Page extended-protected

Kurdish languages

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from ISO 639:kur)
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Kurdî / کوردی
Kurdish Language.svg
Native toTurkey, Iraq, Iran, Syria, Armenia, Azerbaijan
RegionKurdistan, Anatolia, Caucasus, Khorasan, Kurdish diaspora
Native speakers
c. 20–30 million (2000–2010 est.)[1]
Standard forms
Hawar alphabet (Latin script; used mostly in Turkey and Syria)
Sorani alphabet
(Perso-Arabic script; used mostly in Iraq and Iran)
Cyrillic alphabet (former Soviet Union)
Armenian alphabet (1921-29 in Soviet Armenia)[4][5][6]
Official status
Official language in
 Iraq[7][a]  Rojava[9][10]
Recognised minority
language in
Language codes
ISO 639-1ku
ISO 639-2kur
ISO 639-3kur – inclusive code
Individual codes:
ckb – Sorani
kmr – Kurmanji
sdh – Southern Kurdish
lki – Laki language
Linguasphere58-AAA-a (North Kurdish incl. Kurmanji & Kurmanjiki) + 58-AAA-b (Central Kurdish incl. Dimli/Zaza & Gurani) + 58-AAA-c (South Kurdish incl. Kurdi)
Idioma kurdo.PNG
Map of Kurdish-speaking areas of West Asia
Kurdish languages map.svg
Geographic distribution of Kurdish dialects and other Iranian languages spoken by Kurds
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

The Kurdish languages (Kurmanji Kurdish: Zimanê kurdî,[12] Sorani Kurdish: زمانی کوردی‎,[13] Southern Kurdish: زوان کوردی[14]) constitute a dialect continuum,[15] belonging to the Iranian language family, spoken by Kurds in the geo-cultural region of Kurdistan and the Kurdish diaspora. The three Kurdish languages are Northern Kurdish (Kurmanji), Central Kurdish (Sorani), and Southern Kurdish (Xwarîn).

A separate group of non-Kurdish Northwestern Iranian languages, the Zaza–Gorani languages, are also spoken by several million ethnic Kurds.[16][17][18] The majority of the Kurds speak Kurmanji.[19][20] Most Kurdish texts are written in Kurmanji and Sorani. Kurmanji is written in the Hawar alphabet, a derivation of the Latin script, and Sorani is written in the Sorani alphabet, a derivation of Arabic script.

The classification of Laki as a dialect of Southern Kurdish or as a fourth language under Kurdish is a matter of debate,[3] but the differences between Laki and other Southern Kurdish dialects are minimal.[21]

The literary output in Kurdish was mostly confined to poetry until the early 20th century, when more general literature became developed. Today, the two principal written Kurdish dialects are Kurmanji and Sorani. Sorani is, along with Arabic, one of the two official languages of Iraq and is in political documents simply referred to as "Kurdish".[22][23]

Classification and origin

The Kurdish languages belong to the Iranian branch of the Indo-European family. They are generally classified as Northwestern Iranian languages, or by some scholars as intermediate between Northwestern and Southwestern Iranian.[24] Martin van Bruinessen notes that "Kurdish has a strong south-western Iranian element", whereas "Zaza and Gurani [...] do belong to the north-west Iranian group".[25]

Ludwig Paul concludes that Kurdish seems to be a Northwestern Iranian language in origin,[15] but acknowledges that it shares many traits with Southwestern Iranian languages like Persian, apparently due to longstanding and intense historical contacts.

Windfuhr identified Kurdish dialects as Parthian, albeit with a Median substratum. Windfuhr and Frye assume an eastern origin for Kurdish and consider it as related to eastern and central Iranian dialects.[26][27]

The present state of knowledge about Kurdish allows, at least roughly, drawing the approximate borders of the areas where the main ethnic core of the speakers of the contemporary Kurdish dialects was formed. The most argued hypothesis on the localisation of the ethnic territory of the Kurds remains D.N. Mackenzie's theory, proposed in the early 1960s (Mackenzie 1961). Developing the ideas of P. Tedesco (1921: 255) and regarding the common phonetic isoglosses shared by Kurdish, Persian, and Baluchi, Mackenzie concluded that the speakers of these three languages may once have been in closer contact.


Kurdish is divided into three or four groups, where dialects from different groups are not mutually intelligible without acquired bilingualism.[28][29]

In historical evolution terms, Kurmanji is less modified than Sorani and Pehlewani in both phonetic and morphological structure. The Sorani group has been influenced by among other things its closer cultural proximity to the other languages spoken by Kurds in the region including the Gorani language in parts of Iranian Kurdistan and Iraqi Kurdistan.[30][34] The Kermanshahi group has been influenced by among other things its closer cultural proximity to Persian.[35]

Philip G. Kreyenbroek, an expert writing in 1992, says:[30]

Since 1932 most Kurds have used the Roman script to write Kurmanji.... Sorani is normally written in an adapted form of the Arabic script.... Reasons for describing Kurmanji and Sorani as 'dialects' of one language are their common origin and the fact that this usage reflects the sense of ethnic identity and unity among the Kurds. From a linguistic or at least a grammatical point of view, however, Kurmanji and Sorani differ as much from each other as English and German, and it would seem appropriate to refer to them as languages. For example, Sorani has neither gender nor case-endings, whereas Kurmanji has both.... Differences in vocabulary and pronunciation are not as great as between German and English, but they are still considerable.

According to Encyclopaedia of Islam, although Kurdish is not a unified language, its many dialects are interrelated and at the same time distinguishable from other Western Iranian languages. The same source classifies different Kurdish dialects as two main groups, northern and central.[34] The reality is that the average Kurmanji speaker does not find it easy to communicate with the inhabitants of Sulaymaniyah or Halabja.[29]

Some linguistic scholars assert that the term "Kurdish" has been applied extrinsically in describing the language the Kurds speak, whereas some ethnic Kurds have used the word term to simply describe their ethnicity and refer to their language as Kurmanji, Sorani, Hewrami, Kermanshahi, Kalhori or whatever other dialect or language they speak. Some historians have noted that it is only recently that the Kurds who speak the Sorani dialect have begun referring to their language as Kurdî, in addition to their identity, which is translated to simply mean Kurdish.[36]

Mokriani dialect of Central Kurdish is widely spoken in Mokrian. Piranshahr and Mahabad are two principal cities of the Mokrian dialect area.[37]

Zazaki and Gorani

Zaza–Gorani languages, which are spoken by communities in the wider area who identify as ethnic Kurds, are not linguistically classified as Kurdish.[16][17][18] Zaza-Gorani is classified as adjunct to Kurdish, although authorities differ in the details. Windfuhr (2009)[page needed] groups Kurdish with Zaza Gorani within a "Northwestern I" group, while Glottolog based on Encyclopædia Iranica prefers an areal grouping of "Central dialects" (or "Kermanic") within Northwest Iranic, with Kurdish but not Zaza-Gorani grouped with "Kermanic".[38]

Gorani is distinct from Northern and Central Kurdish, yet shares vocabulary with both of them and there are some grammatical similarities with Central Kurdish.[39] The Hawrami dialects of Gorani includes a variety that was an important literary language since the 14th century, but it was replaced by Central Kurdish in the 20th century.[40]

European scholars have maintained that Gorani is separate from Kurdish and that Kurdish is synonymous with the Northern Kurdish group, whereas ethnic Kurds maintain that Kurdish encompasses any of the unique languages or dialects spoken by Kurds that are not spoken by neighbouring ethnic groups.[41]

Gorani is classified as part of the Zaza–Gorani branch of Indo-Iranian languages.[42] The Zaza language, spoken mainly in Turkey, differs both grammatically and in vocabulary and is generally not understandable by Gorani speakers but it is considered related to Gorani. Almost all Zaza-speaking communities,[43] as well as speakers of the closely related Shabaki dialect spoken in parts of Iraqi Kurdistan, identify themselves as ethnic Kurds.[16][44][45][46][47][48]

Geoffrey Haig and Ergin Öpengin in their recent study suggest grouping the Kurdish languages into Northern Kurdish, Central Kurdish, Southern Kurdish, Zaza, and Gorani, and avoid the subgrouping Zaza–Gorani.[49]

The notable professor Zare Yusupova, has carried out a lot of work and research into the Gorani dialect (as well as many other minority/ancient Kurdish dialects).[50]


During his stay in Damascus, historian Ibn Wahshiyya came across two books on agriculture written in Kurdish, one on the culture of the vine and the palm tree, and the other on water and the means of finding it out in unknown ground. He translated both from Kurdish into Arabic in the early 9th century AD.[51]

Among the earliest Kurdish religious texts is the Yazidi Black Book, the sacred book of Yazidi faith. It is considered to have been authored sometime in the 13th century AD by Hassan bin Adi (b. 1195 AD), the great-grandnephew of Sheikh Adi ibn Musafir (d. 1162), the founder of the faith. It contains the Yazidi account of the creation of the world, the origin of man, the story of Adam and Eve and the major prohibitions of the faith.[52] From the 15th to 17th centuries, classical Kurdish poets and writers developed a literary language. The most notable classical Kurdish poets from this period were Ali Hariri, Ahmad Khani, Malaye Jaziri and Faqi Tayran.

The Italian priest Maurizio Garzoni published the first Kurdish grammar titled Grammatica e Vocabolario della Lingua Kurda in Rome in 1787 after eighteen years of missionary work among the Kurds of Amadiya.[53] This work is very important in Kurdish history as it is the first acknowledgment of the widespread use of a distinctive Kurdish language. Garzoni was given the title Father of Kurdology by later scholars.[54] The Kurdish language was banned in a large portion of Kurdistan for some time. After the 1980 Turkish coup d'état until 1991 the use of the Kurdish language was illegal in Turkey.[55]

Current status

Road signs near Diyarbakır showing the place names in Turkish and Kurdish

Today, Sorani is an official language in Iraq. In Syria, on the other hand, publishing materials in Kurdish is forbidden,[56] though this prohibition is not enforced any more due to the Syrian civil war.[57]

Before August 2002, the Turkish government placed severe restrictions on the use of Kurdish, prohibiting the language in education and broadcast media.[58][59] In March 2006, Turkey allowed private television channels to begin airing programming in Kurdish. However, the Turkish government said that they must avoid showing children's cartoons, or educational programs that teach Kurdish, and could broadcast only for 45 minutes a day or four hours a week.[60] The state-run Turkish Radio and Television Corporation (TRT) started its 24-hour Kurdish television station on 1 January 2009 with the motto "we live under the same sky".[61] The Turkish Prime Minister sent a video message in Kurdish to the opening ceremony, which was attended by Minister of Culture and other state officials. The channel uses the X, W, and Q letters during broadcasting. However, most of these restrictions on private Kurdish television channels were relaxed in September 2009.[62] In 2010, Kurdish municipalities in the southeast began printing marriage certificates, water bills, construction and road signs, as well as emergency, social and cultural notices in Kurdish alongside Turkish. Also Imams began to deliver Friday sermons in Kurdish and Esnaf price tags in Kurdish. Many mayors were tried for issuing public documents in Kurdish language.[63] The Kurdish alphabet is not recognized in Turkey, and prior to 2013 the use of Kurdish names containing the letters X, W, and Q, which do not exist in the Turkish alphabet, was not allowed.[64][65] In 2012, Kurdish-language lessons became an elective subject in public schools. Previously, Kurdish education had only been possible in private institutions.[66]

In Iran, though it is used in some local media and newspapers, it is not used in public schools.[67][68] In 2005, 80 Iranian Kurds took part in an experiment and gained scholarships to study in Kurdish in Iraqi Kurdistan.[69]

In Kyrgyzstan, 96.21% of the Kurdish population speak Kurdish as their native language.[70] In Kazakhstan, the corresponding percentage is 88.7%.[71]



Writing system

Kurdish restaurant sign in West Yorkshire, England written in Arabic script

The Kurdish language has been written using four different writing systems. In Iraq and Iran it is written using an Arabic script, composed by Sa'id Kaban Sedqi. More recently, it is sometimes written with a Latin alphabet in Iraq. In Turkey, Syria, and Armenia, it is now written using a Latin script. Kurdish was also written in the Arabic script in Turkey and Syria until 1932. There is a proposal for a unified international recognized Kurdish alphabet based on ISO-8859-1[72] called Yekgirtú. Kurdish in the former USSR is written with a Cyrillic alphabet. Kurdish has even been written in the Armenian alphabet in Soviet Armenia and in the Ottoman Empire (a translation of the Gospels in 1857[73] and of all New Testament in 1872).

See also


  1. ^ Official at state level


  1. ^ SIL Ethnologue gives estimates, broken down by dialect group, totalling 31 million, but with the caveat of "Very provisional figures for Northern Kurdish speaker population". Ethnologue estimates for dialect groups: Northern: 20.2M (undated; 15M in Turkey for 2009), Central: 6.75M (2009), Southern: 3M (2000), Laki: 1M (2000). The Swedish Nationalencyklopedin listed Kurdish in its "Världens 100 största språk 2007" (The World's 100 Largest Languages in 2007), citing an estimate of 20.6 million native speakers.
  2. ^ Hassanpour, Amir (1992). Nationalism and language in Kurdistan, 1918-1985. San Francisco: Mellen Research University Press. ISBN 9780773498167.
  3. ^ a b "Atlas of the Languages of Iran A working classification". Languages of Iran. Retrieved 25 May 2019.
  4. ^ MacCagg, William O.; Silver, Brian D., eds. (1979). Soviet Asian Ethnic Frontiers. Pergamon Press. p. 94. ISBN 9780080246376. Since the most active Soviet Kurdish center has been and continues to be Yerevan, the first alphabet used for publishing Kurdish in the USSR was the Armenian alphabet.
  5. ^ Курдский язык (in Russian). Krugosvet. ...в Армении на основе русского алфавита с 1946 (с 1921 на основе армянской графики, с 1929 на основе латиницы).
  6. ^ Khamoyan, M. (1986). "Քրդերեն [Kurdish language]". Soviet Armenian Encyclopedia Volume 12 (in Armenian). p. 492. ...գրկ. լույս է տեսնում 1921-ից հայկ., 1929-ից՝ լատ., 1946-ից՝ ռուս. այբուբենով...
  7. ^ "Iraq's Constitution of 2005" (PDF). p. 4. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  8. ^ "Kurdistan: Constitution of the Iraqi Kurdistan Region". Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  9. ^ "Social Contract - Sa-Nes". Self-Administration of North & East Syria Representation in Benelux. Archived from the original on 9 December 2018. Retrieved 22 March 2019.
  10. ^ "Rojava could be a model for all Syria". Salih Muslim. Nationalita. 29 July 2014. Retrieved 22 March 2019.
  11. ^ Pavlenko, Aneta (2008). Multilingualism in post-Soviet countries. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters. pp. 18–22. ISBN 978-1-84769-087-6.
  12. ^ Khalid, Hewa Salam (November 2019). "Zimanê kurdî, malbat û zarên wî". International Journal of Kurdiname (in Kurdish) (1). Retrieved 1 December 2020.
  13. ^ ئەمین, هاشم (10 June 2017). "زمانی فەرمی و پێگەى زمانی کوردى لەنێو زمانە جیهانییەکاندا". Journal of University of Human Development (in Kurdish). 3 (2): 172–187. doi:10.21928/juhd.20170610.07. Retrieved 1 December 2020.
  14. ^ "آثار دو نویسنده ایلامی در دبیرستانها تدریس می‌شود". Ilam Today (in Persian and Kurdish). Retrieved 4 April 2021.
  15. ^ a b Paul, Ludwig (2008). "Kurdish language I. History of the Kurdish language". In Yarshater, Ehsan (ed.). Encyclopædia Iranica. London and New York: Routledge. Archived from the original on 4 December 2011. Retrieved 28 August 2013.
  16. ^ a b c Kaya, Mehmet. The Zaza Kurds of Turkey: A Middle Eastern Minority in a Globalised Society. ISBN 1-84511-875-8
  17. ^ a b "Languages of the Middle East". Archived from the original on 18 January 2012. Retrieved 23 December 2011.
  18. ^ a b McDowall, David (14 May 2004). A Modern History of the Kurds: Third Edition - David McDowall - Google Books. ISBN 9781850434160. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
  19. ^ "Kurmanji". Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 24 February 2016.
  20. ^ "Kurmanji Kurdish" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 24 February 2016.
  21. ^ "Lak Tribe". Iranica Online. Retrieved 25 May 2019.
  22. ^ Allison, Christine. The Yezidi oral tradition in Iraqi Kurdistan. 2001. "However, it was the southern dialect of Kurdish, Sorani, the majority language of the Iraqi Kurds, which received sanction as an official language of Iraq."
  23. ^ "Kurdish language issue and a divisive approach". Kurdish Academy of Language. Archived from the original on 17 October 2015.
  24. ^ Gernot Windfuhr, ed., 2009. The Iranian Languages. Routledge.
  25. ^ Bruinessen, M.M. van. (1994). Kurdish nationalism and competing ethnic loyalties Archived 12 November 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  26. ^ Windfuhr, Gernot (1975), "Isoglosses: A Sketch on Persians and Parthians, Kurds and Medes", Monumentum H.S. Nyberg II (Acta Iranica-5), Leiden: 457-471
  27. ^ Frye, Richard N. (1984). Handbuch der Altertumswissenschaft: Alter Orient-Griechische Geschichte-Römische Geschichte. Band III,7: The History of Ancient Iran. C.H.Beck. pp. 29. ISBN 9783406093975.
  28. ^ Hassanpour, A. (1992). Nationalism and language in Kurdistan. San Francisco: Mellon Press. Also mentioned in: Archived 9 July 2016 at the Wayback Machine
  29. ^ a b Postgate, J.N., Languages of Iraq, ancient and modern, [Iraq]: British School of Archaeology in Iraq, 2007, ISBN 978-0-903472-21-0, p.139
  30. ^ a b c Philip G. Kreyenbroek, "On the Kurdish Language", a chapter in the book The Kurds: A Contemporary Overview. The book is previewable at Google Book Search.
  31. ^ Joyce Blau, Methode de Kurde: Sorani, Editions L'Harmattan (2000), p. 20
  32. ^ Tavadze, Givi (2019). "Spreading of the Kurdish Language Dialects and Writing Systems Used in the Middle East" (PDF). Bulletin of the Georgian National Academy of Sciences: 172.
  33. ^ Erik Anonby, Mortaza Taheri-Ardali & Amos Hayes (2019) The Atlas of the Languages of Iran (ALI). Iranian Studies 52. A Working Classification
  34. ^ a b D.N. MacKenzie, Language in Kurds & Kurdistan, Encyclopaedia of Islam.
  35. ^ Ranjbar, Vahid. Dastur-e Zaban-e Kurdi-ye Kermanshahi. Kermanshah: Taq-Bostan. 1388
  36. ^ [1] Archived 1 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  37. ^ "BACKGROUND TO THE LANGUAGE, COMMUNITY, AND FIELDWORK 1.1 Introduction The present work is a grammatical description of the Mukri variety of Central". Archived from the original on 5 March 2017.
  38. ^ Glottolog 2.3, Subfamily: Central Iran Kermanic Archived 13 December 2014 at the Wayback Machine. "The Central dialects thus constitute the southernmost group of the so-called Northwest Iranian dialects," Central Dialects Archived 5 September 2013 at the Wayback Machine (
  39. ^ Philip G. Kreyenbroek, "On the Kurdish Language", a chapter in the book The Kurds: A Contemporary Overview.
  40. ^ Meri, Josef W. Medieval Islamic Civilization: A-K, index. p444
  41. ^ Edmonds, Cecil. Kurds, Turks, and Arabs: politics, travel, and research in north-eastern Iraq, 1919–1925. Oxford University Press, 1957.
  42. ^ J. N. Postgate, Languages of Iraq, ancient and modern, British School of Archaeology in Iraq, [Iraq]: British School of Archaeology in Iraq, 2007, p. 138.
  43. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 October 2015. Retrieved 15 October 2015.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  44. ^ Abd al-Jabbar, Falih. Ayatollahs, sufis and ideologues: state, religion and social movements in Iraq. University of Virginia 2008.
  45. ^ Sykes, Mark. The Caliphs' last heritage: a short history of the Turkish Empire
  46. ^ O'Shea, Maria. Trapped between the map and reality: geography and perceptions of Kurdistan. ISBN 0-415-94766-9.
  47. ^ Library Information and Research Service. The Middle East, abstracts and index
  48. ^ Meiselas, Susan. Kurdistan: in the shadow of history. Random House, 1997.
  49. ^ Opengin, Ergin; Haig, Geoffrey. "Kurdish: a critical research overview".
  50. ^ Leezenberg, M. (15 June 2016). Soviet Kurdology and Kurdish Orientalism. p. 10. Archived from the original on 27 April 2018. Retrieved 24 November 2017.
  51. ^ Ibn-Waḥšīya, Aḥmad Ibn-ʿAlī (1806). Ancient Alphabets and Hieroglyphic Characters Explained: With an Account of the Egyptian Priests, Their Classes, Initiation, and Sacrifices. Translated by Joseph von Hammer-Purgstall. Bulmer. p. 53. Retrieved 28 March 2013.
  52. ^ Jonh S. Guest, The Yazidis: A Study in Survival, Routledge Publishers, 1987, ISBN 0-7103-0115-4, ISBN 978-0-7103-0115-4, 299 pp. (see pages 18, 19, 32)
  53. ^ Ernest R. McCarus, Kurdish Language Studies, The Middle East Journal, Published by Middle East Institute, Washington, 1960, p.325
  54. ^ Kurdistan and Its Christians Archived 10 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine, Mirella Galetti, World Congress of Kurdish Studies, 6–9 September 2006
  55. ^ Ross, Michael. The Volunteer (chapter: The Road to Ankara)
  56. ^ Repression of Kurds in Syria is widespread Archived 15 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine, Amnesty International Report, March 2005.
  57. ^ "After 52-year ban, Syrian Kurds now taught Kurdish in schools". 6 November 2015. Archived from the original on 10 May 2016.
  58. ^ "Special Focus Cases: Leyla Zana, Prisoner of Conscience". Archived from the original on 10 May 2005. Retrieved 2 December 2011.
  59. ^ "Kurdish performers banned, Appeal from International PEN". Archived from the original on 13 January 2012. Retrieved 2 December 2011.
  60. ^ Turkey to get Kurdish television Archived 13 May 2006 at the Wayback Machine
  61. ^ "Kurdish TV starts broadcasting in Turkey". Archived from the original on 12 January 2012. Retrieved 2 December 2011.
  62. ^ "TRT HABER - Özel Kürtçe Kanala Yeşil Işık". 28 November 2011. Archived from the original on 18 January 2012. Retrieved 2 December 2011.
  63. ^ "On trial for speaking Kurdish". ANF-Firatnews. 11 May 2011. Archived from the original on 15 June 2013. Retrieved 12 June 2013.
  64. ^ Karakaş, Saniye (March 2004). "Submission to the Sub-Commission on Promotion and Protection of Human Rights: Working Group of Minorities; Tenth Session, Agenda Item 3 (a)". United Nations Commission on Human Rights. Archived from the original (MS Word) on 28 June 2007. Retrieved 7 November 2006. Kurds have been officially allowed since September 2003 to take Kurdish names, but cannot use the letters x, w, or q, which are common in Kurdish but do not exist in Turkey's version of the Latin alphabet. [...] Those letters, however, are used in Turkey in the names of companies, TV and radio channels, and trademarks. For example Turkish Army has company under the name of AXA OYAK and there is SHOW TV television channel in Turkey.
  65. ^ Mark Liberman (24 October 2013). "Turkey legalizes the letters Q, W, and X. Yay Alphabet!". Slate. Retrieved 25 October 2013.
  66. ^ "Turkey to allow Kurdish lessons in schools". Aljazeera. 12 June 2012. Archived from the original on 13 March 2013. Retrieved 12 June 2013.
  67. ^ The Kurdish Language and Literature Archived 13 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine, by Joyce Blau, Professor of Kurdish language and civilization at the National Institute of Oriental Language and Civilization of the University of Paris (INALCO)
  68. ^ The language policy of Iran from State policy on the Kurdish language: the politics of status planning Archived 9 June 2009 at the Wayback Machine by Amir Hassanpour, University of Toronto
  69. ^ "Neighboring Kurds Travel to Study in Iraq". 9 March 2005. Archived from the original on 26 January 2012. Retrieved 2 December 2011.
  70. ^ ". Number of resident population by selected nationality, mother tongue in 2009" (PDF). p. 53. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 July 2012. Retrieved 9 April 2015.
  71. ^ "Table 4.1.1 Population by individual ethnic groups" (PDF). Government of Kazakhstan. p. 21. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 February 2012. Retrieved 9 July 2012.
  72. ^ "The Kurdish Unified Alphabet". Archived from the original on 24 May 2011. Retrieved 2 December 2011.
  73. ^ "The Gospels in Kurdish in Armenian characters, 1857, Constantinople". 18 February 2010. Archived from the original on 5 July 2014. Retrieved 2 March 2014.

External links