 10 External links
In 2071, roughly fifty years after an accident with a hyperspace gateway made the Earth almost uninhabitable, humanity has colonized most of the rocky planets and moons of the Solar System. Amid a rising crime rate, the Inter Solar System Police (ISSP) set up a legalized contract system, in which registered bounty hunters (also referred to as "Cowboys") chase criminals and bring them in alive in return for a reward. The series' protagonists are bounty hunters working from the spaceship Bebop. The original crew are Spike Spiegel, an exiled former hitman of the criminal Red Dragon Syndicate, and his partner Jet Black, a former ISSP officer. They are later joined by Faye Valentine, an amnesiac con artist; Edward Wong, an eccentric girl skilled in hacking; and Ein, a genetically-engineered Pembroke Welsh Corgi with human-like intelligence. Over the course of the series, the team get involved in disastrous mishaps leaving them out of pocket, while often confronting faces and events from their past: these include Jet's reasons for leaving the ISSP, and Faye's past as a young woman from Earth injured in an accident and cryogenically frozen to save her life.
The main story arc focuses on Spike and his deadly rivalry with Vicious, an enforcer for the Red Dragon Syndicate. Spike and Vicious were once partners and friends, but when Spike began an affair with Vicious's girlfriend Julia and resolved to leave the Syndicate with her, Vicious attempted to have Julia kill Spike. Julia goes into hiding to protect herself and Spike, while Spike fakes his death to escape the Syndicate. In the present, Julia comes out of hiding and reunites with Spike, intending to complete their plan. Vicious, having staged a coup d'état and taken over the Syndicate, sends hitmen after the pair. Julia is killed, leaving Spike alone. His heartbreak feeds his desire to kill Vicious once and for all. Spike leaves the Bebop after saying a final goodbye to Faye and Jet. Upon infiltrating the syndicate, he finds Vicious on the top floor of the building. In a final battle, Vicious is killed and Spike severely wounded. The series ends as Spike descends the main staircase of the building into the rising sun. He falls to the ground, leaving his ultimate fate ambiguous.
Genre and themes
Watanabe created a special tagline for the series to promote it during its original presentation, calling it "a new genre unto itself". The line was inserted before and after commercial breaks during its Japanese and US broadcasts. Later, Watanabe called the phrase an "exaggeration". The show is a hybrid of multiple genres, including comedy, the detective caper, action fiction and thrillers, and film noir. The musical style was emphasized in many of the episode titles.:79–80 Multiple philosophical themes are explored using the characters, including existentialism, existential ennui, loneliness, and the effect of the past on the protagonists. It draws extensively from multiple Western genres, including the Western and pulp fiction.:113 The series also makes specific references to or pastiches multiple films, including the works of John Woo and Bruce Lee, Midnight Run, 2001: A Space Odyssey, and Alien. The series also includes extensive references and elements from science fiction, bearing strong similarities to the cyberpunk fiction of William Gibson.:81 Several planets and space stations in the series are made in Earth's image. The streets of celestial objects such as Ganymede resemble a modern port city, while Mars features shopping malls, theme parks, casinos and cities. Cowboy Bebop's universe is filled with video players and hyperspace gates, eco-politics and fairgrounds, spaceships and Native American shamans. This setting has been described as "one part Chinese diaspora and two parts wild west.":113
The characters were created by Watanabe and character designer Toshihiro Kawamoto. Watanabe envisioned each character as an extension of his own personality, or as an opposite person to himself. Each character, from the main cast to supporting characters, were designed to be outlaws unable to fit into society. Kawamoto designed the characters so they were easily distinguished from one another. All the main cast are characterized by a deep sense of loneliness or resignation to their fate and past. From the perspective of Brian Camp and Julie Davis, the main characters resemble the main characters of the anime series Lupin III, if only superficially, given their more troubled pasts and more complex personalities.:81 With the exception of Edward,[who?] none of the main characters had models in real life.
The show focuses on the character of Spike Spiegel, with the overall theme of the series being Spike's past and its karmic effect on him. Spike was portrayed as someone who had lost his expectations for the future, having lost the woman he loved, and so was in a near-constant lethargy. Spike's artificial eye was included as Watanabe wanted his characters to have flaws. He was originally going to give Spike an eye patch, but the producers vetoed it.
Jet is shown as someone who lost confidence in his former life and has become cynical about the state of society. Spike and Jet were designed to be opposites, with Spike being thin and wearing smart attire, while Jet was bulky and wore more casual clothing. The clothing, which was dark in color, also reflected their states of mind. Faye Valentine, Edward Wong, and Ein joined the crew in later episodes. Their designs were intended to contrast against Spike. Faye was described by her voice actress as initially being an "ugly" woman, with her defining traits being her liveliness, sensuality and humanity. To emphasize her situation when first introduced, she was compared to Poker Alice, a famous Western figure. Edward was the one character to have a real-life model: her behavior was based on the antics of Yoko Kanno as observed by Watanabe when he first met her. While generally portrayed as carefree and eccentric, she is motivated by a sense of loneliness after being abandoned by her father. Kawamoto initially based Ein's design on a friend's pet corgi, later getting one himself to use as a motion model.
Cowboy Bebop was developed by animation studio Sunrise and created by Hajime Yatate, the well-known pseudonym for the collective contributions of Sunrise's animation staff. The leader of the series' creative team was director Shinichirō Watanabe, most notable at the time for directing Macross Plus and Mobile Suit Gundam 0083: Stardust Memory. Other leading members of Sunrise's creative team were screenwriter Keiko Nobumoto, character designer Toshihiro Kawamoto, mechanical art designer Kimitoshi Yamane, composer Yoko Kanno, and producers Masahiko Minami and Yoshiyuki Takei. Most of them had previously worked together, in addition to having credits on other popular anime titles. Nobumoto had scripted Macross Plus, Kawamoto had designed the characters for Gundam, and Kanno had composed the music for Macross Plus and The Vision of Escaflowne. Yamane had not worked with Watanabe yet, but his credits in anime included Bubblegum Crisis and The Vision of Escaflowne. Minami joined the project as he wanted to do something different from his previous work on mecha anime.
Cowboy Bebop was Watanabe's first project as solo director, as he had been co-director in his previous works. His original concept was for a movie, and during production he treated each episode as a miniature movie. His main inspiration for Cowboy Bebop was Lupin III, a crime anime series focusing on the exploits of the series' titular character. When developing the series' story, Watanabe began by creating the characters first. He explained, "the first image that occurred to me was one of Spike, and from there I tried to build a story around him, trying to make him cool." While the original dialogue of the series was kept clean to avoid any profanities, its level of sophistication was made appropriate to adults in a criminal environment. Mature themes such as drug dealing and homosexuality were key elements of some episodes. Watanabe described Cowboy Bebop as "80% serious story and 20% humorous touch." The comical episodes were harder for the team to write than the serious ones, but though several events in them seemed random, they were carefully planned in advance. Watanabe conceived the series' ending early on, and each episode involving Spike and Vicious was meant to foreshadow their final confrontation. Some of the staff were unhappy about this approach as a continuation of the series would be difficult. While he considered altering the ending, he eventually settled with his original idea. The reason for creating the ending was that Watanabe did not want the series to become like Star Trek, with him being tied to doing it for years.
The project had initially originated with Bandai's toy division as a sponsor, with the goal of selling spacecraft toys. Watanabe recalled his only instruction was "So long as there's a spaceship in it, you can do whatever you want." But upon viewing early footage, it became clear that Watanabe's vision for the series didn't match with that of Bandai's. Believing the series would never sell toy merchandise, Bandai pulled out of the project, leaving it in development hell until sister company Bandai Visual stepped in to sponsor it. Since there was no need to merchandise toys with the property any more, Watanabe had free rein in the development of the series. Watanabe wanted to design not just a space adventure series for adolescent boys but a program that would also appeal to sophisticated adults. During the making of Bebop, Watanabe often attempted to rally the animation staff by telling them that the show would be something memorable up to three decades later. While some of them were doubtful of that at the time, Watanabe many years later expressed his happiness to have been proven right in retrospect. He joked that if Bandai Visual hadn't intervened then "you might be seeing me working the supermarket checkout counter right now."
The city locations were generally inspired by the cities of New York and Hong Kong. The atmospheres of the planets and the ethnic groups in Cowboy Bebop mostly originated from Watanabe's ideas, with some collaboration from set designers Isamu Imakake, Shoji Kawamori, and Dai Satō. The animation staff established the particular planet atmospheres early in the production of the series before working on the ethnic groups. It was Watanabe who wanted to have several groups of ethnic diversity appear in the series. Mars was the planet most often used in Cowboy Bebop's storylines, with Satoshi Toba, the cultural and setting producer, explaining that the other planets "were unexpectedly difficult to use." He stated that each planet in the series had unique features, and the producers had to take into account the characteristics of each planet in the story. For the final episode, Toba explained that it was not possible for the staff to have the dramatic rooftop scene occur on Venus, so the staff "ended up normally falling back to Mars." In creating the backstory, Watanabe envisioned a world that was "multinational rather than stateless". In spite of certain American influences in the series, he stipulated that the country had been destroyed decades prior to the story, later saying the notion of the United States as the center of the world repelled him.
The music for Cowboy Bebop was composed by Yoko Kanno. Kanno formed the blues and jazz band Seatbelts to perform the music of the series. According to Kanno, the music was one of the first aspects of the series to begin production, before most of the characters, story or animation had been finalized. The genres she used for its composition were western, opera and jazz. Watanabe noted that Kanno did not score the music exactly the way he told her to. He stated, "She gets inspired on her own, follows up on her own imagery and comes to me saying 'this is the song we need for Cowboy Bebop,' and composes something completely on her own." Kanno herself was sometimes surprised at how pieces of her music were used in scenes, sometimes wishing it had been used elsewhere, though she also felt that none of their uses were "inappropriate". She was pleased with the working environment, finding the team very relaxed in comparison with other teams she had worked with.
Watanabe further explained that he would take inspiration from Kanno's music after listening to it and create new scenes for the story from it. These new scenes in turn would inspire Kanno and give her new ideas for the music and she would come to Watanabe with even more music. Watanabe cited as an example, "some songs in the second half of the series, we didn't even ask her for those songs, she just made them and brought them to us." He commented that while Kanno's method was normally "unforgivable and unacceptable," it was ultimately a "big hit" with Cowboy Bebop. Watanabe described his collaboration with Kanno as "a game of catch between the two of us in developing the music and creating the TV series Cowboy Bebop."  Since the series' broadcast, Kanno and the Seatbelts have released seven original soundtrack albums, two singles and extended plays, and two compilations through label Victor Entertainment.
Cowboy Bebop debuted on TV Tokyo, one of the main broadcasters of anime in Japan, airing from April 3 until June 26, 1998. Due to its 6 PM timeslot and depictions of graphic violence, the show's first run only included episodes 2, 3, 7 to 15, 18 and a special. Later that year, the series was shown in its entirety from October 24 until April 24, 1999, on satellite network WOWOW. The full series has also been broadcast across Japan by anime television network Animax, which has also aired the series via its respective networks across Southeast Asia, South Asia and East Asia.
In the United States, Cowboy Bebop was one of the programs shown the night Cartoon Network's late night block Adult Swim debuted on September 2, 2001, being the first anime shown on the block. It was successful enough to be broadcast repeatedly for four years. It has been run at least once every year since 2007, and HD remasters of the show began broadcasting in 2015. In the United Kingdom it was first broadcast in 2002 as one of the highlights of the "cartoon network for adults", CNX. From November 6, 2007, it was repeated on AnimeCentral until the channel's closure in August 2008. In Australia, Cowboy Bebop was first broadcast on pay-TV in 2002 on Adult Swim in Australia. It was broadcast on Sci Fi Channel on Foxtel. In Australia, Cowboy Bebop was first broadcast on free-to-air-TV on ABC2 (the national digital public television channel) on January 2, 2007. It has been repeated several times, most recently starting in 2008. Cowboy Bebop: The Movie also aired again on February 23, 2009, on SBS (a hybrid-funded Australian public broadcasting television network). In Canada, Cowboy Bebop was first broadcast on December 24, 2006, on Razer.
Cowboy Bebop has been released in three separate editions in North America.
The first release was sold in 2000 individually, and featured uncut versions of the original 26 episodes. In 2001, these DVDs were collected in the special edition Perfect Sessions which included the first 6 DVDs, the first Cowboy Bebop soundtrack, and a collector's box. At the time of release, the art box from the Perfect Sessions was made available for purchase on The Right Stuff International as a solo item for collectors who already owned the series.
The third release, Cowboy Bebop Remix, was also distributed on 6 discs and included the original 26 uncut episodes, with sound remastered in Dolby Digital 5.1 and video remastered under the supervision of Shinichiro Watanabe. This release also included various extras that were not present in the original release. Cowboy Bebop Remix was itself collected as the Cowboy Bebop Remix DVD Collection in 2008.
In December 2012, newly founded distributor Anime Limited announced via Facebook and Twitter that they had acquired the home video license for the United Kingdom. Part 1 of the Blu-Ray collection was released on July 29, 2013, while Part 2 was released on October 14. The standard DVD Complete Collection was originally meant to be released on September 23, 2013 with Part 2 of the Blu-Ray release but due to mastering and manufacturing errors, the Complete Collection was delayed until November 27. Following the closure of Bandai Entertainment in 2012, Funimation and Sunrise had announced that they rescued Cowboy Bebop, along with a handful of other former Bandai Entertainment properties, for home video and digital release. Funimation released the series on Blu-ray and DVD on December 16, 2014. The series was released in four separate editions: standard DVD, standard Blu-ray, an Amazon.com exclusive Blu-ray/DVD combo, and a Funimation.com exclusive Blu-ray/DVD combo.
Two Cowboy Bebop manga series have been released, both published by Kadokawa Shoten and serialized in Asuka Fantasy DX. The first manga series, titled Cowboy Bebop: Shooting Star and written and illustrated by Cain Kuga, was serialized from October issue 1997, before the anime series' release, to July issue 1998. It was collected into two volumes in 1998, the first one in May and the second one in September. The second manga series, simply titled Cowboy Bebop and written and illustrated by Yutaka Nanten, was serialized from November issue 1998 to March issue 2000. It was collected into three volumes, the first two in April and October 1999 and the third one in April 2000. Both manga series were licensed by Tokyopop for release in North America.
A Cowboy Bebop video game, developed and published by Bandai, was released in Japan for the PlayStation on May 14, 1998. A PlayStation 2 video game, Cowboy Bebop: Tsuioku no Serenade, was released in Japan on August 25, 2005, and an English version had been set for release in North America. However, in January 2007, IGN reported that the release had been likely been cancelled, speculating that it did not survive Bandai Namco's merger to Bandai Namco Games.
An anime film titled Cowboy Bebop: The Movie, also known as Cowboy Bebop: Knockin' on Heaven's Door (カウボーイビバップ 天国の扉 Kaubōi Bibappu: Tengoku no Tobira, titled Cowboy Bebop: Heaven's Door in English), was released in Japan in September 2001 and in the United States in 2003.
On July 22, 2008, If published an article on its website regarding a rumor of a live-action Cowboy Bebop movie in development by 20th Century Fox. Producer Erwin Stoff said that the film's development was in the early stages, and that they had "just signed it". Keanu Reeves was to play the role of Spike Spiegel. Variety confirmed on January 15, 2009, that production company Sunrise Animation would be "closely involved with the development of the English language project". The site also confirmed Kenji Uchida, Shinichiro Watanabe, and series writer Keiko Nobumoto as associate producers, series producer Masahiko Minami as a production consultant, and Peter Craig as screenwriter. This was lauded by various sources as a promising move for the potential quality of the film. At the time it was slated to release in 2011, but problems with the budget delayed its production. The submitted script was sent back for rewrite to reduce the cost and little has been heard about it since an interview with producer Joshua Long on October 15, 2010; the project currently languishes in development hell. On May 31, 2013, Watanabe stated that the film is currently "underway" but the "details are a secret." On Oct, 25 2014 series director Watanabe was asked about the live action film at the MCM London comicon. He stated "I'm afraid I don't know what they're thinking in Hollywood. Apparently the project hasn't come to a stop but I don't know how it's going to progress from here on. I hear that there are a lot of 'Hollywood' problems."
Live action television series
On June 6, 2017, it was announced that an American live-action adaptation of the series was being developed for television by Tomorrow Studios, a partnership between Marty Adelstein and Sunrise Inc., which also produced the original anime. Christopher Yost is poised to write the series.
An official side story titled Cowboy Bebop: UT tells the story of Ural and Victoria Terpsichore (V.T. from the episode Heavy Metal Queen) when they were bounty hunters. The story was available in its own official site, however the site was closed and is currently available at the site mirror hosted by jazzmess.com.
The series received universal critical acclaim. Anime News Network's Mike Crandol gave the series an 'A+' rating for the dubbed version, and an 'A' rating for the subbed version. He claimed the series was "one of the most popular and respected anime titles in history," before adding that it was "a unique television show which skillfully transcends all kinds of genres." Crandol praised its characters as "some of the most endearing characters to ever grace an anime," and commended the voice acting, especially the "flawless English cast." He also complimented the series' "movie-quality" animation, "sophisticated" writing, and its "incredible" musical score. Crandol hailed Cowboy Bebop as a "landmark" anime "that will be remembered long after many others have been forgotten", and went on to call it "one of the greatest anime titles ever." Additionally, Michael Toole of Anime News Network named Cowboy Bebop as one of the most important anime of the 1990s.
T.H.E.M. Anime Reviews gave the entire series a perfect score of 5 out of 5 stars, with reviewer Christina Carpenter believing Cowboy Bebop as "one of the best [anime]" and touting it as a masterpiece that "puts most anime...and Hollywood, to shame." She described it as a "very stylish, beautifully crafted series that deserves much more attention than it gets." Carpenter praised the animation as "a rarity and a marvel to behold" and that it was "beyond superb," and the plot and characterization as having "a sophistication and subtlety that is practically one-of-a-kind." She also praised the soundtrack, and hailed the opening theme as one of the best intro pieces she had ever heard. Carpenter went to say that Bebop was a "must-have for any serious collector of Japanese animation."
In his article "Asteroid Blues: The Lasting Legacy of Cowboy Bebop", The Atlantic writer Alex Suskind states, "On paper, Cowboy Bebop, the legendary cult anime series from Shinichirō Watanabe, reads like something John Wayne, Elmore Leonard, and Philip K. Dick came up with during a wild, all-night whiskey bender." He goes on to write, "The response from critics and fans may have sounded hyperbolic—the word 'masterpiece' was thrown around a great deal—but the praise was justified. First-time solo director Watanabe had created a gorgeous tale of morality, romance, and violence–a dark look at the lives of outlaws that's shot like an independent film."
In January 2015, television writer Kyle Mills of DVD Talk awarded the series five stars upon review. He stated, "Regardless of the medium, be it live action television, film, or animation, Cowboy Bebop is simply one of the finest examples of storytelling ever created." In his review, he describes the finale as "one of the best in television history," referring to it as a "widely revered" ending that "still sparks fan conversation, resonating with viewers 15 years on." He closes by writing, "Cowboy Bebop ends with a bang."
In the 1999 Anime Grand Prix awards for the anime of 1998, Cowboy Bebop won two 1st place awards: Spike Spiegel was awarded the best male character; and Megumi Hayashibara was awarded the best voice actor for her role as Faye Valentine. Cowboy Bebop also received rankings in other categories: the series itself was awarded the 2nd best anime series; Faye Valentine and Ed were ranked the 5th and 9th best female characters respectively; "Tank!" and "The Real Folk Blues" were ranked the 3rd and 15th best songs respectively; and "Ballad of Fallen Angels", "Speak Like a Child", "Jamming with Edward" and "Mish-Mash Blues" were ranked the 2nd, 8th, 18th and 20th best episodes respectively.
In the 2000 Anime Grand Prix awards for the anime of 1999, Cowboy Bebop won the same two 1st place awards again: best male character for Spike Spiegel; and best voice actor for Megumi Hayashibara. Other rankings the series received are: 2nd best anime series; 6th best female character for Faye Valentine; 7th and 12th best song for "Tank!" and "Blue" respectively; and 3rd and 17th best episode for "The Real Folk Blues (Part 2)" and "Hard Luck Woman" respectively. In the 2000 Seiun Awards, Cowboy Bebop was awarded for Best Media of the Year.
A 2004 poll in Newtype USA, the US edition of the Japanese magazine Newtype, asked its readers to vote the "Top 25 Anime Titles of All Time"; Cowboy Bebop ranked 2nd on the list (after Neon Genesis Evangelion), placing it as one of the most socially relevant and influential anime series ever created. In 2007, the American Anime magazine Anime Insider listed the "50 Best Anime Ever" by compiling lists of industry regulars and magazine staff, and ranked Cowboy Bebop as the #1 anime of all time. In 2012, Madman Entertainment compiled the votes of fans online for "The Top 20 Madman Anime Titles" and ranked Cowboy Bebop at #7.
Cowboy Bebop has been featured in several lists published by IGN. In the 2009 "Top 100 Animated TV Series" list, Cowboy Bebop, labelled as "a very original -- and arguably one of the best -- anime", was placed 14th, making it the second highest ranking anime on the list (after Evangelion) and one of the most influential series of the 1990s. In 2011, Bebop was ranked 29th in the "Top 50 Sci-Fi TV Shows" list, once again being the second highest ranking anime on the list (after Evangelion). In 2006, Cowboy Bebop's soundtrack was ranked #1 in "Top Ten Anime Themes and Soundtracks of All-Time" list, with the series being commented as "one of the best anime ever and certainly is tops when it comes to music." Spike Spiegel was ranked 4th place in the "Top 25 Anime Characters of All Time" article. IGN Movies also placed Cowboy Bebop in their list of "10 Cartoon Adaptations We'd Like to See".
WatchMojo.com has also placed Cowboy Bebop on multiple ranking lists. In 2013, the show ranked #6 on their "Top 10 Anime Series" list. They also ranked the character of Vicious as #6 on their "Top 10 Anime Villains". In 2014 respectively, the company also ranked the show's opening theme sequence as #9 on their "Top 10 Anime Opening Theme Songs" and gave Spike Speigel an honorable mention in their "Top 10 Anime Anti-Heroes" list.
The series has been subject to study and analysis since its debut, with the main focus being on its style and mixture of genres. Miguel Douglas, describing the series style in a review, said that "the series distinctly establishes itself outside the realm of conventional Japanese animation and instead chooses to forge its own path. With a setting within the realm of science fiction, the series wisely offers a world that seems entirely realistic considering our present time. Free from many of the elements that accompany science fiction in general — whether that be space aliens, giant robots, or laser guns — the series delegates itself towards presenting a world that is quite similar to our own albeit showcasing some technological advances. Certainly not as pristine a future we would see in other series or films, Cowboy Bebop decides to deliver a future that closely reflects that of our own time. This aspect of familiarity does wonders in terms of relating to the viewer, and it presents a world that certainly resembles our very own." Daryl Surat of Otaku USA, commenting on the series' appeal, said that it was "that rare breed of science-fiction: "accessible". Unlike many anime titles, viewers weren't expected to have knowledge of Asian culture — character names, signs, and the like were primarily in English to begin with — or have seen any other anime series prior." Michelle Onley Pirkle, in her book Science Fiction Film, Television, and Adaptation: Across the Screens, said that "[Cowboy Bebop] is taking a new take on genre, not by creating unique images and sounds, but by playing "freely" with, "remixing", or adapting the images and sounds of other familiar genres in a dynamic way.":164 Robert Baigent, writing for the Graduate Journal of Asia-Pacific Studies, said that the series' appeal likely stemmed from the trend in anime to emulate Western fiction.
In March 2009, the print and web editions of The Onion's The A.V. Club called Cowboy Bebop "rightly a huge hit", and listed it as a gateway series to understanding the medium of anime as a whole. Suskind said: "It was unlike anything the genre had seen before. It even approached its music differently. The show kicked off with a wormhole of a theme song, and the soundtrack moves so seamlessly through genres, from rock to country to pop to jazz to funk, it's shocking to learn that one set of musicians is behind it all". In an interview, producer Sean Akins also states that the series "created a whole new world". "It's hard for me to quantify the impact that I think it has had. It changed anime. I think people began to think about what shows would be cool. I think it redefined cool within animation, not only in Japan but in the States".
American film director, screenwriter, and producer Rian Johnson has cited Cowboy Bebop as a visual influence on his films, most notably Brick. Ender's Game writer, novelist, critic, playwright, and poet Orson Scott Card also praised the series. He states that the series is "better than most sci-fi films out there". He goes on to say that he "found this series brilliant, but what held me was a combination of strong relationship-based storytelling, a moody visual style that never got old and really smart dialogue".
After the creation of the series, an interviewer asked Watanabe if he had any plans to create more Cowboy Bebop material. Watanabe responded by saying that he does not believe that he "should just keep on making Cowboy Bebop sequels for the sake of it". Watanabe added that ending production and "to quit while we're ahead when people still want more" is more "in keeping with the Bebop spirit". In a more recent interview from 2006 with The Daily Texan, Watanabe was asked if there would ever be more Cowboy Bebop. Watanabe's answer was "someday...maybe, someday".
- Jeffries, L.B. (January 18, 2010). "The Film Noir Roots of Cowboy Bebop". PopMatters. Retrieved October 31, 2017.
- Chapman, Jacob (December 16, 2014). "Cowboy Bebop Complete Series Blu-ray - Review". Anime News Network. Retrieved October 31, 2017.
- Greenberg, Raz (February 27, 2015). "Cowboy Bebop and Leiji Matsumoto". All the Anime. Retrieved October 31, 2017.
- The Anime News Network Editorial Team (March 3, 2016). "What's The Best (And Worst) Anime Ending You've Ever Seen?". Anime News Network. Retrieved October 31, 2017.
- Heyde, Adam (April 23, 2016). "Retro Romp: Cowboy Bebop Review". AnimeLab. Retrieved October 31, 2017.
- Egan, Toussaint (June 11, 2017). "The Live-Action Cowboy Bebop Series Has Potential, but Can It Deliver?". Paste. Retrieved October 31, 2017.
- Funimation (October 10, 2014). "Cowboy Bebop Premium Editions Revealed - See Bebop at Its Best!". Funimation. Retrieved October 31, 2017.
- Hulu (December 18, 2014). "Cowboy Bebop Comes to Hulu December 19" (Press release). Anime News Network. Retrieved October 31, 2017.
- Andreeva, Nellie (June 6, 2017). "'Cowboy Bebop' Cult Anime TV Series Gets US Live-Action Remake". Deadline.com. Retrieved October 31, 2017.
- Oh, Ashley (June 6, 2017). "Cowboy Bebop live-action series riles up the internet". Polygon. Retrieved October 31, 2017.
- Mufson, Beckett (June 10, 2017). "Bang, Cowboy Bebop Is Getting Turned into a Live-Action Hollywood Movie". Vice. Retrieved October 31, 2017.
- Robinson, Tasha (2009-03-05). "Gateways To Geekery: Anime". The A.V. Club. The Onion. Retrieved 2009-03-10.
- "Cowboy Bebop - Original Sessions - Background". CowboyBebop.Org. Archived from the original on January 7, 2003. Retrieved April 25, 2014.
- Warren, Mary. "STAFF PICKS: OLD SCHOOL CARTOONS". The Vault Magazine. Retrieved May 12, 2012.
- Bricken, Robert (January 2003). "Behind the Bebop - Murder, Mars and All That Jazz". Anime Invasion. Wizard (#5).
- Camp, Brian; Davis, Julie (September 15, 2007). Anime Classics Zettai!: 100 Must-See Japanese Animation Masterpieces. Stone Bridge Press. ISBN 978-1-933330-22-8.
- Patten, Fred (March 31, 2003). "'Cowboy Bebop: The Movie'... At Last". Animation World Network. Archived from the original on October 4, 2015. Retrieved April 19, 2014.
- Jeffries, L.B. (2010-01-19). "The Film Noir Roots of Cowboy Bebop". PopMatters. Retrieved 2012-01-25.
- Alderman, Nathan (June 27, 2002). "Anime for the Rest of Us". Teevee.org. Retrieved March 1, 2015.
- Clements, Jonathan; McCarthy, Helen (November 1, 2006). "Déjà Vu All Over Again?: Cowboy Bebop's Transformation to the Big Screen". The Anime Encyclopedia: A Guide to Japanese Animation Since 1917. Stone Bridge Press. ISBN 978-1933330105.
- Baigent, Robert (2004). "Cowboy Bebop: Complete Sessions Collection Review" (PDF). Graduate Journal of Asia-Pacific Studies. Retrieved May 13, 2012.
- Charles Solomon (March 30, 2003). "Dirty Harry in outer space?". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved March 1, 2015.
- "Cowboy Bebop Panel". Anime on DVD.com. February 14, 2006. Archived from the original on June 5, 2003. Retrieved January 6, 2015.
- "Season #0". Cowboy Bebop Remix Complete (DVD) (in Japanese) (Standard ed.). Beez Entertainment. October 5, 2009.
- "'Cowboy Bebop' director Watanabe talks anime". The Daily Texan. February 14, 2006. Archived from the original on July 15, 2009. Retrieved January 6, 2015.
- Antonio, Tripodi (March 20, 2006). "Anime Review: Cowboy Bebop". Terre di Confine. Retrieved March 3, 2015.
- Kawamoto, Toshihiro (2004). Cowboy Bebop Illustrations: The Wind. Softbank Creative. p. 8. ISBN 4797327812.
- McCarter, Charles (1999). "Interview with Kawamoto Toshihiro". EX. Archived from the original on 2012-09-23. Retrieved October 16, 2016.
- Sevakis, Justin (August 15, 2013). "Shinichiro Watanabe focus panel - Otakon 2013". Anime News Network. Retrieved April 19, 2014.
- "Animatrix Director: Kid's Story and A Detective's Story". The Animatrix official website. Archived from the original on January 2, 2013. Retrieved January 19, 2015.
- "From the Small Screen to the Big Screen". Cowboy Bebop: The Movie (DVD). Culver City, California: Columbia TriStar Home Entertainment. 2003.
- Sevakis, Justin (August 15, 2013). "Shinichiro Watanabe focus panel - Otakon 2013". Anime News Network. Retrieved April 19, 2014.
- DuBois, Todd (August 21, 2013). "Otakon 2013: Press Conference and Public Q&A With Director Shinichiro Watanabe". Toon Zone. Retrieved April 19, 2014.
- "The Director's Voice: Shinichiro Watanabe Interview". Cowboy Bebop: The Movie website (English). Archived from the original on March 7, 2003. Retrieved January 6, 2015.
- Newtype (May 21, 2002). Cowboy Bebop Anime Guide Volume 4. Tokyopop. p. 64. ISBN 1-931514-08-9.
- カウボーイビバップ Extra Session [Cowboy Bebop Extra Session] (in Japanese). Bandai Visual. January 28, 2005. pp. 22–23.
- "Composer Yoko Kanno to Perform Concert at Otakon". Anime News Network. May 16, 2013. Retrieved April 24, 2014.
- "Seatbelts Reunite". Anime News Network. December 16, 2002. Retrieved April 24, 2014.
- DuBois, Todd (August 21, 2013). "Otakon 2013: Press Conference and Public Q&A With Director Shinichiro Watanabe". Toon Zone. Retrieved April 19, 2014.
- Bridges, Rose (2017). Yoko Kanno's Cowboy Bebop Soundtrack. New York: Bloomsbury. ISBN 9781501325854.
- Green, Scott (November 13, 2012). "Out of Print "Cowboy Bebop" Soundtracks Reissued". Crunchyroll. Archived from the original on November 16, 2012. Retrieved January 8, 2015.
- Sunrise Broadcast 1 Archived 2011-09-17 at the Wayback Machine. – Sunrise
- Rhee, Keith (1998). "Cowboy Bebop". Ex.org. Archived from the original on 18 September 2012. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- Fox, Kit (January 2000). "Cowboy Bebop The New Cool". Animerica (801): 14.
- Sunrise Broadcast 2 Archived 2012-06-19 at the Wayback Machine. – Sunrise
- Cowboy Bebop on Cartoon Network – Cowboy Bebop Spoilers, Episode Guides, Message Board | TVGuide.com
- Cowboy Bebop: Asteroid Blues
- Cowboy Bebop: Asteroid Blues
- Cowboy Bebop: The Real Folk Blues part 2
- http://blog.isat.tv/enero-2016/adult-swim-8/ I.Sat Blog | Adult Swim January 2016
- http://www.anmtvla.com/2015/12/cowboy-bebop-llega-en-enero-isat.html Cowboy Bebop arrives in January to I.Sat
- "Cowboy Bebop box set "box" available separately". Anime News Network. 2001-11-07. Retrieved 2009-04-28.
- "Otakon 2002: Bandai Panel". Anime News Network. 2002-07-29. Retrieved 2009-04-28.
- "New Cowboy Bebop Special Edition". Anime News Network. 2005-02-16. Retrieved 2009-04-28.
- "Cowboy Bebop BD Box to Include Novel, Ein Picture Drama". Anime News Network. 2012-08-03. Retrieved 2012-08-12.
- "カウボーイビバップ". Sunrise. Retrieved 2012-08-12.
- "Funimation Adds Cowboy Bebop, Escaflowne, Outlaw Star and More". Anime News Network. Retrieved 10 August 2013.
- "Release Date for Cowboy Bebop". Funimation. Retrieved 31 August 2014.
- "North American Anime, Manga Releases, December 14–20". Anime News Network. 16 December 2014. Retrieved 2015-12-06.
- "Cowboy Bebop Blu-ray Slated for N. America in December". Anime News Network. Retrieved 10 August 2014.
- "ふぁんデラ 1997年10月号・中古・角川書店・通販ショップの駿河屋". Surugaya Japan. Retrieved May 16, 2014.
- "ふぁんデラ 1998年11月号・中古・角川書店・通販ショップの駿河屋". Surugaya Japan. Retrieved May 16, 2014.
- "[Q&A] カウボーイビバップ". OKWave Japan. April 30, 2002. Retrieved May 16, 2014.
- "シューティングスタービバップ－カウボーイビバップ－ 1 : 中古 | 久雅カイン". Net Off Japan. Retrieved May 16, 2014.
- "シューティングスタービバップ－カウボーイビバップ－ 2 : 中古 | 久雅カイン". Net Off Japan. Retrieved May 16, 2014.
- "カウボーイビバップ 第1巻:コミック＆アニメ:南天佑". Kadokawa Shoten. Retrieved April 25, 2014.
- "カウボーイビバップ 第2巻:コミック＆アニメ:南天佑". Kadokawa Shoten. Retrieved April 25, 2014.
- "カウボーイビバップ 第3巻:コミック＆アニメ:南天佑". Kadokawa Shoten. Retrieved April 25, 2014.
- "February Manga Releases - News". Anime News Network. December 5, 2001. Retrieved April 25, 2014.
- "New Manga from TokyoPop - News". Anime News Network. January 8, 2003. Retrieved April 25, 2014.
- "Cowboy Bebop - PlayStation". IGN. Retrieved April 25, 2014.
- "Cowboy Bebop International Releases". Giant Bomb. Retrieved April 25, 2014.
- IGN Staff (August 30, 2005). "Now Playing in Japan". IGN. Retrieved April 25, 2014.
- Hatfield, Daemon (January 31, 2007). "Missing in Action: The Lost Games of PS2". IGN. Retrieved April 25, 2014.
- IF Magazine: Live-Action 'Cowboy Bebop' Movie Is In The Works, IF Magazine.
- FirstShowing.Net, Cowboy Bebop Movie
- "Keanu Reeves Hopes to Star in Live-Action Cowboy Bebop". Anime News Network. 2008-12-17. Retrieved 2009-01-07.
- Elisabeth Rappe (2009-01-16). "Keanu Reeves To Play Spike Spiegel In Live-Action 'Cowboy Bebop' Movie". MTV. Retrieved 2015-12-06.
- Siegel, Tatiana (2009-01-15). "Keanu Reeves set for 'Bebop' Actor to star in live-action adaptation of anime". Variety. Retrieved 2009-01-21.
- "Longview - ANNCast". Anime News Network. 2013-09-24. Retrieved 2013-09-28.
- "Shinichiro Watanabe London Comicon". Anime News Network. Retrieved 2015-12-06.
- Erin Nyren (2017-06-06). "'Cowboy Bebop' Live-Action TV Series in the Works". Variety. Retrieved 2017-06-06.
- Dai Sato (2001-04-16). "Cowboy Bebop: UT". Bandai. Archived from the original on 2007-07-05. Retrieved 2012-08-12.
- Crandol, Mike (February 21, 2002). "Cowboy Bebop: The Perfect Sessions DVD Box Set - Review". Anime News Network. Retrieved September 8, 2013.
- Toole, Mike (5 June 2011). "Evangel-a-like - The Mike Toole Show". Anime News Network. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
- Carpenter, Christina. "Cowboy Bebop Review". T.H.E.M. Anime Reviews. Retrieved September 8, 2013.
- Suskind, Alex (December 17, 2014). "Asteroid Blues: The Lasting Legacy of Cowboy Bebop". The Atlantic. Atlantic Media. Retrieved April 21, 2015.
- "21st Anime Grand Prix". Animage. June 1999. Archived from the original on November 12, 2010. Retrieved September 8, 2013.
- "22nd Anime Grand Prix". Animage. June 2000. Archived from the original on April 10, 2015. Retrieved September 10, 2013.
- "List of Seiun Award Winners". Federation of the Science Fiction Fan Groups of Japan. April 24, 2011. Archived from the original on October 13, 2010. Retrieved September 8, 2013.
- "Newtype USA Announces the Top 25 Anime of All Time". Anime News Network. October 13, 2006. Retrieved September 10, 2007.
- "Best Anime Ever". Anime Insider. Wizard Entertainment (50-52). November 2007.
- "The Top 20 Madman Anime Titles - 2012". Madman Entertainment. 2012. Retrieved September 8, 2013.
- "Top 100 Animated TV Series - 14. Cowboy Bebop". IGN. January 14, 2009. Retrieved December 27, 2012.
- Pirello, Phil; Collura, Scott; Vejvoda, Jim; Schedeen, Jesse; Goldman, Eric; Fowler, Matt (February 21, 2011). "Top 50 Sci-Fi TV Shows". IGN. Retrieved September 8, 2013.
- Pool, Josh (May 16, 2006). "Ten Anime Themes and Soundtracks of All-Time". IGN. Archived from the original on March 7, 2012. Retrieved September 8, 2013.
- Mackenzie, Chris (October 20, 2009). "Top 25 Anime Characters of All Time". IGN. Retrieved September 8, 2013.
- IGN Movies (August 7, 2009). "10 Cartoon Adaptations We'd Like to See". IGN. Retrieved September 8, 2013.
- "WatchMojo.com: Top 10 Anime Series". WatchMojo.com. October 16, 2013. Retrieved November 26, 2014.
- "WatchMojo.com: Top 10 Anime Villains". WatchMojo.com. September 12, 2013. Retrieved November 26, 2014.
- "WatchMojo.com: Top 10 Anime Opening Themes". WatchMojo.com. May 3, 2014. Retrieved November 26, 2014.
- "WatchMojo.com: Top 10 Anime Anti-Heroes". WatchMojo.com. May 17, 2014. Retrieved November 26, 2014.
- Douglas, Miguel (September 1, 2010). "Anime Review: Cowboy Bebop - カウボーイビバップ - Kaubōi Bibappu". iSugoi. Retrieved May 15, 2012.
- Surat, Daryl (December 16, 2010). "Cowboy Bebop: Reflections on a Modern-Day Anime Relic". Otaku USA. Retrieved May 13, 2012.
- Pirkle, Michelle Onley (2011). "Déjà Vu All Over Again?: Cowboy Bebop's Transformation to the Big Screen". In Jay Telotte; Gerald Duchovnay. Science Fiction Film, Television, and Adaptation: Across the Screens. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-136-65009-3.
- Johnson, Rian (April 19, 2006). "The Visuals of Brick". Rian's Forum. rcjohnso.com. Retrieved 2007-03-09.
- "The Director's Voice Shinichiro Watanabe Interview." CowboyBebop.com.
- Leathers, Kevin (2009-06-10). "Classics of Anime – Cowboy Bebop". UK Anime Network. p. 2. Retrieved May 2, 2012.
- Official website (Cowboy-Bebop.net) (in Japanese)
- Official website (CowboyBebop.org) (in Japanese) (in English)
- Official Bandai Channel website (in Japanese)
- Official Adult Swim website
- Official Funimation website
- Official Madman Entertainment website
- Cowboy Bebop at AllMovie
- Cowboy Bebop at Curlie (based on DMOZ)
- Cowboy Bebop at TV.com
- Cowboy Bebop on IMDb
- Cowboy Bebop in The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction
- Cowboy Bebop (anime) at Anime News Network's encyclopedia