HAL Tejas

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Tejas
HAL Tejas (LA-5018) of Squadron 18 Flying Bullets.jpg
A Hal Tejas of No. 18 Squadron IAF
Role Multirole light fighter
National origin India
Manufacturer Hindustan Aeronautics Limited
Design group Aeronautical Development Agency
Aircraft Research and Design Centre (HAL)
Defence Research and Development Organisation
National Aerospace Laboratories
First flight 4 January 2001[1]
Introduction 17 January 2015[2]
Status In production[3]
Primary user Indian Air Force
Produced 2001–present
Number built 40 as of 30 October 2021[4][5][6][7][8]
Developed into HAL Tejas Mk2

HAL TEDBF

The HAL Tejas is an Indian, single engine, delta wing, light multirole fighter designed by the Aeronautical Development Agency (ADA) in collaboration with Aircraft Research and Design Centre (ARDC) of Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) for the Indian Air Force and Indian Navy.[9] It came from the Light Combat Aircraft (LCA) programme, which began in the 1980s to replace India's ageing MiG-21 fighters but later became part of a general fleet modernisation programme.[10][11] In 2003, the LCA was officially named "Tejas".[12] It is the smallest and lightest in its class of contemporary supersonic combat aircraft.[13]

The Tejas is the second supersonic fighter developed by HAL after the HAL HF-24 Marut.[14] The Tejas achieved initial operational clearance in 2011 and final operational clearance in 2019. The first Tejas squadron became operational in 2016, as No. 45 Squadron IAF Flying Daggers was the first to have their MiG-21s replaced with the Tejas.[8]

The Tejas currently has three production models – Tejas Mark 1, Mark 1A and trainer variant. The IAF currently placed an order for 40 Tejas Mark 1 and 73 Tejas Mark 1A and 10 trainer aircraft. The IAF plans to procure 324 aircraft in all variants, including the Tejas Mark 2 currently being developed by the HAL.[15] The Tejas Mark 2 is expected to be ready for series production by 2026.[16]

As of 2022 indigenous content in the Tejas Mark 1 is 59.7% by value and 75.5% by number of line replaceable units.[17] As the defense minister announced, the indigenous content of the Tejas Mk 1A is expected to be 50% and rise to 60% by the end of the programme.[18]

Development[edit]

LCA programme[edit]

LCA Tejas production partners

The origin of LCA programme can be traced back to the early 1980s. In 1983, the Government of India established the LCA project with the initial goal to develop a new light combat aircraft to replace the ageing IAF fighters, especially the MiG-21 variants,[19] which had been the mainstay of the IAF since 1963.[20] At one point the IAF had operated as many as 874 MiG-21s.[20] The "Long Term Re-Equipment Plan 1981" noted that most of these IAF fighters were approaching the end of their service lives by the early-1990s, and that by 1995, the IAF would be 40 percent short of the aircraft needed to fill its projected force structure requirements.[21]

In 1984, the Government of India established Aeronautical Development Agency (ADA) under the aegis of Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) to manage the LCA programme.[19] The ADA was entrusted with the design and development of LCA while HAL was chosen as the principal contractor.[22] The government's "self-reliance" goals for the LCA included the three most sophisticated and challenging systems: the Fly-by-wire (FBW) flight control system, multi-mode pulse-doppler radar, and afterburning turbofan engine.[23]

The project definition phase was commenced in October 1986[19] with France's Dassault-Breguet Aviation as consultant. Dassault-Breguet's expertise was mainly utilised in the design and system integration of the Tejas.[24] In 1988, Dassault had offered a hybrid fly by wire flight control system for the LCA. It consists of three digital channels and one analogue channel, the French idea was to have a fourth analogue channel as a back up in case the digital channels fails. But the ADA was in favour of having a quadruplex digital FBW flight control system on LCA.[25]

The design of the Tejas was finalised in 1990 – a small tailless compound delta wing design with inherent relaxed static stability which necessitates the need for digital FBW flight control system (control configured vehicle concept) for enhanced manoeuvrability.[25] Kota Harinarayana was the Programme Director and Chief Designer of Tejas.[25][26] In 1992, a dedicated National Control Law (CLAW) team was set up by the National Aerospace Laboratories to develop India's own state of the art FBW flight control system for the Tejas. Earlier Lockheed Martin's consultancy was utilized for the development of fly by wire flight control system. However Lockheed Martin withdrew its assistance In 1998, owing to the US embargo in response to India's second nuclear tests in that year,[27] which delayed the programme.[25]

Tejas technology demonstrator in inverted flight

The NAL's CLAW team completed the design and integration of the flight control laws with the flight control system software, and put to test at the Iron-Bird test rig. The quadruplex digital fly-by-wire flight control system, performing flawlessly for over 50 hours of pilot testing on Technology Demonstrator TD-1 cleared for flight test by early 2001. On 4 January 2001, on its maiden flight, the TD-1 successfully flew with an indigenous quadruplex digital FBW flight control system.[25]

Another critical technology needed for LCA was the multi-mode radar (MMR). Initially, the Ericsson/Ferranti PS-05/A I/J-band multi-function radar, also used on Saab's JAS 39 Gripen, was intended to be used.[28] However, DRDO decided to develop an indigenous multi-mode radar for the Tejas. HAL's Hyderabad division and the DRDO's Electronics and Radar Development Establishment (LRDE) laboratory were selected to jointly lead the MMR programme, and work commenced in 1997.[29] The Centre for Airborne Systems (CABS) was responsible for the MMR's test programme. An HAL-748 airborne surveillance aircraft was converted for this purpose.[30] The development of multi-mode was not smooth, as it suffered some setbacks. By 2005, only two radar modes – the air-to-air look-up and look-down were confirmed to have been successfully tested. The performance of several other modes that had been tested were suboptimal.[30] The problem with the radar was mainly attributed to the lack of compatibility between the LRDE/HAL multi mode radar and the LRDE's advanced signal processor module.[29] Using an "off-the-shelf" foreign radar as an interim option was considered.[31]

ADA met with success in the development of three of the five key technologies identified at the beginning of the LCA programme. The successful endeavours were mastery in the FBW flight control system,[32][25] the development and manufacturing of carbon-fibre composite structures and skins, and a modern glass cockpit. The Autolay computer-aided design software developed as part of the LCA programme has been licensed to Airbus for its A380 wide-body aircraft project.[33][23] The development of a multi-mode pulse-doppler radar, once delayed[31] was completed as the Active electronically scanned array (AESA) radar and is currently undergoing flight trials.[34] India's self-reliance goal oriented development for the LCA programme has considerably increased the indigenous components in Tejas and contributed to an aviation industry expansion in the country.[35][36]

On 20 December 2021, Ministry of Defence (MoD) in a written reply during winter session of Rajya Sabha clarified that the HAL Tejas is no longer considered as a replacement for the Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21, instead it is now part of a general IAF fleet modernisation programme.[37]

Prototypes and testing[edit]

Tejas FOC on wet contact trial from Ilyushin Il-78 tanker

Prototype testing began in 2003, a year after the first flight of the second Technology Demonstrator (TD-2).[38] The first prototype aircraft, PV-1, made its maiden flight in 2003. The first trainer prototype PV-5 was rolled out in 2009 and made its first flight on 26 November 2009.[38] A total of two trainer prototypes were built and designated PV-5 and PV-06. The first naval prototype, designated NP-1, made its first flight on 27 April 2012. It was a twin-seater aircraft, while the second naval prototype, designated as NP-2, was a single seater. Both naval prototypes were used extensively for various aircraft carrier-related trials at the Shore Based Test Facility in Goa. NP-2 was used in the actual carrier trials, where it made an arrested recovery and ski-jump assisted take-off from the aircraft-carrier INS Vikramaditya in January 2020.[39]

Tejas Limited Series Production aircraft LSP-3 on landing run

The first Limited Series Production aircraft (LSP-1) performed its maiden flight on 25 April 2007.[38] A total of seven limited series production (LSP) aircraft were built. The LSPs were extensively used for developmental trials such as weapon testing – involving test firing of the R-73[40] and Python-5 close combat missiles, the I-Derby ER beyond visual range air-to-air missile[41] and guided–unguided munition releases.[42][43] The LSPs were also used for sensor trials involving integration and testing of the Israeli Elta EL/M-2032 multi-mode radar,[44] Indian Uttam AESA Radar[34] and Rafael Litening targeting pod.[30] The Uttam radar was integrated on the Tejas LSP-2 and LSP-3, and logged about 30 hours of flight testing on the Tejas alone.[34] The high altitude trials[45] and hot weather trials were carried out with the LSPs and the PV-3 prototype, in IOC[46] and FOC configurations.[45] These trials were mainly focused on assessing the performance of the various sensors and avionics on board, at temperatures ranging from below -10 degree Celsius[45] to more than +45 degrees Celsius.[46]

Sea trials to assess the radar performance in air-to-air and air-to-sea modes, at various altitudes were carried out in 2010. Flutter vibration tests were also carried out in different configurations at high angles of attack (AoA) to assess the structural integrity across the flight envelope.[47] LSP-4 completed the successful trial of BDL developed Counter Measure Dispensing System (CMDS) with R-73 missile on 2 December 2010. It worked well Open Architecture Mission Computer and Digital Stores Management System.[48]

In the second half of 2012, the Tejas fleet was grounded for over three months and the ejection system had to be modified to resume flight tests by the end of 2012.[49] In 2013, Tejas (LSP-7) conducted an inflight engine relight test at high altitude to assess the engine response on flameout, a critical parameter for operational clearance. The inflight engine relight test is crucial for single engine combat aircraft.[50]

Operational clearance[edit]

HAL Tejas from No. 45 Squadron IAF stationed at Sulur Air Force Station.

In December 2006, the IAF announced that it would form an "LCA Induction Team" to manage the aircraft's service introduction.[51] The Tejas was awarded initial operational clearance-I (IOC-I) in January 2011.[52] To ease up the process of FOC, an interim IOC-II was issued to Tejas in December 2013. The IOC-II expanded the g-limit, angle of attack and allowed the aircraft to carry precision guided munitions and close combat missiles. The IOC-II Tejas have an operational radius of 400–500 km.[53][54] The first squadron, consisting of Tejas in IOC-II configuration, became operational in 2016.[55] The No. 45 Squadron IAF based at Sulur Air Force Station, Coimbatore was the first to have their MiG-21s replaced by Tejas aircraft at the base.[8]

The FOC campaign began in December 2014.[56] Two critical parameters set by IAF for FOC clearance was expansion of angle of attack from 24 degree in IOC-II to 28 degree in FOC and inflight refueling capability.[54] In February 2018, as part of the FOC campaign, the Tejas carried out a "hot refuelling" - refuelling with engine running,[1] which shortens the turnaround time[57] by 30% and doubles the sortie rate.[58] In September 2018, the Tejas successfully completed its mid-air refuelling trials required for the aircraft to obtain its FOC.[1] In January 2019, HAL received permission from CEMILAC to start production of the FOC standard Tejas.[59]

On 20 February 2019, during the Aero India 2019 show, FOC was formally awarded to the Tejas.[60] The second Tejas squadron – No.18 Flying Bullets was formed at Sulur Air Force Station on 27 May 2020 with the first four serial production FOC aircraft.[55][61]

A full mission simulator (FMS) phase-1 was commissioned at Sulur Air Force Station on 23 October 2021. The Phase 1 of the FMS features training in aircraft handling and full envelope flying. Phase 2 will further augment the training with focus on weapons system and advance sensors onboard Tejas.[62]

Upgrades and further development[edit]

Tejas IOC aircraft, each carrying two drop tanks on inner pylons

In May 2015, the Comptroller and Auditor General of India (CAG) noted some shortcomings in the then-delivered Tejas Mark 1 IOC standard aircraft, which according to the CAG would limit the survivability and operational deployability of the aircraft in actual combat.[63] A few of these shortcomings, including lack of combat endurance, were addressed in the Tejas Mark 1 FOC configuration aircraft.[1] Tejas Mark 1 FOC resolved the issue of onboard fuel monitoring with an integrated Environmental Control and Fuel Management (ECFM) system. It can now perform aerial refueling from Ilyushin Il-78 and buddy refueling with Sukhoi Su-30MKI. Tejas is also undergoing butt firing trials and air-to-air firing at HAL, Nashik facility with Gryazev-Shipunov GSh-23.[64]

The shortcomings, such as the increased weight and reduced speed would be addressed in the upcoming Tejas Mark 1A aircraft by increasing the use of composites in manufacturing and reducing the supersonic drag by using more aerodynamic pylons. The MK1A will also have AESA radar, a self-protection jammer,[65] updated avionics and electronic warfare capabilities, among other improvements.[66] The shortcomings identified by CAG that require redesign and structural modification such as increasing internal fuel capacity, are planned to be rectified in the Tejas Mark 2.[65]

Tejas Mark 1A[edit]

The Tejas Mark 1A, which has more than 40 improvements over the Mark 1 variant,[67] is expected to begin production in 2023–24.[68] Upgraded Mark 1A aircraft will retain basic Mark 1 airframe while featuring a new avionic suite centered on EL/M-2052 AESA Radar and Uttam AESA Radar, DARE Unified Electronic Warfare Suite (UEWS), an externally mounted self protection jammer (SPJ) for enhanced survivability, instrument flight rules (IFR) capability, Onboard Oxygen Generation System (OBOGS) developed by Defence Bioengineering and Electromedical Laboratory (DEBEL) for endurance and an expanded weapon suite consisting of Astra BVRAAM and ASRAAM.[65][8] HAL will install in-house developed Combined Interrogator and Transponder (CIT) with digital map generator by Mission and Combat Systems R&D Centre which helps transfer the required mission map on pilot display, an upgraded IFF+ from older identification friend or foe system.[69] To better accommodate the pilots, cockpit floor is also reshaped.[64] The upgraded Tejas Mark 1A will have a reduced turnaround time.[68]

According to HAL Chairman and Director R Madhavan, the design activity of Tejas Mark 1A is moving ahead and the testing of subsystems will be completed by 2021. The taxi trials will commence in the first half of 2022 and the first flight of Mark 1A prototype will happen in second half of 2022. Delivery of the aircraft for the IAF will begin from March 2024.[70] BEL will supply 20 types of locally developed critical avionics and upgrades such as Digital Flight Control Computers from ADA, Air Data Computer from DRDO, Weapon Computers from ADE, Radar Warning Receiver from Combat Aircraft Systems Development and Integration Centre (CASDIC) and Head-up display from Central Scientific Instruments Organisation (CSIO) from 2023 to 2028 for ₹2,400 crore.[71]

On 20 June 2022, the Tejas Mark 1A prototype completed its first flight.[72] HAL intends to obtain a certificate from Centre for Military Airworthiness and Certification (CEMILAC) within 30 months before this version enters mass production. Two ASRAAMs are intended for use on Tejas Mark 1A. The production variant will come equipped with dual-rack pylons with weapon systems integration.[73][69] HAL is on track to deliver first Tejas Mark 1A by February 2024.The order of 83 aircraft for IAF will be completed by 2029 at the rate of 16 units per year.[74]

Tejas Mark 2[edit]

A mockup of the under developement medium weight fighter HAL Tejas Mk-2 with canards displayed by HAL.

The HAL Tejas design has been further developed into the Tejas Mark 2, incorporating a more powerful General Electric F414 INS6 engine, canards and other design changes. The Tejas Mark 2, which is expected to be rolled out in 2022, will have an increased payload carrying capacity and internal fuel capacity, more external hardpoints, improved combat range, a completely redesigned cockpit, and an integrated infrared search and track (IRST) system, in addition to the AESA radar.[75][58] The Defence Institute of Advanced Technology (DIAT) is developing aircraft health and usage monitoring systems (HUMS) to integrate the various sensors on board the Tejas Mark 2.[76] The first flight of Tejas Mark 2 is expected to be in 2023.[77]

Naval variant[edit]

LCA Navy prototype NP-1

The Naval LCA programme was commenced in 2003.[78] According to ADA, the Naval LCA (N-LCA) Programme was envisaged to be completed in two phases, under Phase-1 two naval prototypes were developed - the two-seat NP-1 and the single-seat NP-2, based on the Tejas Mark 1 design, to carryout carrier suitability certification and weapons integration. Under Phase 2, two single-seat prototypes were planned to be built, based on the Tejas Mark 2 design, with further design optimisation and integration of the General Electric F414 INS6 engine.[79] The first naval prototype NP-1 was rolled out in July 2010,[80] and made its first flight on 27 April 2012.[81] The naval LCA has stronger landing gear to absorb the forces generated during carrier take off and arrested recovery.[78][82]

In December 2014, the LCA Navy successfully made its first ski-jump assisted take off from a SBTF at INS Hansa. The navy variant has a distinctive flight control law mode which allows hands-free take-off.[82]

In December 2016, the Indian Navy (IN) opted out of the programme, owing to the long delay and technical reasons – such as inadequate thrust to weight ratio of N-LCA for carrier based combat operations,[83] and issued a fresh RFI for the procurement of 57 multi-role carrier borne fighters.[84]

Because the technologies developed for the Tejas programme will be carried over to other platforms currently being developed by the ADA, test flying was continued.[85]

In 2019, an LCA navy prototype successfully carried out the first arrested landing at the SBTF in Goa in day time[86] and night time.[87] As of December 2019, the Naval LCA programme completed 209 test flights,[86] of these 50 were ski jump take-offs.[88]

Tejas NP-1 landing on INS Vikramaditya

In January 2020, the naval prototype NP-2 successfully carried out its first arrested landing and ski-jump assisted take-off from the aircraft-carrier INS Vikramaditya.[39][86]

In July 2020, the DRDO announced that the plan to develop an LCA Mark 2 Navy had been dropped and they were working on a new carrier-borne fighter according to the Indian Navy's multi-role carrier borne fighter requirement floated in 2016 to replace the current fleet of MIG-29K/KUB carrier-based fighters.[89] In Aero India 2021 a new twin engine naval fighter was unveiled, the Twin Engine Deck Based Fighter (TEDBF).[90][91] The experience gained in the N-LCA programme will help in the development of TEDBF.[88]

Program costs[edit]

Development costs[edit]

  • LCA Programme - 9,063.96 crore (US$1.1 billion) (up to March 2020)[92]
  • Kaveri engine programme - 2,032 crore (US$250 million)[92]
  • 1,202 crore (US$150 million) additional design and development (Jan 2021)[93]

Flyaway costs[edit]

  • 146.2 crore (equivalent to 198 crore or US$25 million in 2020) for IOC Mark 1 (2014)[94][95]
  • 156 crore (equivalent to 297 crore or US$37 million in 2020) for FOC Mark 1 (2010)[95]
  • 303 crore (US$38 million) for Mark 1A and 309 crore (US$39 million) for export variant (2021)[96][97][98]

Design[edit]

Overview[edit]

The Tejas is a single-engine multirole combat aircraft which has a tailless, compound delta wing design with "relaxed static stability" for enhanced manoeuvrability and agility. The Tejas is a multi-role combat aircraft and its flexibility permits it to carry out Interception, air-to-surface and anti-shipping roles in a single mission.[99] The wind tunnel testing and computational fluid dynamics analysis have optimised the design of Tejas for minimum transonic and supersonic wave drag, as well low wing-loading.[25]

Tejas airshow demo

Tejas has eight hardpoints – one beneath the port-side air-intake, one under the fuselage (centreline station) and three hardpoints under each wing, of these, three are wet hardpoints which can carry drop tanks. The hardpoint beneath the port side air-intake is dedicated to carrying sensor pods such as FLIR, IRST or laser rangefinder/designator. These can also be carried on the centreline pylon and inboard pairs of wing stations.[100] The Mark 1A has an aerial refuelling probe on the starboard side of the forward fuselage.[101] The Tejas weapon suite consists of I-Derby ER and Astra beyond visual range air-to-air missiles and R-73, Python-5 and ASRAAM close combat missiles.[58] The Tejas has an internal 23 mm Gryazev-Shipunov GSh-23 twin-barreled autocannon under the starboard side air-intake.[102] The BrahMos-NG supersonic cruise missile is being developed for the Tejas.[103]

The relatively smaller size, extensive use of airframe composites, the Y-duct inlet which shields the engine compressor blades, the application of radar-absorbent material (RAM) coatings[30] and so on, reduces the overall radar cross-section of the aircraft.[99]

Airframe[edit]

Apart from aluminium-lithium alloys and titanium alloys,[104] carbon-fibre composite materials are used in the construction of the Tejas. The composite materials constitute 45% of the airframe by weight and 90% by surface area,[105] the highest among contemporary aircraft.[106] The upper and lower wing surfaces, wing spars and wing ribs are also made out of carbon-fibre composites,[107] while the fin tip is made out of glass-fibre.[108] The extensive use of composite materials in the airframe not only makes the aircraft lighter but also gives high strength. This also reduces the number of joints or rivets, increases the aircraft's structural integrity and lowers its susceptibility to fatigue cracks.[99] The tailfin is a monolithic honeycomb structure, reducing the manufacturing cost by 80% compared to traditional methods.[109] Initially the Tejas prototypes were equipped with a radome made out of Kevlar which was replaced with a quartz radome in the production aircraft.[58]

The naval LCA has a nose droop to provide improved view for carrier landings. In addition to the elevons, the naval LCA have wing leading–edge vortex controllers (LEVCON) control surfaces that extend from the wing-root leading edge, which could be deflected to a downward angle or an upward angle to increase lift and reduce airspeed during approach. The LEVCONs also provides better low-speed handling and increase controllability at high angles of attack (AoA).[30] The naval Tejas also has a strengthened undercarriage, stronger landing gear,[82] and an arrestor hook system for carrier landings.[110] The two-seat LCA Navy variant (NP-1) have aerodynamic commonality with the trainer variant.[111]

Avionics[edit]

The avionics of the Tejas Mark 1 is centered around Elta EL/M-2032 radar.[58] Its digital flight control computer developed by ADE and manufactured BEL.[112][113] It has an electronic warfare (EW) suite domestically developed by Defence Avionics Research Establishment (DARE), which consists of a radar warning receiver (RWR), integrated self-protection jammer,[114] chaff and flare dispenser system.[115][116] The upgraded variant of the Tejas Mark 1, named the Tejas Mark 1A, will have an AESA radar, new digital flight control computer, new EW suite and updated avionics.[65] Some of the production Mark 1A fighters will be equipped with the Elta EL/M-2052 AESA radar,[8] while rest are expected to fly with the domestically developed Uttam AESA radar.[34] The new EW system for the Mark 1A, developed by DARE and known as the Unified Electronic Warfare suite (UEWS), will have electronic countermeasures and electronic counter-countermeasure capabilities, digital radio frequency memory based[117] jamming and deception capabilities.[68] The Tejas Mark 1A will also carry a pod-mounted self-protection jammer[58] – the Elta ELL-8222WB.[118] The Mark 1A will have software-defined radio-based secure communications and network-centric warfare capabilities.[119]

The Tejas can also carry pod-based sensors such as forward looking infrared (FLIR). Currently the Tejas is cleared to carry the Rafael Litening III targeting/reconnaissance pod,[120] while an advanced version named Litening 4I will be integrated on the Tejas. The Litening 4I pod, developed by the C4I systems division of Rafael, enables the aircraft to carry out reconnaissance, surveillance and intelligence gathering, in addition to target acquisition.[121] The Tejas has an integrated health-monitoring system.[101]

The Tejas has a night vision goggles compatible glass cockpit, equipped with a domestically developed head-up display (HUD), three multi-function displays, two Smart Standby Displays by Central Scientific Instruments Organization (CSIO). The Tejas has hands-on-throttle-and-stick (HOTAS) arrangement to reduce pilot's workload.[101][30] The displays provide key information on a need-to-know basis, the pilot interacts with onboard systems through a multi-functional keyboard and several selection panels. The Tejas has a "get-you-home" panel coupled with an air data computer developed by Bharat Electronics Limited to assist the pilot in case of an emergency. The cockpit is equipped with Martin-Baker 16LG zero-zero ejection seat[108] and canopy severance system developed by the DRDO for safe ejection.[101][122] For life support, Tejas Mark 1 relies on conventional liquid oxygen LOX system, while an onboard oxygen-generation system (OBOGS) has been developed for Tejas Mark 1A.[123] The ADA has developed virtual reality assisted cockpit simulator for Tejas,[124] and N-LCA.[82] Currently Tejas pilots are flying with Elbit DASH IV helmet-mounted display system.[30][125]

Flight control system[edit]

N-LCA has additional flight control laws (source codes) for LEVCON and hands-free take off

The aerodynamic configuration of Tejas is based on a delta-wing layout with shoulder-mounted wings. The control surfaces include three-section slats on the wing's outer leading edge while the inboard sections of the wings have additional slats to generate vortex lift over the inner wing and high-energy air-flow along the tail fin to enhance high-AoA stability. The wing trailing edge fits two-segment elevons to provide pitch and roll control. The only empennage-mounted control surfaces are the single-piece rudder and two airbrakes, located in the upper rear part of the fuselage, one each on either side of the fin.[100] Since the Tejas is a relaxed static stability design, it is equipped with a NAL-developed full authority quadruplex digital fly-by-wire flight control system[25] and an open architecture[126] digital flight control computer developed by BEL.[112] Its flight control surfaces are controlled by hybrid electro-hydraulic actuators through the digital flight control computer.[127] The fly-by-wire flight control system of the Tejas has an advanced feature called auto low-speed recovery. This enables envelope protection at low speed and high angles of attack. It prevents the aircraft from entering into uncontrolled flight while maneuvering. Another feature is disorientation recovery function, once engaged it will recover the aircraft to an optimal altitude, airspeed and level flight. Some of the flight control laws for these features were formulated by the IIT Bombay research university.[128]

Propulsion[edit]

Developing an indigenous jet engine for Tejas was one of the five self-reliance goals identified at the beginning of the LCA Programme. A programme led by the Gas Turbine Research Establishment (GTRE) to design and develop an indigenous powerplant, the Kaveri, was launched as early as in 1986.[129] However Kaveri jet engine development faced some setbacks, hence the General Electric F404-GE-F2J3 afterburning turbofan engine was procured as an interim solution.[129] Since 2004, uprated General Electric F404-GE-IN20 engines are powering Tejas variants.[130]

The Tejas Mark 1 is currently powered by the F404 IN20 engine. The Mark 1A variant will be powered by the same powerplant,[131] while the heavier Tejas Mark 2 will be powered by a General Electric F414 INS6 engine.[131] On 17 August 2021, HAL placed an order of 5,375 crore (US$670 million) for 99 F404-GE-IN20 engines.[131][132]

Operational history[edit]

IAF Su-30 MKI, French Rafale, IAF Tejas during Exercise Garuda VII.

The formation of the first Tejas-equipped squadron started in July 2011. The first Tejas squadron—No. 45 Squadron IAF (Flying Daggers) became operational in July 2016,[55] based at Sulur Air Force Station in Coimbatore.[133] The second Tejas Mark 1 squadron, Squadron 18, was formed at Sulur on 27 May 2020.[134] The Tejas Mark 1 made its international debut on 21 January 2016, at the fourth Bahrain International Airshow.[135]

In April 2018, the IAF's entire fleet of Tejas Mark 1 aircraft participated in the Gagan Shakti 2018 exercise. It was the IAF's largest air exercise, involving 1,100 aircraft and 15,000 military personnel. During the exercise, the Tejas were deployed to forward bases and demonstrated their reliability and precision strike capability.[15] In 2019, six Tejas fighter jets participated in the Vayu Shakti air exercise, where it has demonstrated its "swing role" capability.[136]

According to the commanding officer of No. 45 Squadron – Group Captain Samrath Dhankhar, DASH IV HMDS enables the Tejas pilot to take full advantage of high off-boresight close combat missiles,[137] such as – Python-5 and R-73.[138]

On 18 August 2020, IAF deployed the No. 45 Squadron "Flying Dagger" on the western front along the Pakistani border (line of control). It was the first operational deployment of Tejas.[139]

On 27 April 2021, Tejas Mark 1 successfully test fired Python-5 high off-boresight (HOBS) close combat missile and further validated enhanced capability of I-Derby ER (extended range) BVR missile. Both missiles scored direct hits on targets during the trial.[41]

Potential operators[edit]

HAL proposed exporting the Tejas, with preliminary talks taking place with several friendly countries.[16] It was reported in March 2020 that HAL is willing to set up logistic facilities in Indonesia, Malaysia, Sri Lanka and Vietnam as part of exporting the Tejas.[140]

Argentina[edit]

The Argentine Air Force (FAA) has periodically indicated its interest in possibly purchasing the HAL Tejas, as part of its modernization initiative.[141] In October 2021, FAA chief-of-staff Brigadier Xavier Julian Isaac confirmed that HAL had offered the HAL Tejas to the FAA, amidst other offers of the JF-17 from China and the MiG-35 from Russia.[142][143] Multiple sources have also indicated that the HAL Tejas may likely be a good option for the FAA.[144]

However, any potential sale of the HAL Tejas to Argentina may likely be threatened by UK-imposed arms sanctions; the United Kingdom has barred any sale of military-equipment consisting of UK-manufactured parts to Argentina, ever since the British-Argentine Falklands War of 1982.[145] Argentina's earlier efforts to procure other fighter aircraft, including the Mirage F1M, the IAI Kfir, the JAS 39 Gripen and the KAI FA-50 were scuttled due to UK-diplomatic pressure, since the aforementioned aircraft were found to contain UK-origin parts.[146][147]

Given the nature of the Argentine-specific sanctions, the HAL Tejas would essentially be subject to UK-scrutiny, since it utilizes the British-origin MK16 IN16 GS Tejas ejection seat manufactured by Martin-Baker, along with other British-origin components — including an aerial-refueling probe and a quartz radome, both supplied by Cobham Limited.[148][141] Nevertheless, HAL has reportedly offered a customised-variant of the HAL Tejas to the FAA, which includes a retrofit of about 50-specific components and the substitution of all major British-origin components — including the ejection seat and the aerial-refueling probe, with diplomatically suitable alternatives; however, any customisation to the HAL Tejas would encompass considerable changes to the aircraft's design and additional flight certification.[149]

On September 21, 2022, there is indication that the Argentine Air Force is willing to look at the JF-17 because of concerns that the time/money required to modify the Tejas to remove non-British parts beyond what Buenos Aires is willing to spend.[150]

Australia[edit]

In July 2020, the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) had issued a tender, seeking a new jet trainer to replace its fleet of BAE Hawk 127 trainer aircraft.[151] According to HAL's "58th Annual Report" covering 2020–2021, HAL had offered the HAL Tejas in its "Lead in Fighter Trainer" (LIFT) configuration to Australia's Department of Defence (DoD) in July 2020.[152]

Other aircraft also reported to be participating in the tender are the Boeing-Saab T-7 Red Hawk, the Aermacchi M-346 Master and the KAI T-50.[153]

Egypt[edit]

During the Dubai Airshow 2021, Egyptian officials expressed their interest in procuring 70 LCA Tejas[154] to replace their 100 Chinese-made Hongdu JL-8 trainers. Following the Dubai Airshow 2021, HAL and Indian Air Force officials visited Cairo and discussions were going on. As of June 2022, India has offered to set up local production facilities for the LCA Tejas and also for the Light Utility and Light Combat Helicopters in Egypt.[155]

Malaysia[edit]

Malaysia has frequently indicated that it may be interested in purchasing the HAL Tejas for the Royal Malaysian Air Force (RMAF), as part of its attempts to supplement its MiG-29 fleet; reports of Malaysian interest in procuring the aircraft date back to as early as 2019.[156]

In March 2019, the HAL Tejas made its international debut at the Langkawi International Maritime and Aerospace Exhibition (LIMA); its presence reportedly generated a great deal of interest, especially amongst the RMAF and then-Malaysian PM Mahathir bin Mohamad.[157]

However, in mid-2019, HAL's prospects of exporting the HAL Tejas to Malaysia were severely blemished, owing to diplomatic tussles between India and Malaysia — most particularly Malaysia's contentious remarks over India's abrogation of Article 370 and India's retaliatory move of boycotting Malaysian-produced palm oil.[158] The diplomatic skirmishes ceased in 2020, following Mahathir's resignation as PM and the restitution of the Indo-Malaysian palm oil trade.[159][160][161][162]

In 2021, an RMAF delegation reportedly visited HAL's manufacturing-facility at Bengaluru to assess the suitability of the HAL Tejas, possibly in anticipation of a possible order — reaffirming Malaysia's interest in the aircraft.[163][164]

In June 2021, the RMAF formally released a tender for the supply of 18 light combat-aircraft - dubbed as the "Fighter Lead In Trainer-Light Combat Aircraft" (FLIT/LCA), in an effort to supplant its ageing BAE Hawk 108/208 light-combat aircraft and its MB-339CM trainer-aircraft.[165][166] The RMAF later issued a Request for Proposal (RFP) to nine different aircraft-manufacturing conglomerates in July, with a submission-deadline of September 2021 (this would later be extended to October 2021).[167]

In October 2021, the RMAF confirmed that the HAL — offering the HAL Tejas MK1A, had submitted its bid for the FLIT/LCA tender, along with five other international firms — Korea Aerospace Industries (KAI) (offering the KAI FA-50), China National Aero-Technology Import & Export Corporation (CATIC) (offering the HAIC L-15), Leonardo S.p.A. (offering the Aermacchi M-346), Turkish Aerospace Industries (offering the TAI Hürjet) and Rosoboronexport (offering the Mikoyan MiG-35).[167] Coincidentally, the JF-17 — which was reported to be a leading choice for the RMAF, had not participated in the FLIT/LCA tender.[168][169]

Later that year, HAL signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with MMTC Ltd — a public sector firm, as a channelizing partner to facilitate the import of palm oil as a counter-trade to any potential sale of the HAL Tejas to the RMAF; this arrangement was initiated to fulfill a mandatory requirement of the RMAF — which stipulates that 50% of the total cost of the FLIT/LCA tender must be paid the winning contender through means of barter trade.[152][170][171] HAL also signed another MOU with Boustead Heavy Industries Corporation (BHIC) — a major Malaysia-based defense contractor, to fulfill another mandatory condition of the RMAF — stipulating that the winning contender must locally procure at least 30% of products or services from Malaysian companies in the deal; the HAL-BHIC joint venture would offer a provision of "Depot Level Maintenance" i.e. providing reliability, availability, maintainability and supportability (RAMS) to the RMAF, should HAL win the FLIT/LCA tender.[172][173][174]

In July 2022, HAL announced that Malaysia has picked the Tejas to potentially replace its MiG-29s as negotiations are in the final stage.[175]

Philippines[edit]

In May 2022, India and the Philippines signed an MOU, which mentioned the consideration of purchasing the Tejas and other Indian-made aircraft.[176] On July 7, 2022, the Tejas was dropped from further consideration from the multi-role fighter jet (MRF) project. The F-16V Block 70/72 and the JAS-39 Gripen C/D+ are the main contenders for the Philippine Air Force's MRF project.[177]

Sri Lanka[edit]

It has been reported that Sri Lanka has shown interest in purchasing the Tejas to replace its aging fleets of IAI Kfir and Chengdu J-7 aircraft.[178] The programme is for the acquisition of 8 to 12 aircraft and is to be pursued through a government-government basic agreement.[179] In 2021, it was decided to overhaul the Kfirs, instead of buying new aircraft, which would cost around $40 million per unit compared to $49 million in total for overhauling the five Kfirs.[180]

United Arab Emirates[edit]

The Tejas has attracted interest from the United Arab Emirates (UAE), with some discussions held during a visit by UAE Minister of State and Defence, Mohammed Ahmed Al Bowardi Al Falacy, during a state visit in October 2018, as part of growing defence relations between India and UAE.[181] Although as of May 2022, there has been little follow-up on the aforementioned interest.[182]

United States[edit]

In December 2020, in response to a Request for Information (RFI) from the United States Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR), HAL offered the "Lead In Fighter Trainer" variant of the HAL Tejas — classified as the "HAL Tejas LIFT", to the United States Navy (USN), as part the latter's initiative to replace its fleet of T-45 Goshawk trainer aircraft, dubbed the "Undergraduate Jet Training System".[183][184] Other aircraft participating in the UJTS, are the T-7 Red Hawk — offered by Boeing in partnership with Saab, and the KAI T-50A Golden Eagle — offered by Korea Aerospace Industries (KAI), in partnership with Lockheed Martin.[185]

Despite being the only aircraft among the three to be reportedly capable of undertaking operations from an aircraft carrier, the prospects of the USN selecting the HAL Tejas LIFT are reputedly slim, according to multiple sources.[184][186][187] Several reasons suggested as the cause of the LIFT's bleak prospects in the UJTS are attributed to the fact that HAL has refrained from partnering with a US-based company to offer the LIFT (unlike the consortiums of Boeing-Saab and KAI-Lockheed Martin, offering the T-7 and the T-50A, respectively), a lack of export orders for the type, and its delta-wing design — which makes it less-suitable for low-speed landing.[188]

Variants[edit]

Ski-jump takeoff of by Tejas NP-2 at INS Hansa

Prototypes[edit]

Aircraft already built and projected models to be built. Model designations, tail numbers and dates of first flight are shown.

Technology Demonstrators (TD)
  • TD-1 (KH2001) – 4 January 2001.[38][189]
  • TD-2 (KH2002) – 6 June 2002.[38]
Prototype Vehicles (PV)
  • PV-1 (KH2003) – First flight on 25 November 2003.[190]
  • PV-2 (KH2004) – First flight on 1 December 2005.
  • PV-3 (KH2005) – First flight on 1 December 2006.
  • PV-5 (KH-T2009) – First flight on 26 November 2009 – Fighter/Trainer variant.[38]
  • PV-6 (KH-T2010) – First flight on 8 November 2014 – Fighter/Trainer variant.[191]
Naval Prototypes (NP)
  • NP-1 (KHN-T3001) – Two-seat naval variant for carrier operations. Rolled out in July 2010.[80] NP-1 made its first flight on 27 April 2012.[192]
  • NP-2 (NAVY3002) – Single-seat naval variant. First flight on 7 February 2015 with ski-jump take-off and arrested landing required in STOBAR carrier.[7]
Limited Series Production (LSP) aircraft
Tejas LSP-7 (KH2017) firing Python-5.
  • LSP-1 (KH2011) – 25 April 2007. This LCA is powered by F404-F2J3 Engine.[193][38]
  • LSP-2 (KH2012) – 16 June 2008. This is the first LCA fitted with F404-IN20 engine.[193]
  • LSP-3 (KH2013) – 23 April 2010. The first aircraft to have the Hybrid MMR radar[44] and will be close to the IOC standard.
  • LSP-4 (KH2014) – June 2010. The first aircraft that was flown in the (Mark 1) configuration that will be delivered to the Indian Air Force.[194] The aircraft flew with the Hybrid MMR, a Countermeasure Dispensing System, and an identify friend or foe electronic system.[195]
  • LSP-5 (KH2015) – 19 November 2010. IOC standard, with all sensors including night lighting in the cockpit, and an auto-pilot.[196]
  • LSP-7 (KH2017) – First flight on 9 March 2012.[197]
  • LSP-8 (KH2018) – First flight trial completed in March 2013. LSP 8 is the final version upon which production is based.[5]

Production variants[edit]

HAL Tejas at the 2022 Singapore Airshow
  • Tejas Mark 1 − Single-seat operational variant for the Indian Air Force. 16 aircraft have been delivered in IOC standard constituting No. 45 Squadron IAF. Delivery of the Tejas Mark 1 in FOC standard has begun and 18 Squadron (Flying Bullets) was equipped with the first aircraft in May 2020.[55] Delivery of balance 15 aircraft to No. 18 Squadron is expected to be completed by September 2021.[198] FOC standard Tejas Mark 1 are BVRAAM capable, with general flight envelope expansion, increased angle of attack, higher g-limit of +9 g,[199] updated avionics and flight control software suite, as well as capable of hot refueling and aerial refueling.[55]
  • Tejas Trainer - Two-seat operational conversion trainer for the Indian Air Force; also act as LiFT (Lead-in Fighter Trainer) and ground-attack aircraft.
  • Tejas Mark 1A - an enhanced Tejas Mark 1 equipped with EL/M-2052 and Uttam AESA radar, self-protection jammer, radar warning receiver, as well as being able to mount an external ECM pod.[200][68] The first Limited Series Production (LSP) aircraft of the Mark.1A variant is expected to be rolled out by end of May 2022, and meant to be used as a Flying Testbed (FTB). A second LSP is expected later in 2022, and shall be used to validate design changes meant to make the Mark.1A variant lighter than the Mark.1, and to optimize weight distribution.

Future developments[edit]

  • SPORT  - Supersonic Omni-Role Trainer (SPORT) aircraft is a two-seater Lead-in Fighter Training (LiFT) aircraft being developed from the LCA Trainer Mark 1 for export purposes as light fighter.[201]
  • Tejas Mark 2 - or Medium Weight Fighter, is an enhanced Tejas Mark 1 design which is expected to have a more powerful engine and an increased payload carrying capacity.[202] The Tejas Mark 2 will feature an AESA radar, an on-board oxygen generation system and a built-in electronic warfare suite among other improvements to avionics.[203] In January 2019, Air Chief Marshal Birender Singh Dhanoa said that the IAF has committed to procure twelve squadrons of Tejas Mark 2 aircraft.[204]
  • Twin-engine deck based fighter (TEDBF) - A new twin-engine carrier based fighter variant, to be developed independently. It is a totally different program based on the requirements of the Indian Navy. The aircraft will operate from INS Vikrant and INS Vishal and is expected to replace the current MiG-29K in service. The Indian Ministry of Defence approved the TEDBF project in June 2020. The aircraft is expected to start flight tests in 2026.[205]
  • Omni Role Combat Aircraft (ORCA) - An air force variant of the TEDBF for the Indian Air Force.[206][207]
  • CATS MAX - The main component of HAL Combat Air Teaming System (CATS), CATS MAX will be a twin seater Tejas Mark 1A modified with CATS interface to act as the mothership of CATS components. The CATS MAX is to be crewed by a pilot and a weapon system officer (WSO), with the later controlling the CATS.[208][209]
  • Tejas Trainer - NP-5 based operational conversion trainer for the Indian Navy, with IFR-probe. Indian Navy was reported to be considering HAL's proposal to reestablish a "Carrier Training Squadron" with 18 Naval Tejas, that would be posted on both of India's carriers and additionally serve as point defence interceptors.

Cancelled variants[edit]

  • Tejas Mark 1 Navy - Naval Variant based on HAL Tejas Mark 1 powered by F404 engine. Cancelled in favour of the new twin-engine naval fighter HAL TEDBF.[210]
  • Tejas Mark 2 Navy - Proposed naval variant based on the Tejas Mark 2. Cancelled in favour of the HAL TEDBF.[205]
  • Tejas Trainer IN - Two-seat operational conversion trainer for the Indian Navy. Cancelled in favour of HAL TEDBF.[205]

Operators[edit]

 India

Indian Air Force – 123 aircraft to be built.[211] 40 Tejas Mark 1 ordered in March 2006 with deliveries beginning in 2016 (16 Mk1 IOC and 16 Mk1 FOC single-seater aircraft, 8 Mk1 FOC twin-seat trainers).[212][58] 26 inducted by February 2022.[213]

83 aircraft ordered in February 2021 (73 Mk1A single-seater aircraft, 10 Mk1 FOC trainers),[214] to be delivered in 2024-2028 timeframe.[213]

Specifications (Tejas Mark 1)[edit]

HAL Tejas drawing

Data from tejas.gov.in,[218] DRDO Techfocus,[219] Jane's All the World's Aircraft,[108]

General characteristics

  • Crew: 1 or 2
  • Length: 13.2 m (43 ft 4 in)
  • Wingspan: 8.2 m (26 ft 11 in)
  • Height: 4.4 m (14 ft 5 in)
  • Wing area: 38.4 m2 (413 sq ft)
  • Empty weight: 6,560 kg (14,462 lb)
  • Gross weight: 9,800 kg (21,605 lb)
  • Max takeoff weight: 13,500 kg (29,762 lb) [220]
  • Fuel capacity: 2,458 kg (5,419 lb) internal; 2 × 1,200 L (260 imp gal; 320 US gal), 800 L (180 imp gal; 210 US gal) drop tank inboard, 725 L (159 imp gal; 192 US gal) drop tank under fuselage
  • Payload: 5,300 kg (11,700 lb) external stores[220]
  • Powerplant: 1 × General Electric F404-GE-IN20 afterburning turbofan with FADEC, 85 kN (19,000 lbf) with afterburner[221]

Performance

  • Maximum speed: 1,980 km/h (1,230 mph, 1,070 kn)
  • Maximum speed: Mach 1.6[220]
  • Range: 1,850 km (1,150 mi, 1,000 nmi)
  • Combat range: 500 km (310 mi, 270 nmi) with internal fuel[222]
  • Ferry range: 3,200 km (1,986 mi, 1,726 nmi) with 2 external drop tanks[222]
  • Service ceiling: 16,000 m (53,500 ft) [220]
  • g limits: +9/−3.5[223]
  • Wing loading: 255.2 kg/m2 (52.3 lb/sq ft)
  • Thrust/weight: 0.94[224]

Armament

Avionics

See also[edit]

Related development

Related lists

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Rajkumar, Mike (7 July 2018). "India's Tejas clears in-flight refuelling hurdle". Flight Global. Archived from the original on 3 June 2021. Retrieved 4 November 2021.
  2. ^ PTI (17 January 2015). "After 32 years, India finally gets LCA Tejas aircraft". Economic Times. Archived from the original on 29 March 2017. Retrieved 17 January 2015.
  3. ^ Jain, Smriti (1 July 2016). "Tejas: IAF inducts HAL's 'Made in India' Light Combat Aircraft – 10 special facts about the LCA". The Financial Express. Archived from the original on 16 August 2016. Retrieved 8 November 2021.
  4. ^ "MIG-21 Aircraft". PIB. 20 December 2021. Retrieved 17 January 2022.
  5. ^ a b "Tejas LSP-8 makes its maiden flight". The New Indian Express. 1 April 2013. Archived from the original on 17 February 2020. Retrieved 8 November 2021.
  6. ^ "LCA-Tejas Division Bangalore". HAL. Retrieved 22 January 2022.
  7. ^ a b Press Trust of India (7 February 2015). "Maiden flight by 2nd prototype of LCA Tejas' naval variant". The Economic Times. Archived from the original on 5 April 2016. Retrieved 7 February 2015.
  8. ^ a b c d e Rajkumar, Mike (19 March 2020). "Deal for 83 Tejas fighters passes bureaucratic hurdle". Flight Global. Archived from the original on 18 January 2021. Retrieved 2 November 2021.
  9. ^ "Indigenous Tejas joins IAF's fighter squadron". The Hindu. Special Correspondent. 1 July 2016. ISSN 0971-751X. Archived from the original on 8 November 2020. Retrieved 8 November 2021.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  10. ^ Peri, Dinakar (28 May 2016). "Tejas to replace MiG as key fighter". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Archived from the original on 1 October 2020. Retrieved 8 November 2021.
  11. ^ "Tejas not being inducted as replacement of MIG-21 fighter jet: Defence Ministry". Times Now News. 20 December 2021. Archived from the original on 20 December 2021. Retrieved 20 December 2021.
  12. ^ Tewary, Amarnath (6 July 2016). "Pokhran-II delayed Tejas project, says former scientist". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Archived from the original on 13 October 2021. Retrieved 8 November 2021.
  13. ^ Siddiqui, Huma (6 October 2021). "LCA could be a good option for Argentine Air Force, says a source". The Financial Express. Archived from the original on 19 October 2021. Retrieved 24 November 2021.
  14. ^ "Fit to fly: The Tejas, first India-designed fighter jet". BBC News. 10 January 2011. Archived from the original on 27 September 2021. Retrieved 8 November 2021.
  15. ^ a b Gady, Franz-Stefan (16 April 2018). "Tejas Fighter Jets Participate in India's Biggest Air Combat Exercise". thediplomat.com. Archived from the original on 20 October 2021. Retrieved 19 October 2021.
  16. ^ a b "HAL ready to export LCA-Tejas, Mark-2 getting ready". The Hindu. Special Correspondent. 26 July 2021. ISSN 0971-751X. Archived from the original on 2 September 2021. Retrieved 31 July 2021.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  17. ^ Press Trust of India (18 November 2016). "Indigenous content of Tejas 59.7% by value & 75.5% by numbers The Minister of State for Defence, Subhash Bhamre, reported to Parliament". indianexpress.com. Archived from the original on 9 December 2017. Retrieved 9 December 2017.
  18. ^ Economic Times (15 January 2021). "India approves Rs 48,000 crore to procure 83 indigenously-developed LCA Tejas for the IAF". economictimes.indiatimes.com/. Retrieved 31 July 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  19. ^ a b c Alex Philip, Snehesh (8 August 2021). "Tejas flying record world's best, criticism unfortunate, says IAF veteran who flew LCA at 78". ThePrint. Archived from the original on 31 October 2021. Retrieved 31 October 2021.
  20. ^ a b Alex Philip, Snehesh (24 May 2021). "11 down in 5 yrs, 3 in 2021, but many in IAF still swear by MiG-21s despite its 'safety record'". ThePrint. Archived from the original on 31 October 2021. Retrieved 31 October 2021.
  21. ^ Biswas, Shreya (1 July 2016). "Tejas Light Combat Aircraft: Here's how India created its first Flying Dagger". India Today. Archived from the original on 8 October 2021. Retrieved 2 November 2021.
  22. ^ Subramanian, T.S (11 March 2011). "Technology giant". Frontline. The Hindu Group. ISSN 0970-1710. Archived from the original on 31 October 2021.
  23. ^ a b Reddy, C.Manmohan (16 September 2002). "LCA economics". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Archived from the original on 17 March 2009. Retrieved 31 October 2021.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  24. ^ "Dassault wins Indian LCA contract". Flight International. London. 24 October 1987. Archived from the original on 22 December 2017.
  25. ^ a b c d e f g h Rajkumar, Philip (1 January 2007). Tejas Story: The Light Combat Aircraft Project. Manohar Publishers and Distributors. pp. 47–49. ISBN 978-8173047640.
  26. ^ "Tejas chief designer felicitated". The Hindu. 22 August 2016. ISSN 0971-751X. Archived from the original on 31 October 2021. Retrieved 31 October 2021.
  27. ^ Taylor, Michael J. H (1 May 1999). Brassey's World Aircraft & Systems Directory 1999-2000. University of Nebraska Press. pp. 29–30. ISBN 978-1857532456.
  28. ^ Taylor, John W.R; Munson, Kenneth; Taylor, Michael J.H (1989). "HAL Light Combat Aircraft" in "Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1989-1990". Coulsdon, Surrey, UK: Jane's Information Group. p. 104. ISBN 0-7106-0896-9.
  29. ^ a b Aroor, Shiv (7 April 2006). "'Indigenous' aircraft needs foreign lift, for its radar". The Indian Express. Archived from the original on 8 January 2016. Retrieved 1 November 2021.
  30. ^ a b c d e f g Kapur, Vivek (1 January 2018). Indian Aircraft Industry: Possible Innovations for Success in the Twenty-First Century. KW Publishers. pp. 57–58. ISBN 978-9386288684.
  31. ^ a b Sharma, Ravi (3 October 2008). "LCA to be fitted with Israeli multi-mode radar". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Archived from the original on 6 October 2008. Retrieved 1 November 2021.
  32. ^ "Tejas Light Combat Supersonic Fighter". Airforce Technology. Retrieved 21 November 2022.
  33. ^ Chandran, Rahul (27 February 2003). "Arming The Dangerous". siliconindia. Archived from the original on 12 May 2021. Retrieved 1 November 2021.
  34. ^ a b c d Sharma, Ravi (24 February 2021). "At least half of the 123 Tejas fighters ordered by the IAF to have India-made fire control radar". Frontline. ISSN 0970-1710. Archived from the original on 8 March 2021.
  35. ^ Pubby, Manu (13 January 2021). "India clears deal to manufacture LCA Mk1A 'Tejas' fighter jets for the air force". The Economic Times. The Times Group. Archived from the original on 13 January 2021. Retrieved 17 July 2021.
  36. ^ Alex Philip, Snehesh (13 January 2021). "Govt clears Rs 48,000-cr deal for 83 Tejas fighters — all you want to know about the aircraft". ThePrint. Archived from the original on 2 September 2021. Retrieved 1 November 2021.
  37. ^ "Tejas Aircraft Not A Replacement For MIG-21 Fighters: Defence Ministry". NDTV. 20 December 2021. Archived from the original on 20 December 2021. Retrieved 20 December 2021.
  38. ^ a b c d e f g Schillings, Melissa; Shankar, Ravi (1 August 2019). "Case 3: Tejas - A Dream LCA Project for the Indian Armed Forces". Strategic Management of Technological Innovation (6 ed.). McGraw-Hill. pp. 333–334. ISBN 978-9353168315.
  39. ^ a b Peri, Dinakar (11 January 2020). "Naval variant of LCA Tejas successfully lands on carrier". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Archived from the original on 24 June 2020. Retrieved 11 January 2020.
  40. ^ "Tejas test-fires missile successfully". The Hindu. Special Correspondent. 1 December 2010. ISSN 0971-751X. Archived from the original on 20 October 2021. Retrieved 1 November 2021.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  41. ^ a b Bedi, Rahul; Dominguez, Gabriel (28 April 2021). "India test-fires Python 5 AAM from Tejas LCA". Janes.com. Archived from the original on 17 July 2021. Retrieved 17 July 2021.
  42. ^ Sharma, Ravi (5 February 2009). "Tejas crosses a milestone". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Archived from the original on 7 February 2009. Retrieved 16 March 2016.
  43. ^ Krishnan M, Anantha (29 May 2014). "Advanced Weapon Trials of Tejas Fighter Completed". The New Indian Express. Archived from the original on 16 May 2021. Retrieved 22 June 2014.
  44. ^ a b Krishnan M, Anantha (22 April 2010). "LCA Set To Fly With Israeli Radar". Aviation Week & Space Technology. Aviation Week Network. Archived from the original on 10 May 2011. Retrieved 30 June 2014.
  45. ^ a b c Krishnan M, Anantha (5 February 2014). "Tejas Set to Begin High-altitude Trials". The New Indian Express. Archived from the original on 2 November 2021. Retrieved 2 November 2021.
  46. ^ a b "Tejas undergoes second phase of hot weather trials". Hindustan Times. 13 June 2010. Archived from the original on 2 November 2021. Retrieved 2 November 2021.
  47. ^ Krishnan M, Anantha (15 September 2010). "Indian LCA Undergoing Sea Trials". Aviation Week & Space Technology. Aviation Week Network. Archived from the original on 10 May 2011. Retrieved 30 June 2014.
  48. ^ "LCA Tejas successfully testfires Chaff, Flares". The New Indian Express. 3 December 2010. Retrieved 6 July 2022.
  49. ^ Shukla, Ajai (27 November 2012). "After three months on ground, combat aircraft Tejas resumes test flight". Business Standard India. Archived from the original on 5 August 2020. Retrieved 2 November 2021.
  50. ^ Krishnan M, Anantha (28 September 2013). "Maiden engine relight test of Tejas held". The New Indian Express. Archived from the original on 17 May 2021. Retrieved 28 September 2013.
  51. ^ Sharma, Ravi (3 December 2006). "IAF team to oversee LCA induction and operation". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Archived from the original on 8 January 2016. Retrieved 3 November 2021.
  52. ^ Prasad, K. V. "Tejas gets Initial Operational Clearance." The Hindu, (Chennai, India), 10 January 2011. Retrieved 30 May 2012. Archived 2 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  53. ^ Krishnan M, Anantha (8 December 2013). "Tejas Fires Missile, Clears Final Test; Big Step in Bangalore on December 20". The New Indian Express. Archived from the original on 23 December 2013. Retrieved 20 December 2013.
  54. ^ a b Bhatnagar, Gaurav Vivek (19 December 2013). "Tejas all set to get certification for IAF induction". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 20 December 2013. Retrieved 20 December 2013.
  55. ^ a b c d e f Thomas, Wilson (27 May 2020). "IAF operationalises second LCA squadron, inducts first LCA Tejas in FOC standard". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Archived from the original on 4 June 2021. Retrieved 27 May 2020.
  56. ^ Krishnan M, Anantha (5 February 2014). "Tejas Set to Begin High-altitude Trials". The New Indian Express. Archived from the original on 2 November 2021. Retrieved 3 November 2021.
  57. ^ Gady, Franz-Stefan (28 February 2018). "India's Tejas Light Combat Aircraft Inches Closer to Final Operational Clearance". thediplomat.com. Archived from the original on 21 January 2021. Retrieved 3 November 2021.
  58. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Rajkumar, Mike (8 February 2019). "ANALYSIS: Tejas regaining its lustre". Flight Global. Archived from the original on 19 September 2020. Retrieved 4 November 2021.
  59. ^ Press Trust of India (4 January 2019). "HAL gets nod to produce weaponised version of LCA Tejas". The Economic Times. Press Trust of India. Archived from the original on 25 February 2021. Retrieved 17 July 2021.
  60. ^ "Finally, FOC certification for Mark I Tejas". The Hindu. Special Correspondent. 20 February 2019. ISSN 0971-751X. Archived from the original on 8 November 2020. Retrieved 3 November 2021.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  61. ^ Siddiqui, Huma (17 March 2020). "Wow! Tejas, 1st indigenous Light Combat Aircraft in Final Operational Clearance-standard, takes to skies". The Financial Express. Indian Express Limited. Archived from the original on 17 March 2020. Retrieved 17 March 2020.
  62. ^ "INAUGURATION AND CLEARANCE OF FULL MISSION SIMULATOR FOR LCA-MK1 - DRDO Newsletter" (PDF). DRDO. 6 January 2022. p. 15. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 January 2022. Retrieved 11 January 2022.
  63. ^ Peri, Dinakar (10 May 2015). "LCA Mark-I has limited capability: CAG". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Archived from the original on 4 November 2021. Retrieved 4 November 2021.
  64. ^ a b Shukla, Ajai (29 December 2021). "Indian Air force clears Tejas Mark 2 design, production in 2023". Business Standard India. Archived from the original on 31 December 2021. Retrieved 31 December 2021.
  65. ^ a b c d Jha, Saurav (31 January 2021). "Tejas at the end of the tunnel". Deccan Herald. Archived from the original on 11 July 2021. Retrieved 17 July 2021.
  66. ^ Singh, Angad (17 January 2021). "Tejas keeps India's capability gap with China under check. It is HAL's game to lose now". ThePrint. Archived from the original on 4 November 2021. Retrieved 4 November 2021.
  67. ^ Bali, Pawan (14 January 2021). "Centre clears purchase of 83 Tejas Mk-1A for Indian Air Force". Deccan Chronicle. Archived from the original on 4 November 2021. Retrieved 4 November 2021.
  68. ^ a b c d Krishnan M., Anantha (6 August 2020). "Upgraded Tejas fighter, touted as 'real desi game-changer', to fly in 2022-23". The Week. Archived from the original on 7 August 2021. Retrieved 21 July 2021.
  69. ^ a b Linganna, Girish (4 July 2022). "HAL flies Tejas Mk1A Flying Test Bed, superior to PAF JF-17 Block 3". Frontier India. Retrieved 17 July 2022.
  70. ^ Kumar, Anish (19 November 2021). "HAL to deliver first Light Combat Aircraft Tejas Mk-1A in March 2024". Asianet News Network. Archived from the original on 21 November 2021. Retrieved 21 November 2021.
  71. ^ "BEL receives ₹2,400 crore order from HAL". The Hindu. Special Correspondent. 16 December 2021. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 6 July 2022.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  72. ^ "Annual Report 2022 - HAL" (PDF). HAL. 1 August 2022. Retrieved 1 August 2022.
  73. ^ Peri, Dinakar (9 January 2022). "'Light Combat Aircraft MK-1A to take flight in June'". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 17 July 2022.
  74. ^ Banerjee, Ajay (21 October 2022). "On track to deliver Tejas Mark 1A in 16 months: HAL chief". Tribune India. Retrieved 23 October 2022.
  75. ^ Waldron, Greg (20 February 2019). "AERO INDIA: Tejas Mk2 gets canards, big payload boost". Flight Global. Archived from the original on 6 August 2020. Retrieved 4 November 2021.
  76. ^ "DIAT system soon to monitor in-flight health of Tejas Mk-II - Indian Express". The Indian Express. 13 August 2011. Archived from the original on 4 November 2021. Retrieved 4 November 2021.
  77. ^ Peri, Dinakar (12 September 2021). "LCA-Mk2 to roll out next year, first flight in 2023, says scientist". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Archived from the original on 17 September 2021. Retrieved 4 November 2021.
  78. ^ a b "LCA does 1st carrier landing, but will Indian Navy ever buy it?". The Week. 11 January 2020. Archived from the original on 2 July 2021. Retrieved 4 November 2021.
  79. ^ "ADA LCA Navy Programme". Aeronautical Development Agency. Archived from the original on 10 May 2021. Retrieved 4 November 2021.
  80. ^ a b Rao, Radhakrishna (7 July 2010). "PICTURE: India rolls out naval version of Tejas fighter". Flight Global. Retrieved 19 October 2021.
  81. ^ Kumar, Chethan. "LCA naval variant's first flight on Friday." Deccan Herald, 25 April 2012. Retrieved 30 May 2012. Archived 2 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  82. ^ a b c d Peri, Dinakar (23 December 2014). "Naval LCA makes first flight from ski-jump". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Archived from the original on 9 June 2021. Retrieved 4 November 2021.
  83. ^ Bedi, Rahul (5 December 2016). "Indian Navy rejects naval version of Tejas LCA, seeks alternative – IHS Jane's 360". janes.com. Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 27 January 2017.
  84. ^ Jennings, Gareth (26 January 2017). "India seeks new naval fighter to replace rejected Tejas LCA". IHS Jane's 360. Archived from the original on 24 February 2017. Retrieved 23 February 2017.
  85. ^ Kaushik, Krishn (5 February 2021). "Tejas done, focus on three other fighter jets: two for IAF, one Navy". The Indian Express. Archived from the original on 5 February 2021. Retrieved 5 February 2021.
  86. ^ a b c "India's LCA makes arrested landing, as twin-engined fighter planned". Flight Global. 15 January 2020. Archived from the original on 24 January 2021. Retrieved 4 November 2021.
  87. ^ "DRDO does it again! Watch first-ever successful night-time landing of Naval version of LCA". The Financial Express (India). 13 November 2019. Archived from the original on 9 May 2021. Retrieved 17 July 2021.
  88. ^ a b Siddiqui, Huma (2 December 2019). "Light Combat Aircraft for Indian Navy: DRDO updates naval aircraft's progress". The Financial Express (India). Archived from the original on 8 February 2021. Retrieved 17 July 2021.
  89. ^ Peri, Dinakar (13 July 2020). "Navy to get new carrier-based jet by 2032, to replace MiG-29K". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Archived from the original on 12 January 2021. Retrieved 4 November 2021.
  90. ^ Jennings, Gareth (4 February 2021). "Aero India 2021: Indian TEDBF naval fighter showcased by HAL". Janes.com. Archived from the original on 6 August 2021. Retrieved 9 June 2021.
  91. ^ Chandra, Atul (9 February 2021). "New Delhi forges ahead with new naval fighter, AMCA". Flight Global. Archived from the original on 4 June 2021. Retrieved 9 June 2021.
  92. ^ a b "₹11,096 cr. spent on LCA and Kaveri engine projects so far, says govt". The Hindu. Special Correspondent. 4 March 2020. ISSN 0971-751X. Archived from the original on 24 June 2020. Retrieved 4 November 2021. Of the specified amount, ₹9063.96 crore was spent on LCA and ₹2032 crore on the Kaveri Engine.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  93. ^ Singh, Mayank (13 January 2021). "Biggest indigenous procurement, CCS approves procurement of 83 HAL manufactured fighters costing Rs 45,000 crore". The New Indian Express. Archived from the original on 17 July 2021. Retrieved 17 July 2021. Cabinet...approved procurement of 73 LCA Tejas Mk-1A fighter aircrafts [sic] and 10 LCA Tejas Mk-1 Trainer aircrafts [sic] at the cost of Rs. 45,696 crore along with Design and Development of Infrastructure sanctions worth Rs.1,202 crore.
  94. ^ Shukla, Ajai (11 January 2014). "HAL pegs price of Tejas fighter at Rs 162 crore". Business Standard. Archived from the original on 21 January 2021. Retrieved 17 July 2021.
  95. ^ a b Press Trust of India (25 January 2021). "Several nations have shown interest in buying Tejas aircraft: HAL chairman". Business Standard. Archived from the original on 7 May 2021.
  96. ^ Shukla, Ajai (18 January 2020). "At $43 million each, the Tejas Mark 1A competes in export market". Business Standard. Archived from the original on 12 May 2021. Retrieved 17 July 2021.
  97. ^ "Expect to deliver first Tejas Mark-1A aircraft in 36 months from signing contract: HAL". CNBC TV18. 18 January 2020. Archived from the original on 30 January 2021. Retrieved 24 January 2021.
  98. ^ Philip, Snehesh Alex (4 February 2021). "India looking at Tejas exports at Rs 309 crore per aircraft, HAL chairman says". The Print. Archived from the original on 3 March 2021. Retrieved 27 February 2021.
  99. ^ a b c "This is what makes India's Tejas aircraft unique". The Indian Express. 1 July 2016. Archived from the original on 25 November 2020. Retrieved 5 November 2021.
  100. ^ a b Jackson, Paul (2007). Jane's All the World's Aircraft 2007-2008. Jane's Information Group. p. 246. ISBN 9780710627926.
  101. ^ a b c d Khera, Kishore Kumar (28 October 2020). Combat Aviation: Flight Path 1968-2018. India: K W Publishers. pp. 157–158. ISBN 978-9389137446.
  102. ^ Pandey, B.K (1 July 2016). "Flying Daggers 45 takes wings". www.spsmai.com. SP Guide publications. ISSN 2230-9268. Archived from the original on 6 November 2021. Retrieved 6 November 2021.
  103. ^ Jain, Smriti (20 February 2019). "Aero India 2019: Lethal Make in India BrahMos NG integrated with Tejas! India eyes huge defence exports market". The Financial Express. Archived from the original on 19 January 2021. Retrieved 5 November 2021.
  104. ^ Mathews, Neelam (17 July 2006). "Light Steps: India's LCA may be moving at a sedate pace, but it's progressing nonetheless". Aviation Week & Space Technology. Vol. 165, no. 3. New York. p. 126. ISSN 0005-2175.
  105. ^ Prasad, N. Eswara; Wanhill, R. J. H (11 November 2016). Aerospace Materials and Material Technologies. Springer Singapore. pp. 335–336. ISBN 9789811021343.
  106. ^ "Radiance of the Tejas: The Brawn and Brains of the Light Combat Aircraft (Special Edition)". Vayu Aerospace and Defence Review. 1: 2–3. February 2005. OCLC 62787146.
  107. ^ Dreger, Paul (February 2004). "SE Asia Indigenous Fighter Programmes". Military Technology. Vol. 28, no. 2. Bonne. pp. 28–30. ISSN 0722-3226.
  108. ^ a b c Jackson, Paul; Peacock, Lindsay; Bushell, Susan; Willis, David; Winchester, Jim, eds. (2016–2017). "India". IHS Jane's All the World's Aircraft: Development & Production. Couldson. pp. 302–303. ISBN 978-0710631770.
  109. ^ Prakash, B.G (16 February 2001). "Dreams lighten in LCA". Strategic Affairs. Archived from the original on 4 March 2008. Retrieved 30 June 2014.
  110. ^ Gady, Franz-Stefan (3 August 2018). "Naval Version of India's Tejas Light Combat Aircraft Successfully Tests Arrestor Hook Capability". thediplomat.com. Archived from the original on 9 November 2020. Retrieved 5 November 2021.
  111. ^ "Tejas trainer jet makes smooth flight". Deccan Herald. 27 November 2009. Archived from the original on 24 October 2012. Retrieved 5 November 2021.
  112. ^ a b "BEL delivers critical systems for over 50 LCAs". The New Indian Express. 29 January 2013. Archived from the original on 7 November 2021. Retrieved 7 November 2021.
  113. ^ "DFCC : Amendment Cum Renewal of Type Approval No. 1569" (PDF). Defence Research and Development Organisation. 8 September 2016. Retrieved 7 July 2022.
  114. ^ Somasekhar, M. (10 January 2015). "LCA equipped with electronic warfare suite". Business Line. Archived from the original on 13 May 2021. Retrieved 7 November 2021.
  115. ^ "LCA Tejas successfully testfires Chaff, Flares". The New Indian Express. 3 December 2010. Archived from the original on 7 November 2021. Retrieved 7 November 2021.
  116. ^ G.N, Prashanth (17 October 2013). "Finally, Tejas gets electronic warfare systems". Deccan Herald. Archived from the original on 21 October 2013. Retrieved 7 November 2021.
  117. ^ Deepak, Jaison. "A variety of Electronic Warfare platforms are now available to the IAF". Force Magazine. Archived from the original on 27 May 2021. Retrieved 21 July 2021.
  118. ^ Gady, Franz-Stefan (13 December 2018). "India Selects Israeli Radar and Electronic Warfare Suite For Tejas Light Combat Aircraft". thediplomat.com. Archived from the original on 7 June 2021. Retrieved 7 November 2021.
  119. ^ Peri, Dinakar (13 January 2021). "CCS okays 83 LCAs worth around ₹47,000 cr. for IAF". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Archived from the original on 10 February 2021. Retrieved 7 November 2021.
  120. ^ a b Ghaswalla, Amrita Nair (11 January 2018). "Israel's Rafael eyes larger role in India's defence programme". Businessline. Archived from the original on 11 November 2020. Retrieved 7 November 2021.
  121. ^ Egozi, Arie (17 July 2017). "Rafael targets Indian contract with Litening pod". Flight Global. Archived from the original on 9 November 2020. Retrieved 7 November 2021.
  122. ^ "Pune: DRDO facilities develop pilot escape path clearance system for combat aircraft". The Indian Express. 23 June 2021. Archived from the original on 23 June 2021. Retrieved 6 November 2021.
  123. ^ D’Souza, Pearl Maria (20 September 2019). "LCA Tejas to level up with on-board oxygen system by early 2020, says DRDO". The New Indian Express. Archived from the original on 29 October 2020. Retrieved 21 July 2021.
  124. ^ Kadidal, Akhil (23 February 2019). "Tejas virtual cockpit draws large crowds". Deccan Herald. Archived from the original on 9 July 2021. Retrieved 9 July 2021.
  125. ^ "New Delhi signs off on 83 Tejas fighters". Flight Global. 9 November 2016. Archived from the original on 8 November 2020. Retrieved 7 November 2021.
  126. ^ "Tejas test-fires missile successfully". The Hindu. Special Correspondent. 1 December 2010. ISSN 0971-751X. Archived from the original on 19 October 2021. Retrieved 7 November 2021.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  127. ^ Krishnan, P.S; Narayanan, K.G (2020). Digital Flight Control Systems for Practising Engineers. ISBN 978-81-86514-65-8.
  128. ^ Krishnan M, Anantha (10 November 2018). "Tejas ready for auto low-speed recovery trials". OnManorama. Archived from the original on 6 May 2021. Retrieved 7 November 2021.
  129. ^ a b Bedi, Rahul (15 December 2020). "India Is Still Throwing Good Money at Hopeless Military Programmes". The Wire. Archived from the original on 29 October 2021. Retrieved 19 October 2021.
  130. ^ "HAL signs contract worth Rs 5,375 crore with GE Aviation, for supply of engines for Tejas aircraft". The Financial Express. 17 August 2021. Archived from the original on 30 October 2021. Retrieved 19 October 2021.
  131. ^ a b c Waldron, Greg (18 August 2021). "HAL orders 99 F404 engines to support Tejas production". Flight Global. Archived from the original on 19 August 2021. Retrieved 19 October 2021.
  132. ^ "HAL signs contract worth Rs 5,375 crore for supply of engines for Tejas aircraft". The New Indian Express. 17 August 2021. Archived from the original on 17 August 2021. Retrieved 17 August 2021.
  133. ^ Kumar, Chethan (10 July 2011). "IAF begins establishing first LCA squadron". Deccan Herald. Archived from the original on 20 December 2013. Retrieved 21 July 2021.
  134. ^ Dinakar, Peri (19 May 2020). "We hope to sign the deal for 83 LCA-Mk1A within next three months, says Bhadauria". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 5 June 2021. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
  135. ^ Hoyle, Craig (25 January 2016). "Bahrain debut for export-ready Tejas fighter". Flight Global. Archived from the original on 25 January 2021. Retrieved 19 October 2021.
  136. ^ "Vayu Shakti 2019: IAF's fire power will be demonstrated for the world on Saturday". The Financial Express. 14 February 2019. Archived from the original on 30 October 2021. Retrieved 19 October 2021.
  137. ^ Waldron, Greg (5 April 2019). "How Lima Deployment Marked New High For India's Tejas". FlightGlobal. Archived from the original on 29 September 2020. Retrieved 6 September 2019.
  138. ^ "LCA Tejas adds 5th gen air-to-air missile to its weapons capability". The Hindu. Special Correspondent. 28 April 2021. ISSN 0971-751X. Archived from the original on 22 October 2021. Retrieved 20 October 2021.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  139. ^ ANI (18 August 2020). "IAF deploys LCA Tejas along Pakistan border amid tensions with China". The Print. Archived from the original on 15 January 2021. Retrieved 19 October 2021.
  140. ^ "HAL planning to set up bases in four countries to push exports". The Economic Times. 9 March 2020. Archived from the original on 24 August 2021. Retrieved 21 July 2021.
  141. ^ a b "Argentina reveals talks with India on Tejas. Will ejection seat shoot down a deal?". The Week. 17 October 2021. Archived from the original on 7 January 2022. Retrieved 13 January 2022.
  142. ^ Gonzalo, Mary (14 October 2021). "X. Isaac (Argentina): "La prioridad absoluta está en la búsqueda de un avión de 4º generación"". Infodefensa. Archived from the original on 7 January 2022. Retrieved 13 January 2022.
  143. ^ Dalal, Pazdin (17 October 2021). "Argentina enquires about Tejas". Indian Aerospace Defence News. Archived from the original on 13 January 2022. Retrieved 13 January 2022.
  144. ^ Siddiqui, Huma (6 October 2021). "LCA could be a good option for Argentine Air Force, says a source". Financial Express. Archived from the original on 19 October 2021. Retrieved 13 January 2022.
  145. ^ Shukla, Ajai (17 November 2021). "Eye on export markets, Tejas debuts in Dubai". Business Standard India. Archived from the original on 19 November 2021. Retrieved 13 January 2022.
  146. ^ Waldron, Greg (3 November 2020). "UK shoots down Argentine FA-50 deal". Flight Global. Archived from the original on 9 May 2021. Retrieved 13 January 2022.
  147. ^ "Argentina's purchase of Korean fighters falls through: UK's arms embargo". Merco Press. 23 June 2021. Archived from the original on 11 January 2022. Retrieved 13 January 2022.
  148. ^ Banerjee, Aritra (21 September 2021). "Did Pakistan's JF-17 Thunder Beat Indian HAL Tejas To Win Argentine Fighter Jet Contract?". The Eurasian Times. Archived from the original on 20 November 2021. Retrieved 13 January 2022.
  149. ^ "India ofrece sus aviones LCA Tejas Mk1A a Argentina con la posibilidad de reemplazar componentes". Zonamilitar. 18 November 2021. Archived from the original on 20 November 2021. Retrieved 13 January 2022.
  150. ^ "Argentina eyes $664 million for fighter jets". Defensenews.com. Retrieved 24 September 2022.
  151. ^ "India offers LCA Tejas for RAAF trainer requirement". Times Aerospace. 4 October 2021. Archived from the original on 14 January 2022. Retrieved 14 January 2022.
  152. ^ a b "58th Annual Report 2020-21" (PDF). Hindustan Aeronautics Limited. 30 August 2021. Archived (PDF) from the original on 29 October 2021. Retrieved 14 January 2022.
  153. ^ Satam, Parth (10 September 2021). "India Pitches Its HAL Tejas Fighter Jets To Australia; Pins Hope On Malaysia For The 1st Elusive Contract". The Eurasian Times. Archived from the original on 15 January 2022. Retrieved 14 January 2022.
  154. ^ "StackPath". dailynewsegypt.com.
  155. ^ Pubby, Manu. "India offers to set up production facilities for light combat aircraft, helicopters in Egypt" – via The Economic Times.
  156. ^ Siddiqui, Huma (21 July 2021). "HAL is all set to respond to Royal Malaysian Air Force's RfP for LCA". The Financial Express. Archived from the original on 13 January 2022. Retrieved 13 January 2022.
  157. ^ "IAF's LCA-Tejas fighter jets steal the show at LIMA 2019 in Malaysia". Zee News. 27 March 2019. Archived from the original on 13 January 2022. Retrieved 13 January 2022.
  158. ^ Philip, Snehesh Alex (18 November 2019). "HAL eyes first foreign sale of Tejas as Malaysian air force shortlists contenders". The Print. Archived from the original on 4 November 2021. Retrieved 15 January 2022.
  159. ^ Neo, Pearly (16 August 2020). "'Getting back to normal': Malaysia-India palm oil trade back on track due to better prices, food security needs". Food navigator-asia.com. Archived from the original on 11 August 2021. Retrieved 15 January 2022.
  160. ^ Jadhav, Rajendra; Thukral, Naveen (19 May 2020). "Exclusive: India resumes purchases of Malaysian palm oil - traders". Reuters. Archived from the original on 18 November 2021. Retrieved 15 January 2022.
  161. ^ "India resumes purchases of Malaysian palm oil: Traders". The Economic Times. 19 May 2020. Archived from the original on 25 August 2021. Retrieved 15 January 2022.
  162. ^ "Malaysian PM interacts with HAL, IAF teams at LIMA '19". ANI News. 27 March 2019. Archived from the original on 28 March 2019. Retrieved 15 January 2022.
  163. ^ Dar, Younis (7 April 2021). "Tejas Jets: Malaysia Gets Serious About LCA Tejas; To Visit India for Full Evaluation". The Eurasian Times. Archived from the original on 23 July 2021. Retrieved 15 January 2022.
  164. ^ Shukla, Ajai (9 January 2019). "Malaysia shows interest in India's Tejas fighter jets, may buy 30 of them". Business Standard India. Archived from the original on 24 September 2019. Retrieved 15 January 2022.
  165. ^ Mahadzir, Dzirhan (22 June 2021). "Malaysia puts pen to paper for LCA tender". Shephard Media. Archived from the original on 10 January 2022. Retrieved 13 January 2022.
  166. ^ "Malaysia to Formally Launch Fighter Lead In Trainer-Light Combat Aircraft (FLIT/LCA) Tender". MilitaryLeak. 22 June 2021. Archived from the original on 10 January 2022. Retrieved 13 January 2022.
  167. ^ a b Barrock, Jose (18 October 2021). "Six companies bidding for RMAF LCA contract". The Edge Markets. Archived from the original on 10 January 2022. Retrieved 13 January 2022.
  168. ^ Venckunas, Valius (19 October 2021). "Reports on Malaysian fighter jet tender: Tejas in, JF-17 out". Aerotime Hub. Archived from the original on 13 December 2021. Retrieved 15 January 2022.
  169. ^ "Six contenders for Royal Malaysian Air Force light combat aircraft tender". Air Recognition. 19 October 2021. Archived from the original on 11 January 2022. Retrieved 15 January 2022.
  170. ^ Parkaran, K. (16 July 2021). "Mandatory for 50% of aircraft deal to be in palm oil barter". Free Malaysia Today. Archived from the original on 15 January 2022. Retrieved 15 January 2022.
  171. ^ Dalal, Pazdin (7 September 2021). "MMTC to buy Palm Oil for LCA-Tejas barter deal with Malaysia: HAL". Indian Aerospace Defence News. Archived from the original on 6 November 2021. Retrieved 15 January 2022.
  172. ^ Socka, Sherman (1 December 2021). "LETTER | RMAF purchase of Light Combat Aircraft to bolster defence industry". Malaysiakini. Archived from the original on 10 January 2022. Retrieved 15 January 2022.
  173. ^ "LCA tender in Malaysia, new government requirement benefits HAL Tejas". Blog Before Flight. 2 December 2021. Archived from the original on 2 December 2021. Retrieved 15 January 2022.
  174. ^ "HAL Tejas now has more chances than ever to win Malaysian LCA tender: Report". The Frontier Vedette. 9 December 2021. Archived from the original on 15 January 2022. Retrieved 15 January 2022.
  175. ^ "Malaysia likely to purchase Tejas aircraft from India". Free Malaysia Today. 4 July 2022. Retrieved 7 July 2022.
  176. ^ "Philippines eyes India's Tejas fighter jet – reports". www.aerotime.aero.
  177. ^ Venckunas, Valius (7 July 2022). "PAF drops Tejas, keeps F-16 and Gripen in fighter jet tender". Aerotime. Retrieved 9 July 2022.
  178. ^ "Sri Lanka, Egypt evince interest in Tejas". The Economic Times. 14 July 2018. Archived from the original on 22 May 2021. Retrieved 21 July 2021.
  179. ^ Grevatt, Jon (15 August 2016). "Sri Lanka prepares to launch combat aircraft procurement program". Janes Information Services. Archived from the original on 18 March 2017. Retrieved 9 February 2017.
  180. ^ Fernando, Asiri (6 January 2021). "Govt. green-lights $ 49 m fighter jet overhaul as No. 10 Squadron turns 25". Daily FT. Archived from the original on 11 April 2021. Retrieved 9 January 2021.
  181. ^ Gurung, Shaurya Karanbir (17 October 2018). "UAE 'interested' in HAL-made light combat aircraft Tejas". The Economic Times. Archived from the original on 9 November 2020. Retrieved 13 January 2022.
  182. ^ "Royal Emirati Snub For Make In India Weapons: After Akash Missiles, Did The UAE Turn A Blind Eye To LCA Tejas Fighters?". Latest Asian, Middle-East, EurAsian, Indian News. 28 February 2022.
  183. ^ Pubby, Manu (9 December 2020). "Role reversal: India offers US fighter jet trainer in 1st major defence sales pitch". The Economic Times. Archived from the original on 14 January 2022. Retrieved 14 January 2022.
  184. ^ a b "India offers LCA Tejas trainer variant to US Navy: Report". The Week. 9 December 2020. Archived from the original on 24 June 2021. Retrieved 14 January 2022.
  185. ^ Sharma, Aakriti (10 December 2020). "LCA Tejas For The US Navy - India Pitches Its Light Combat Aircraft To The US To Replace Its Ageing T-45 Goshawks". The Eurasian Times. Archived from the original on 11 December 2020. Retrieved 14 January 2022.
  186. ^ Kalita, Jayanta (12 August 2021). "HAL Tejas Fails To Impress US Navy; Washington Likely To Sideline Indian Jet For Boeing, Lockheed Trainer Aircraft". The Eurasian Times. Archived from the original on 13 August 2021. Retrieved 14 January 2022.
  187. ^ Newdick, Thomas (10 August 2021). "These Contenders Are Vying To Replace The Navy's T-45 Goshawk With A New Jet Trainer". The Drive. Archived from the original on 14 January 2022. Retrieved 14 January 2022.
  188. ^ "After US Navy, LCA trainer variant offered to Australia: HAL". The Week. 8 September 2021. Archived from the original on 14 January 2022. Retrieved 14 January 2022.
  189. ^ Sagar, Pradip R (5 January 2021). "20 years since LCA Tejas's first flight: What's next for India's indigenous fighter programme?". The Week. Archived from the original on 5 March 2021. Retrieved 21 July 2021.
  190. ^ Rajkumar, Philip; Srikanth, B.R (2021). Radiance in Indian Skies - The Tejas saga. Desidoc. p. 15. ISBN 9788186514788.
  191. ^ "Tejas trainer PV6 completes first flight". www.spsmai.com. SP Guide publications. 16 November 2014. ISSN 2230-9268. Archived from the original on 19 October 2021. Retrieved 19 October 2021.
  192. ^ Katoch, P.C (18 June 2020). "Indigenous Fighter Jet for Navy". www.sps-aviation.com. SP Guide Publications. ISSN 2230-9225. OCLC 70225772. Archived from the original on 25 January 2021. Retrieved 19 October 2021.
  193. ^ a b Warwick, Graham (19 June 2008). "India flies another Tejas". Aviation Week & Space Technology. Archived from the original on 10 May 2011. Retrieved 30 June 2014.
  194. ^ "Tejas test-fires missile successfully". The Hindu. 1 December 2010. ISSN 0971-751X. Archived from the original on 20 October 2021. Retrieved 19 October 2021.
  195. ^ Shukla, Ajai (5 June 2010). "Tejas boosts test programme". Business Standard India. Archived from the original on 14 June 2013. Retrieved 8 November 2021.
  196. ^ Krishnan M, Anantha (1 November 2010). "India To Fly Tejas LSP-5 Soon". Aviation Week & Space Technology. Archived from the original on 10 May 2011. Retrieved 30 June 2014.
  197. ^ "Tejas LSP-7 does its maiden flight". The Economic Times. 9 March 2012. Archived from the original on 19 October 2021. Retrieved 19 October 2021.
  198. ^ Unnithan, Sandeep (31 July 2020). "Orders for 83 LCA Tejas Mark 1A jets likely before December". India Today. Archived from the original on 31 July 2020. Retrieved 31 July 2020.
  199. ^ Chopra, Anil (30 November 2020). "Turnaround of the IAF fighter fleet". Indian Defence Review. Vol. 35. New York: Lancer Publishers LLC. pp. 37–38. ISBN 9781940988535.
  200. ^ "Advanced version of Tejas light combat aircraft makes its debut flight". Hindustan Times. 18 March 2020. Archived from the original on 30 April 2021. Retrieved 8 November 2021.
  201. ^ "India offers LCA Tejas trainer variant to US Navy: Report". The Week. 31 January 2021. Archived from the original on 22 September 2021. Retrieved 21 July 2021.
  202. ^ "Tejas Mark II to roll out next year; high-speed trials in 2023: HAL Chief Madhavan". The Hindu. 31 January 2021. ISSN 0971-751X. Archived from the original on 27 July 2021. Retrieved 17 July 2021.
  203. ^ "Tejas Mk-II: India may avail consultancy from European manufacturers who bid for MMRCA deal". The Economic Times. 11 July 2018. Archived from the original on 28 March 2020. Retrieved 21 July 2021.
  204. ^ Peri, Dinakar (31 January 2019). "IAF chief flags delays in manufacture of equipment". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Archived from the original on 8 November 2020. Retrieved 19 October 2021.
  205. ^ a b c Joe, Rick (11 October 2021). "A Tale of 2 Navies: India and China's Carrier Airwing Development". thediplomat.com. Archived from the original on 24 October 2021. Retrieved 19 October 2021.
  206. ^ Siddiqui, Huma (15 January 2021). "More strength to the Indian Air Force; 83 indigenous fighters will soon join IAF". The Financial Express. Archived from the original on 26 February 2021. Retrieved 15 February 2021.
  207. ^ Som, Vishnu (5 January 2020). "NDTV Exclusive: First Look At Futuristic Variant Of India's Tejas Fighter". NDTV.com. Archived from the original on 11 January 2020. Retrieved 15 February 2021.
  208. ^ Chandra, Atul (4 February 2021). "HAL unveils ambitious air-teaming system centred on Tejas". Flight Global. Archived from the original on 3 June 2021. Retrieved 5 June 2021.
  209. ^ Parakala, Akshara (5 February 2021). "Aero India 2021: HAL's loyal wingmen break cover". Janes. Archived from the original on 7 June 2021. Retrieved 12 March 2021.
  210. ^ "Navy rules out deploying 'overweight' Tejas on aircraft carriers". Indian Express Limited. 2 December 2016. Archived from the original on 21 February 2020. Retrieved 21 July 2021.
  211. ^ "MIG-21 Aircraft". PIB. Archived from the original on 20 December 2021. Retrieved 21 December 2021.
  212. ^ Siddiqui, Huma (2 February 2021). "Boost for Made in India! 2nd production line for LCA inaugurated; Will speed up production of fighter jets". The Financial Express. Archived from the original on 6 May 2021. Retrieved 21 July 2021.
  213. ^ a b Pandit, Rajat (24 February 2022). "India gets first batch of Rafales with country-specific enhancements". The Times of India. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  214. ^ "Govt formally seals ₹48,000 crore deal to procure 83 Tejas LCA from HAL". The Hindu. PTI. 3 February 2021. ISSN 0971-751X. Archived from the original on 21 February 2021. Retrieved 3 February 2021.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  215. ^ Sathish, Deepak (27 May 2020). "Second squadron of Tejas fighter jets inducted into Indian Air Force at Sulur air base". The New Indian Express. Archived from the original on 19 October 2021. Retrieved 19 October 2021.
  216. ^ Mohan, Vijay (22 November 2017). "PVC recipient Sekhon's squadron to fly again". The Tribune. Archived from the original on 23 November 2017. Retrieved 23 November 2017.
  217. ^ Krishnan M, Anantha (27 February 2020). "We will Air Chief Marshal Bhadauria interview: 'We will expand operational utility of Tejas'tional utility of Tejas: Air Chief Marshal Bhadauria". OnManorama. Archived from the original on 21 July 2021. Retrieved 21 July 2021.
  218. ^ "Leading particulars and performance." tejas.gov.in. Retrieved 19 December 2017. Archived 21 December 2017 at the Wayback Machine
  219. ^ "DRDO TechFocus." Archived 22 March 2011 at the Wayback Machine DRDO, February 2011. Retrieved 10 December 2012.
  220. ^ a b c d Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (19 November 2020). "LCA | Series Production Phase". hal-india.co.in. Archived from the original on 5 June 2020. Retrieved 19 November 2020.
  221. ^ "F404 turbofan engines" (PDF). GE Aviation. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 November 2021. Retrieved 17 October 2021.
  222. ^ a b "Pictures: India's Tejas receives initial operational clearance". FlightGlobal.com. 26 December 2013. Archived from the original on 13 November 2017.
  223. ^ "ADA LCA Air Force Mark 1- 'Tejas' - Specifications". Aeronautical Development Agency. Archived from the original on 28 August 2021. Retrieved 17 October 2021.
  224. ^ "MIG-21 v/s. TEJAS :- Can Tejas replace MIG-21 and is it better than it?". AeroJournalIndia. 4 June 2019. Archived from the original on 13 January 2021. Retrieved 22 September 2020.
  225. ^ a b c "Tejas Trials: Tejas Light Combat Aircraft Enters Key Test Phase". Aviation Week & Space Technology. Vol. 173, no. 17. New York: Informa. 11 April 2011. pp. 26–27. ISSN 0005-2175.
  226. ^ "India moves towards broad adoption of ASRAAM". FlightGlobal. 23 August 2019. Archived from the original on 14 September 2019. Retrieved 7 September 2019.
  227. ^ Alex Philip, Snehesh (15 December 2020). "India working on next 'Astra' missile with 160 km range as Mk1 is integrated in IAF & Navy". ThePrint. Archived from the original on 16 November 2021. Retrieved 16 November 2021.
  228. ^ "IAF to get Made in India jets: Know more about the LCA 'Tejas' Mk1A". Financial Express. 18 March 2020. Archived from the original on 19 March 2020. Retrieved 22 September 2020.
  229. ^ "IAF boosts LCA Tejas capabilities with French HAMMER missiles under emergency powers". ANI. 16 November 2021. Archived from the original on 16 November 2021. Retrieved 16 November 2021.
  230. ^ "BrahMos to make a generational leap, become lighter, faster and more lethal supersonic cruise missile". Zee News. 22 February 2019. Archived from the original on 11 May 2021. Retrieved 10 May 2021.
  231. ^ Mallikarjun, Y. (17 February 2016). "Captive flight trials of anti-radiation missile soon". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Archived from the original on 14 October 2021. Retrieved 8 November 2021.
  232. ^ "Tejas Mark II to have ability to conduct Balakot-like operations". Hindustan Times. 19 March 2020. Archived from the original on 29 July 2020. Retrieved 10 August 2020.
  233. ^ "Indian LCA combat aircraft now being armed with American JDAM precision bombing kits/". ANI Digital. 29 March 2022.
  234. ^ "Indigenous Sensor, Weapons & EW Suite for LCA Tejas and Air Independent Propulsion for submarines to be showcased". PIB India. 22 January 2022. Retrieved 22 January 2022.
  235. ^ "HAL to hike Tejas output as India approves order". Flight International. Vol. 190, no. 5563. London. 15–21 November 2016. p. 20. ISSN 0015-3710.
  236. ^ "LCA Tejas successfully testfires Chaff, Flares". The New Indian Express. 3 December 2010. Retrieved 6 July 2022.
  237. ^ "Tejas fighter to get indigenous Laser Designator Pod to target the enemy". Zee News. 22 January 2019. Retrieved 6 July 2022.
  238. ^ "EXCLUSIVE: How A Secretive DRDO Lab Is Saving The IAF Su-30MKI". Livefist. 16 February 2017. Retrieved 6 July 2022.
  239. ^ Majumdar, Sayan (September–October 2014). "Tejas Redux: The Israeli Touch". Vayu Aerospace and Defence Review. No. 5. Society for Aerospace Studies. pp. 82–84.
  240. ^ Withington, Thomas (22 January 2020). "Enhancing the Force". Armada International. Retrieved 7 July 2022.
  241. ^ "Aatmanirbhar Bharat by HAL" (PDF). Hindustan Aeronautics Limited. Retrieved 6 July 2022.

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]

Features and analysis:

Technical:

General: