Guru Gobind Singh
|Guru Gobind Singh
ਗੁਰੂ ਗੋਬਿੰਦ ਸਿੰਘ
Guru Gobind Singh and his four sons.
22 December 1666
|Died||7 October 1708
|Predecessor||Guru Tegh Bahadur|
|Successor||Guru Granth Sahib|
Mata Sahib Devan
|Children||Sahibzada Ajit Singh
Sahibzada Jujhar Singh
Sahibzada Zorawar Singh
Sahibzada Fateh Singh
|Parent(s)||Guru Tegh Bahadur, Mata Gujri|
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Guru Gobind Singh (Punjabi: ਗੁਰੂ ਗੋਬਿੰਦ ਸਿੰਘ pronunciation (help·info) (22 December 1666 – 7 October 1708), revered as The Tenth Nanak, Sarbans Dani ("The merciful donor, who sacrificed his all"), Mard Agamra ("A Man without any parallels") and Shah-e-Shahenshah ("The Emperor of Emperors") was the Tenth Guru (Prophet-Master) of Sikhism.
Guru Gobind Singh was born in the year 1666 as Gobind Rai, to the ninth Guru of Sikhism, Guru Teg Bahadur, and Mata Gujri, at Patna Sahib. He ascended to become the Tenth Sikh Guru at the young age of nine, following the martyrdom of his father and Ninth Guru, Guru Tegh Bahadur, who been approached by Hindu Brahmins from Kashmir to seek his intercession against the religious fanaticism of the Mughal empire's General Iftikar Khan. At the innocent behest of the nine year old Gobind Rai (who had remarked that "None could be worthier than you, father, to make a supreme sacrifice"), Guru Tegh Bahadur had courted death and was publicly executed at the imperial capital Delhi in the year 1675.
As the tenth Sikh Guru, Guru Gobind Singh carried forward the sanctity and divinity of Guru Nanak and the succession of the Sikh Gurus, and came to be renowned as a spiritual master, warrior, poet and philosopher. His spiritual revelations, constantly emphasizing the worship of the One Supreme Being and deprecating idolatry and superstitious beliefs and observances, are recorded in his various literary compositions, such as the Jaap Sahib and the Akal Ustat.
The day of Baisakhi in 1699 marks one of the most hallowed days of the Sikh religion. On this day, after having received edicts from Guru Gobind Singh, a large congregation of Sikhs had gathered at Sri Anandpur Sahib (the city of bliss, located in the lower spurs of the Himalayas). With a century of religious persecutions and martyrdoms (including those of Guru Arjan and Guru Teg Bahadur) serving as the background, Guru Gobind Singh addressed the congregation in a stirring oration of his divine mission, and then unsheathed his sword and called upon those congregants who were willing to give their heads to the Guru. Those who answered the call were initiated by Guru Gobind Singh into the Khalsa, an order of Saint-Soldiers, who were to forever have faith in one universal timeless creator God, who would consider all human beings equal, irrespective of their caste and creed, and who would have the mission of upholding right in every place. The Khalsa represents the epitome of the Sikh way of life, with Guru Gobind Singh having himself professed "Khalsa mero roop hai khas, Khalse main haun karoun nivas (The Khalsa is my own special form. Within the Khalsa, I abide)". An estimated 80,000 Sikhs were initiated into the Khalsa in the days following the Baisakhi of 1699.
Standing up as members of the Khalsa, Guru Gobind Singh's four young sons (Sahibzada Ajit Singh, Sahibzada Jujhar Singh, Sahibzada Zorawar Singh, Sahibzada Fateh Singh) also subsequently attained martyrdom. On learning of their sacrifices, the Guru had famously remarked : "Chaar muye to kya hua jeevat kai hazar (So what if I have lost four of my sons, many thousands live" (referring to the Sikh Khalsa family) ). Citing his "unparalleled efforts and sacrifices in fighting injustice and tyranny", Guru Gobind Singh has been referred to as Sarbans Dani (the merciful donor, who sacrificed everything) and Mard Agamra (a man non-pareil).
In 1708, Guru Gobind Singh passed on the succession to the Sikh holy scripture, the Guru Granth Sahib, commanding the Sikhs to regard the scripture as the everlasting and sovereign Guru, and proclaiming that the Guru's spirit henceforth would reside in the Granth and the Khalsa.
- 1 Family
- 2 Leaving Anandpur Sahib and Return
- 3 Founding the Khalsa
- 4 Pilgrimage from Anandpur Sahib to Talwandi Sabo
- 5 Conflicts with the rajas of Sivalik Hills
- 6 Later travels
- 7 After Aurangzeb's death
- 8 Final days
- 9 Battles by Guru Gobind Singh
- 10 See also
- 11 References
- 12 Further reading
- 13 External links
Gobind Singh was born to Guru Tegh Bahadur, the ninth Sikh guru, and Mata Gujri in Patna. He was born while his father was on a preaching tour in Assam. As a child, he learnt Persian, Sanskrit and martial skills to become a warrior.
Guru Gobind Singh had three wives:
- The couple had one son, Ajit Singh.
- Mother of the Khalsa.
Leaving Anandpur Sahib and Return
Gobind Singh's father Tegh Bahadur founded the city of Anandpur Sahib in the year 1665, on the land purchased from the ruler of Bilaspur (Kahlur). Gobind Singh moved to Anandpur in March 1672. In April 1685, he shifted his residence to Paonta in Sirmaur state at the invitation of Raja Mat Prakash of Sirmaur. According to the gazetteer of the Sirmur State, the Guru was compelled to quit Anandpur Sahib due to differences with Bhim Chand, and went to Toka. From Toka, he was invited to Nahan, the capital of Sirmaur by Mat Prakash. From Nahan, he proceeded to Paonta. Mat Prakash invited the Guru to his kingdom in order to strengthen his position against Raja Fateh Shah of Garhwal. At the request of Raja Mat Prakash, the Guru constructed a fort at Paonta with help of his followers, in a short time. The Guru remained at Paonta for around three years, and composed several texts.
The hostility between Nahan King and Fateh Shah, the Garhwal king continued to increase during the latter's stay at Paonta, ultimately resulting in the Battle of Bhangani near Paonta. Fateh Shah attacked on 18 September 1688; the battle ended with the Guru's victory. In the Battle of Nadaun in 1687, the armies of Alif Khan and his aides were defeated by the allied forces of Bhim Chand, Guru Gobind Singh and other hill rajas. According to Bichitra Natak and the Bhatt Vahis, Guru Gobind Singh remained at Nadaun, on the banks of the River Beas, for eight days, and visited various important military chiefs. Sometime after the Battle of Bhangani, Rani Champa, the dowager queen of Bilaspur requested the Guru to return to Anandpur Sahib, or Chakk Nanaki, as it was then called, the Guru agreed. He reached Anandpur Sahib in November 1688.
In 1695, Dilawar Khan, the Mughal chief of Lahore, sent his son to attack Anandpur Sahib. The Mughal army was defeated and Hussain Khan was killed. After Hussain's death, Dilawar Khan sent his men Jujhar Hada and Chandel Rai to Sivalik Hills. However, they were defeated by Gaj Singh of Jaswal. The developments in the hill area caused anxiety to the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb, who sent forces under the command of his son, to restore Mughal authority in the region.
Founding the Khalsa
In 1699, the Guru sent hukmanamas (letters of authority) to his followers, requesting them to congregate at Anandpur on 30 March 1699, the day of Vaisakhi (the annual harvest festival). He addressed the congregation from the entryway of a small tent pitched on a small hill (now called Kesgarh Sahib). He first asked everyone who he was for them? Everyone answered - "You are our Guru." He then asked them who were they, to which everyone replied - "We are your Sikhs." Having reminded them of this relationship, He then said that today the Guru needs something from his Sikhs. Everyone said, "Hukum Karo, Sache Patshah" (Order us, True Lord). Then drawing his sword he asked for a volunteer who was willing to sacrifice his head. No one answered his first call, nor the second call, but on the third invitation, Daya Ram (later known as Bhai Daya Singh) came forward and offered his head to the Guru. Guru Gobind Rai took the volunteer inside the tent. The Guru returned to the crowd with blood dripping from his sword. He then demanded another head. One more volunteer came forward, and entered the tent with him. The Guru again emerged with blood on his sword. This happened three more times. Then the five volunteers came out of the tent in new clothing unharmed.
Guru Gobind Singh then poured clear water into an iron bowl and adding Patashas (Punjabi sweeteners) into it, he stirred it with double-edged sword accompanied with recitations from Adi Granth. He called this mixture of sweetened water and iron as Amrit ("nectar") and administered it to the five men. These five, who willingly volunteered to sacrifice their lives for their Guru, were given the title of the Panj Pyare ("the five beloved ones") by their Guru. They were the first (baptized) Sikhs of the Khalsa: Daya Ram (Bhai Daya Singh), Dharam Das (Bhai Dharam Singh), Himmat Rai (Bhai Himmat Singh), Mohkam Chand (Bhai Mohkam Singh), and Sahib Chand (Bhai Sahib Singh).
Guru Gobind Singh then recited a line which has been the rallying-cry of the Khalsa since then: 'Waheguru ji ka Khalsa, Waheguru ji Ki Fateh' (Khalsa belongs to God; victory belongs to God). He gave them all the name "Singh" (lion), and designated them collectively as the Khalsa, the body of baptized Sikhs. The Guru then astounded the five and the whole assembly as he knelt and asked them to in turn initiate him as a member, on an equal footing with them in the Khalsa, thus becoming the sixth member of the new order. His name became Gobind Singh. Today members of the Khalsa consider Guru Gobind as their father, and Mata Sahib Kaur as their mother. The Panj Piare were thus the first baptised Sikhs, and became the first members of the Khalsa brotherhood. Women were also initiated into the Khalsa, and given the title of kaur ("princess"). Guru Gobind Singh then addressed the audience -
|“||From now on, you have become casteless. No ritual, either Hindu or Muslim, will you perform nor will you believe in superstition of any kind, but only in one God who is the master and protector of all, the only creator and destroyer. In your new order, the lowest will rank with the highest and each will be to the other a bhai (brother). No pilgrimages for you any more, nor austerities but the pure life of the household, which you should be ready to sacrifice at the call of Dharma. Women shall be equal of men in every way. No purdah (veil) for them anymore, nor the burning alive of a widow on the pyre of her spouse (sati). He who kills his daughter, the Khalsa shall not deal with him.||”|
- Kesh: uncut hair is a symbol of acceptance of your form as God intended it to be, and to give an unmistakable visual identity to the Khalsa.
- Kangha: a wooden comb, a symbol of cleanliness to keep one's body and soul clean.
- Kara: an iron or steel bracelet worn on the wrist, to remind the Khalsa of their vows and as a mark of iron self-restraint.
- Kirpan: a sword to defend oneself and protect the poor, the weak and the oppressed, regardless of religion, race or creed.
- Kacchera: shorts, which are riding breeches cut off at the knee, to keep the soldiers of the Khalsa always ready to go into battle on horseback
|“||Smoking being an unclean and injurious habit, you will forswear. You will love the weapons of war, be excellent horsemen, marksmen and wielders of the sword, the discus and the spear. Physical prowess will be as sacred to you as spiritual sensitivity. And, between the Hindus and Muslims, you will act as a bridge, and serve the poor without distinction of caste, colour, country or creed. My Khalsa shall always defend the poor, and 'Deg' - or community kitchen - will be as much an essential part of your order as Teg -the sword. And, from now onwards Sikh males will call themselves 'Singh' and women 'Kaur' and greet each other with 'Waheguruji ka Khalsa, Waheguruji ki fateh (The Khalsa belongs to God; victory belongs to God).||”|
A result of the Guru's actions is arguably that the strength of Sikhi in the 18th and 19th centuries was based on the third, fourth, and fifth orders of Indian society, even though some of its leaders still came from the Kshatriya varna. An interesting representation of the first amrit ceremony is found in the paintings that show two dead hawks, lying on their backs on the ground, while their killers, two doves, sit upon the bowls of amrit. Symbolically, the Sikhs, the doves, had gained the strength of hawks, the strong, militant people who lived on all sides of them.
Guru Gobind Singh's respect for the Khalsa is best represented in one of his poems:
All the battles I have won against tyranny
Pilgrimage from Anandpur Sahib to Talwandi Sabo
Conflicts with the rajas of Sivalik Hills
The formation of the casteless military order Khalsa did not go well with the Hindu rajas of the Sivalik Hills, who in turn got united to evict the Guru from the region. After seeing the rajas' desire to become the Guru's disciples,[who?] told the hill rajas that fighting alongside the low-caste members of the Sikhs would pollute their Khatri caste status. The hill rajas' expeditions during 1700-04 were unsuccessful.
Balia Chand and Alim Chand - two of the hill chieftains made a surprise attack on the Guru, while he was on a hunting expedition. In the ensuing combat, Alim Chand managed to escape, while Balia Chand was killed by Guru's aide Ude Singh.
After several failed attempts to check the rising power of the Sikhs, the hill chiefs petitioned the Mughal rulers for help. The Mughal emperor of Delhi sent his generals Din Beg and Painda Khan, each with an army of five thousand men. The Mughal forces were joined by the armies of the hill chiefs. However, they failed to defeat the Guru's forces, and Painda Khan was killed in the First Battle of Anandpur (1700).
Alarmed at the Guru's rising influence, the rajas of several hill states assembled at Bilaspur to discuss the situation. The son of Bhim Chand, Raja Ajmer Chand of Kahlur, suggested forming an alliance to curb the Guru's rising power. Accordingly, the rajas formed an alliance, and marched towards Anandpur. They sent a letter to the Guru, asking him to pay the arrears of rent for Anandpur (which lay in Ajmer Chand's territory), and leave the place. The Guru insisted that the land was bought by his father, and is therefore, his own property. A battle, dated from 1701 to 1704, followed. The hill rajas were joined by a large number of Gujjars, under the command of Jagatullah. Duni Chand led five hundred men from Majha region to assist the Guru. Reinforcements from other areas also arrived to help the Guru. The conflict, known as the First Battle of Anandpur resulted in retreat of the hill rajas.
Later, the hill rajas negotiated a peace agreement with the Guru, asking him to leave Anandpur. Accordingly, the Guru left for Nirmoh village. Meanwhile, Raja Ajmer Chand had sent his envoys to the Mughal viceroys in Sirhind and Delhi, seeking their help against the Guru. The army of Sirhind viceroy Wazir Khan arrived to assist the hill rajas. Seeing that Nirmoh was not fortified, Raja Ajmer Chand and the Raja of Kangra and the Mughal force launched an attack on the Guru's camp, but were repulsed. After that the Guru withdrew to Basoli. An alliance of the hill rajas, led by Ajmer Chand, made a heavy attack, but were driven off in the Battle of Basoli,(1702).
After repeated pleas for assistance from the hill rajas, the Mughal emperor sent an army under Saiyad Khan's command. Saiyad Khan was a brother-in-law of Pir Budhu Shah, and defected to the Guru's side, after the Pir spoke highly of him. Ramzan Khan then took the command of the imperial army, and allied with the hill rajas to attack Anandpur in March 1704. It was the crop-cutting time of the year, and the majority of the Guru's followers had dispersed to their homes. Guru was assisted by two of his Muslim admirers, Maimun Khan and Saiyad Beg, however his men were outnumbered, and decided to vacate Anandpur. The Mughal army plundered the city, and then proceeded to Sirhind. On their way back, they were caught in a surprise attack by the Guru's forces, who recovered the booty captured from Anandpur. The Guru then returned to Anandpur.
Evacuation from Anandpur
The hill chiefs then decided to approach the Mughal Emperor, Aurangzeb, through his Governor in Punjab, Wazir Khan, to help them subdue the Sikhs. Their memorandum spoke of his establishing the new order of Khalsa
|“||Which is contrary to all our cherished beliefs and customs. He (Gobind Singh) wants us to join hands with him to fight our Emperor against whom he harbours profound grudge. This we refused to do, much to his annoyance and discomfiture. He is now gathering men and arms from all over the country to challenge the Mughal Empire. We cannot restrain him, but as loyal subjects of your Majesty, we seek your assistance to drive him out of Anandpur and not allow grass to grow beneath your feet. Otherwise, he would become a formidable challenge to the whole empire, as his intentions are to march upon Delhi itself.||”|
At the plea of Raja Ajmer Chand, the Mughal emperor ordered the viceroys of Sirhind, Lahore and Kashmir to proceed against the Guru. The Mughal forces were joined by the armies of the hill rajas, the Ranghars and the Gurjars of the area. The Guru also made preparations for the battle, and his followers from Majha, Malwa, Doaba and other areas assembled at Anandpur.
The imperial forces attacked Anandpur in 1705, and laid a siege around the city. After a few days of the commencement of the siege, Raja Ajmer Chand sent his envoy to the Guru, offering withdrawal of the siege, in return for Guru's evacuation from Anandpur. The Guru refused to accept the offer, but many of his followers, suffering from lack of food and other supplies, asked him to accept the proposal. As more and more followers pressured the Guru to accept Ajmer Chand's offer, he sent a message to Ajmer Chand offering to evacuate Anandpur, if the allied forces would first allow his treasury and other property to be taken outside the city. The allied forces accepted the proposal. The Guru, in order to test their sincerity, sent a caravan of loaded bullocks outside the fort. However, the allied forces attacked the caravan to loot the treasure. To their disappointment, they found out that the caravan carried no treasure. The Guru then decided not to vacate Anandpur, and refused to accept any further proposals from the allied forces.
Finally, the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb sent a signed letter to the Guru, swearing in name of Quran, that the Guru and his followers would be allowed a safe passage if he decided to evacuate Anandpur. The Guru, hard pressed by his followers and his family, accepted the offer, and evacuated Anandpur on 20–21 December 1705.
On the first night after they left Anandpur, the Guru's contingent was attacked by the imperial forces. Following a few skirmishes, the Guru and his followers reached the banks of Sirsa river. The group could not keep together while crossing the flooded Sirsa (or Sarsa) river. The Guru's mother, and his two younger sons, Fateh Singh and Zorawar Singh, strayed away from the main group. Guru's old servant, Gangu, escorted them to his village, Kheri. His wife Mata Jito, was in another group that also included Mata Sahib Kaur; this group was escorted to Delhi by Jawahar Singh. The floods in the river resulted in loss of several of the Guru's followers.
The Guru, with his two elder sons, and some other Sikhs, managed to cross the river, and reached the Ghanaula village. He instructed a band of hundred followers under Bachitar Singh to march to Rupar. The Guru, with the remaining followers, marched towards Kotla Nihang near Rupar, to stay with his trusted acquaintance Pathan Nihang Khan. From there, he proceeded to Machhiwara and Raikot, halting at Bur Majra. He was informed that a large body of troops from Sirhind was chasing him. He decided to face the enemy troops at the fortress of Chamkaur.
The imperial troops besieged the fortress at Chamkaur in December 1704, leading to the battle of Chamkaur. The two elder sons of Guru Gobind Singh, Ajit Singh and Jujhar Singh, died in the battle. The Guru asked the remaining disciples to get ready for the final charge, and die fighting. However, his disciples insisted that the his survival was necessary for the survival of the Khalsa, and planned his escape from Chamkaur. It was decided that Sant Singh and Sangat Singh would stay in the fortress, while Daya Singh, Dharam Singh, and Man Singh would accompany the Guru out of Chamkaur. The Guru gave his kalghi (plume used to decorate headgear) and his armor to Bhai Sangat Singh, a Sikh who resembled him. Sangat Singh was seated in the upper room where Guru was stationed. The Guru marched out of Chamkaur in the night, along with some followers. Next day, the Mughal army, which still believed that the Guru was inside the fortress, attacked the fortress, and killed all the Sikhs inside the fortress.
The Guru separated from his companions, and reached Machhiwara, after passing through Jandsar and Behlolpur. There, his three companions, Daya Singh, Dharam Singh and Man Singh rejoined him. Gulaba, an old masand of Machhiwara, gave them shelter, but feared for his own safety. Two Pathan horse merchants, Nabi Khan and Ghani Khan, decided to help him. The Khans, who were old acquaintances of the Guru, disguised him as the Pir (Sufi saint) of Uchh village, and carried him to safety, in a palanquin. At Alam Gir, Nand Lal, a zamindar decided to help the Guru. From Alam Gir, the Guru proceeded to Raikot. At Silaoni, Rai Kalha III, the Muslim chief of Raikot state, received him warmly. The Guru stayed there for some time.
Meanwhile, Guru's mother Mata Gujri and the his two younger sons were captured by Wazir Khan, the governor of Sirhind. The two boys were executed after refusing to convert to Islam, and Mata Gujri died soon after hearing of her grandsons' death. Rai Kalha's servant Noora Mahi brought this news to the Guru from Sirhind.Mata Sundari and Mata Sahib kaur escaped towards Delhi escorted by bhai Mani Singh .
Stay at Dina
Realizing that Rai Kot was not a suitable place to stage resistance against the Mughals, Guru Gobind Singh left Raikot, and spent two days at Hehar with Mahant Kirpal Das (who had earlier participated in the Battle of Bhangani). He then marched to Lamma Jatpura, where his companion Rai Kalla took leave. The Guru moved southwards, accompanied by three Sikhs. On the way he passed through the villages of Manuke, Mehdiana, Chakkar, Takhtupura and Madhe and finally reached Dina (now in Moga district) in Malwa (Punjab). The people had heard that the Guru had been killed at Chamkaur, but the truth began to be known when he reached Dina. He was received warmly at Dina by Shamira, Lakhmira and Takht Mal, the three grandsons of Rai Jodh, a devotee of Guru Har Gobind.
While at Dina, the Guru received a concilatory letter from Aurangzeb, asking him to come to Deccan to discuss the situation. The Guru was wary of Aurangzeb, who had beheaded his father. The Guru rejected the emperor's offer, and wrote a famous letter in Persian, titled 'Zafarnamah (the Epistle of Victory). In the letter, the Guru reminded Aurangzeb of his misdeeds, and condemened the treacherous acts of the Mughals. He sent a group of Sikhs, consisting of Daya Singh, Dharam Singh, and some guards, to despatch the letter to Aurangzeb, who was camping in Ahmednagar.
Guru Gobind Singh moved onto Talwandi Sabo and was at place called Rohi when a group of forty Sikhs from Majha area of Punjab region accompanied by Mata Bhag Kaur, also known as Mai Bhago, visited him. They had come to offer their condolences over the death of his four sons and his mother, and also offered to effect a compromise between the Guru and Mughal authorities. The Guru narrated to them the atrocities of Mughals from the time of martyrdom of Guru Arjan to the laying of the siege of Anandpur. He rebuked them for their behaviour and put them to shame for talking like that. One of the leaders of the Jatha (group), Bhag Singh Jabhalia, said that it was not in their means to have more faith in the Guru. The Guru said that he had not called for them and they should write a disclaimer, which was signed by Bhag Singh Jabhalia and another four. The remaining thirty five did not sign the disclaimer. The Guru at the moment got the information of advancing Mughal forces led by Wazir Khan. He along with those accompanying him moved on to take positions by the side of a mound, which incidentally was also the only water source in the area.
At this stage Mata Bhag Kaur criticised the forty Sikhs for deserting Guru Gobind Singh at such a crucial stage. Her challenge made the forty to face the oncoming Mughal force led by Wazir Khan. In the Battle of Muktsar. that occurred on 30 poh 1972 (29 December 1705), beside the forty Sikhs and Mata Bhag Kaur from Majha, Guru Gobind Singh and those accompanying him also participated. By sunset most of warriors were killed or seriously injured. Of the forty only three Sikhs (Rai Singh, Sunder singh and Mahan singh) were in their last breath, while Bhag Kaur lay seriously injured. At their request Guru Gobind Singh tore the disclaimer and blessed them as Muktas (emanicipated). He also changed the name of the place, Ishar sar or Khidrana, to Muktsar in their honour.
Stay at Talwandi Saibo
From Muktsar, the Guru moved to Rupana, Bhander, Gurusar, Thehri Bambiha, Rohila, Jangiana and Bhai Ka Kot. At Chatiana, the Brars who had fought for him at Muktsar, threatened to block his march as the Guru had failed to disburse pay arrears to them. A Sikh from the neighborhood area brought enough money, which enabled the Guru to pay off all the arrears. However, the leader of the Brars, Chaudhri Dana apologized to the Guru on behalf of his people, and refused to accept any payment for himself. At his request, the Guru visited his native place Mehma Swai. The Guru continued his travel, passing through Lakhi Jungle (Lakhisar). From Lakhi, he visited nearby areas and initiated large number of people into Khalsa.
A landowner called Chaudhari Dalla welcomed the Guru to his estate, and took him to Talwandi Sabo (aka Talwandi Sabo Ki). On his way he passed through Chatiana, Kot Sahib Chand, Kot Bhai, Giddarbaha, Rohila, Jangirana, Bambiha, Bajak, Kaljhirani, Jassi Bagwali, Pakka Kalan and Chak Hira Singh. Guru Gobind Singh arrived at Talwandi Sabo on 20 January 1706, and stayed there for several months. The place is now called Damdama Sahib (the resting place). The Guru made a tour of the neighbouring villages, and initiated several people into the Khalsa.
When Wazir Khan learned that the Guru was at Sabo Ki Talwandi, he sent a letter to Chaudhri Dalla asking him to hand over Guru Gobind Singh to him. However, the Chaudhari refused, in spite of Wazir Khan's threats and promises of reward. Wazir Khan complained to the Emperor, who was in the Deccan. The Emperor received Dalla's letter written to Wazir Khan and also the Guru's Zafarnamah at about the same time. He ordered Wazir Khan to remove all restrictions imposed on the Guru and stop harassing him.
The Guru's literature had been destroyed as he crossed the river after evacuating Anandpur. He dictated the Guru Granth Sahib to Bhai Mani Singh. A number of poets and scholars gathered around the Guru at Talwandi Sabo, and the place came to be known as Guru's Kashi (Varanasi). The Guru's wife, who had separated from him at Anandpur, also reunited with him at Damdama Sahib. The Guru also reorganized his forces at this place, and took many Dogras, Rathores and Brars into his service.
After Aurangzeb's death
After completing the composition of the Guru Granth Sahib, at Damdama Sahib, the Guru left for Deccan to visit Nanded, nowadays known as Hazur Sahib in October 1706.
After the emperor's death, a war of succession broke out between his sons. The third son, Mohammad Azam (or Azim), declared himself the Emperor. The second son Muazzam (later Emperor Bahadur Shah) set out from Peshawar to claim the throne. The Guru's follower Bhai Nand Lal (who had earlier served in Muazzam 's court) brought a letter written by Muazzam, to where the Guru was temporarily encamped at Bhagora (Rajasthan). Muazzam had sought Guru's help in securing the throne, and had promised to pursue a policy of religious tolerance towards the non-Muslims. The Guru sent a band of his followers under the command of Bhai Dharam Singh, to help Muazzam and changed his course of journey towards Agra. Muazzam's forces defeated Azam Shah's forces in the Battle of Jajau near Agra on 12 June 1707 with the help of the Guru.
Muazzam ascended the throne as Bahadur Shah. He invited Guru Gobind Singh for a meeting which took place at Agra on 23 July 1707. The Guru was received with honour and was given the title of Hind Ka Pir (the Saint of India). The Guru stayed with the Emperor in Agra till November 1707. He made Dholpur a center of his missionary activities, and toured nearby areas for many days, before proceeding to Deccan. In November 1707, the Emperor had to march into Rajputana against the rebel Kachwahas. He requested the Guru to accompany him. From Rajputana, the emperor marched to the Deccan to suppress the rebellion of his brother Kam Bakhsh, and the Guru accompanied him.
Guru Gobind Singh was not happy with Bahadur Shah's friendly attitude towards Wazir Khan of Sirhind. He parted ways with the Emperor at Hingoli, and reached Nanded in July 1708. At Nanded, the Guru camped on the banks of the river Godavari. Saiyad Khan, the former general of the imperial forces, resigned from his post and came to Nanded from Kangra, to see the Guru.
During a trip, the Guru met a bairagi (hermit) called Madho Das, whom he initiated into Khalsa as Gurbakhsh Singh. Gurbakhsh Singh, popularly known as "Banda Singh" or "Banda Bahadur", soon became his most trusted general.
While in Nanded, the Guru received in a letter from Saiyad Khan's sister Nasiran, the wife of Pir Budhu Shah of Sadhaura. The letter informed him that the Emperor's army had ransacked Sadhaura and hanged Pir Budhu Shah as a rebel, for having faith in Guru Gobind Singh, whom they considered as a Kaffir ("infidel").
The Guru assumed that the Emperor had fallen prey to Wazir Khan's propaganda, and was plotting to kill all of his supporters. He sent a letter to the emperor, demanding an explanation for Pir Budhu Shah's death. There was no reply from the emperor. Instead, the Guru heard rumors that the emperor was planning to wage a battle against him. The Guru appointed Banda Singh as the commander of the Khalsa, and asked him to march towards Punjab.
Wazir Khan, the Nawab of Sirhind, felt uneasy about any conciliation between Guru Gobind Singh and Bahadur Shah I. He commissioned two Pathans, Jamshed Khan and Wasil Beg, to assassinate the Guru. The two secretly pursued the Guru and got an opportunity to attack him at Nanded.
According to Sri Gur Sobha by the contemporary writer Senapati, Jamshed Khan stabbed the Guru in the left side below the heart while he was resting in his chamber after the Rehras prayer. Guru Gobind Singh killed the attacker with his Talwar (traditional Sikh curved sword), while the attacker's companion tried to flee but was killed by Sikhs who had rushed in on hearing the noise.
The European surgeon sent by Bahadur Shah stitched the Guru's wound. However, the wound re-opened and caused profuse bleeding, as the Guru tugged at a hard strong bow after a few days. Seeing his end was near, the Guru declared the Guru Granth Sahib as the next Guru of the Sikhs. He then sang his self-composed hymn:
- "Agya bhai Akal ki tabhi chalayo Panth Sabh Sikhan ko hukam hai Guru Maneyo Granth, Guru Granth Ji manyo pargat Guran ki deh Jo Prabhu ko milbo chahe khoj shabad mein le"
Translation of the above:
- "Under orders of the Immortal Being, the Panth was created. All the Sikhs are enjoined to accept the Granth as their Guru. Consider the Guru Granth as embodiment of the Gurus. Those who want to meet God, can find Him in its hymns.
Mughal accounts of Guru Gobind Singh
Guru Gobind Singh, gave the Sikhs their very distinctive symbols— the uncut hair, the dastar, the pure iron kara, and the sword. After ceaseless battles local landlords allied themselves to the Mughal governor Wazir Khan, who himself requested assistance from the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb when the local Muslim rulers was consecutively attacked by the Sikh rebels who rose up against the oppression of the state.
Battles by Guru Gobind Singh
- Battle of Bhangani,
- Battle of Nadaun,
- Battle of Guler (1696),
- First Battle of Anandpur,
- Battle of Anandpur Sahib (1701),
- Battle of Nirmohgarh (1702),
- Battle of Basoli
- Battle of Anandpur (1704)
- Battle of Chamkaur (1704)
- Battle of Bichhora Sahib,
- Battle of Muktsar.
- Owen Cole, William; Piara Singh Sambhi (1995). The Sikhs: Their Religious Beliefs and Practice. Sussex Academic Press. p. 36.
- "A Biography of Guru Gobind Singh on the website of SGPC". Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee. Retrieved 2011-07-30.
- "BBC Religions - Sikhism". BBC. 26 October 2009. Retrieved 2011-07-30.
- "Vaisakhi Hymn "Khalsa Mahima" In Praise of Khalsa".
- "Panj Pyare the Five Beloved of Sikh History".
- http://www.hindustantimes.com/chunk-ht-ui-punjabsectionpage-dontmiss/the-tale-of-four-sons/article1-1009436.aspx. Missing or empty
- https://books.google.com/books?id=2VFe81cX4JwC&pg=PT18&lpg=PT18&dq=mard+agamra+translation&source=bl&ots=9vgrxBdgY7&sig=HvpMeiNrlz_fN9tZ_V7rfPOWEec&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0CCUQ6AEwAWoVChMIre3K0vWuxwIVyDuICh1AXg-o#v=onepage&q=mard%20agamra%20translation&f=false. Missing or empty
- Dhillon, Dr Dalbir Singh (1988). Sikhism – Origin and Development. Atlantic Publishers and Distributors. p. 144.
- Ashok, Shamsher Singh. "Jitoji, Mata". Encyclopaedia of Sikhism. Punjabi University Patiala. Retrieved 5 September 2015.
- Ashok, Shamsher Singh. "Sundari, Mata (d.1747)". Encyclopaedia of Sikhism. Punjabi University Patiala. Retrieved 5 September 2015.
- Ashok, Shamsher Singh. "Sahib Devan". Encyclopaedia of Sikhism. Punjabi University Patiala. Retrieved 5 September 2015.
- Gazetteer of the Sirmur State. New Delhi: Indus Publishing. 1996. ISBN 978-81-7387-056-9. OCLC 41357468.
- Mahmood, Cynthia Keppley (1996). Fighting for faith and nation dialogues with Sikh militants. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 43–45. ISBN 978-0-8122-1592-2. OCLC 44966032.
- Singh, Gopal (1988) . A history of the Sikh people, 1469-1978. Delhi: World Sikh University Press. pp. 289–90.
- Cole, W. Owen; Sambhi, Piara Singh (1978). The Sikhs: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. 36. ISBN 0-7100-8842-6.
- Cole, W. Owen; Sambhi, Piara Singh (1978). The Sikhs: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. 37–38. ISBN 0-7100-8842-6.
- Singh, Gurbakhsh (2014). Sikhs Under Brahmanical Siege. Canadian Sikh Study & Teaching Society. p. 44. ISBN 9780968168363.
- Williams, Rosetta (2004). Sikh Gurus. Educa Books/Har-Anand Publications. p. 103. ISBN 978-81-241-0716-4.
- Banerjee, Indubhusan (1963). Evolution of the Khalsa. Calcutta: A. Mukerjee. p. 25. OCLC 5880923.
- Macauliffe, Max Arthur (1996) . The Sikh Religion: Its Gurus, Sacred Writings, and Authors. Low Price Publications. p. 130. ISBN 978-81-86142-31-8. OCLC 1888987.
- Singh, Dalip (1992). Guru Gobind Singh and Khalsa Discipline. Amritsar: Singh Bros. p. 256. ISBN 978-81-7205-071-9. OCLC 28583123.
- Jacques, Tony. Dictionary of Battles and Sieges. Greenwood Press. p. 112. ISBN 978-0-313-33536-5.
- Singh, Prithi Pal (2007). The History of Sikh Gurus. Lotus Books. pp. 128–147. ISBN 978-81-8382-075-2.
- Singh, Gopal (1988). A history of the Sikh people. Delhi. pp. 292–93.
- Singh, Patwant (1999). The Sikhs. Delhi: Rupa &Co. pp. 59–60.
- Johar, Surinder Singh (1998). Holy Sikh shrines. New Delhi: M D Publications. p. 63. ISBN 978-81-7533-073-3. OCLC 44703461.
- Piara Singh Padam and Giani Garja Singh(Eds), Sawrup Singh, 'Guru Kian Sakhian'(1790), Patiala, 1986
- Dalbir Singh Dhillon (1988). Sikhism Origin and Development. Atlantic Publishers & Distributors. p. 152. Retrieved 30 July 2011.
- Harbans Singh Noor (2004). Connecting the dots in Sikh history. Institute of Sikh Studies. ISBN 978-81-85815-23-7.
- Bhagat Lakshman. Short Sketch of the Life and Works of Guru Gobind Singh. Asian Educational Services. pp. 133–135. ISBN 978-81-206-0576-3.
- Names given in the Guru Kian Sakhian.
- Singh, Prithi Pal. The history of Sikh Gurus. Lotus Press. p. 158. ISBN 81-8382-075-1.
- Soundar, Chitra. Gateway to Indian Culture. Asiapac Books (p) Ltd. p. 59. ISBN 981-229-327-2.
- Official Web Site Of Takhat Sachkhand Sri Hazur Abchalnagar Sahib, Nanded
- Quoted in Muhammad Latif, The History of the Punjab (Calcutta, 1891), p. 192.
- Sarkar, III, 357.
- Glimpses of Sikhism - Major Nahar Singh Jawandha. Google Books.pk. Retrieved 2012-08-15.
- Singh, Gobind; Jasbir Kaur Ahuja (1996). The Zafarnama of Guru Gobind Singh. Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. OCLC 42966940.
- Singh, Prof. Surinderjit, Guru Gobind Singh's Zafarnamah Transliteration and Poetic Rendering in English. Singh Brothers, Amritsar. 2003. ISBN 81-7205-272-3.
- Deora, Man Singh (1989). Guru Gobind Singh: a literary survey. New Delhi: Anmol Publications. ISBN 978-81-7041-160-4. OCLC 21280295.
- Chopra, R. M., Glory of Sikhism, Sanbun Publishers,2001, ISBN ISBN 783473471195.
- Sri Dasam Granth Sahib: Questions and Answers: The book on Sri Dasam Granth Sahib
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Guru Teg Bahadur
11 November 1675 - 7 October 1708
Guru Granth Sahib