List of current monarchs of sovereign states

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from List of current monarchs)

A monarch is the head of a monarchy, a form of government in which a state is ruled by an individual who normally rules for life or until abdication, and typically inherits the throne by birth.[1] Monarchs may be autocrats (as in all absolute monarchies)[2] or may be ceremonial figureheads, exercising only limited or no reserve powers at all, with actual authority vested in a legislature and/or executive cabinet (as in many constitutional monarchies).[3] In many cases, a monarch will also be linked with a state religion.[4] Most states only have a single monarch at any given time, although a regent may rule when the monarch is a minor, not present, or otherwise incapable of ruling.[5] Cases in which two monarchs rule simultaneously over a single state, as is the current situation in Andorra, are known as coregencies.[6]

A variety of titles are applied in English; for example, "king" and "queen", "prince" and "princess", "grand duke" and "grand duchess", "emperor" and "empress". Although they will be addressed differently in their local languages, the names and titles in the list below have been styled using the common English equivalent. Roman numerals, used to distinguish related rulers with the same name,[7] have been applied where typical.

In political and sociocultural studies, monarchies are normally associated with hereditary rule; most monarchs, in both historical and contemporary contexts, have been born and raised within a royal family.[6][8] Succession has been defined using a variety of distinct formulae, such as proximity of blood, primogeniture, and agnatic seniority. Some monarchies, however, are not hereditary, and the ruler is instead determined through an elective process; a modern example is the throne of Malaysia.[9] These systems defy the model concept of a monarchy, but are commonly considered as such because they retain certain associative characteristics.[10] Many systems use a combination of hereditary and elective elements, where the election or nomination of a successor is restricted to members of a royal bloodline.[11][12]

Entries below are listed beside their respective dominions, which are organised alphabetically. These monarchs reign as head of state in their respective sovereign states. Monarchs reigning over a constituent division, cultural or traditional polity are listed under constituent monarchs. For a list of former ruling families or abolished thrones, see: former ruling families.

Monarchs by country[edit]

Title Monarch
(Birth year)
Sovereign state(s) Since Length House Type Heir to the throne Ref.
Co-Prince[a] Joan Enric Vives i Sicília
(b. 1949)
 Andorra 12 May 2003 21 years, 5 days Ceremonial Ex officio [13] [14]
Emmanuel Macron
(b. 1977)
14 May 2017 7 years, 3 days
King Charles III[b]
(b. 1948)
 Antigua and Barbuda
 Australia
 The Bahamas
 Belize
 Canada
 Grenada
 Jamaica
 New Zealand
 Papua New Guinea
 Saint Kitts and Nevis
 Saint Lucia
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
 Solomon Islands
 Tuvalu
 United Kingdom
8 September 2022[c] 1 year, 252 days Windsor[d] Ceremonial William, Prince of Wales [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] [25] [26] [27] [28] [29]
King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa
(b. 1950)
 Bahrain 6 March 1999[e] 25 years, 72 days Al Khalifa[f] Executive Salman, Crown Prince of Bahrain [30]
King Philippe
(b. 1960)
 Belgium 21 July 2013 10 years, 301 days Saxe-Coburg and Gotha[g] Ceremonial Princess Elisabeth, Duchess of Brabant[h] [34]
Druk Gyalpo Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck
(b. 1980)
 Bhutan 9 December 2006[i] 17 years, 160 days Wangchuck Executive Jigme Namgyel [36]
Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah
(b. 1946)
 Brunei 5 October 1967
[dubious ][j]
56 years, 225 days Bolkiah Absolute Al-Muhtadee Billah [37]
King Norodom Sihamoni
(b. 1953)
 Cambodia 14 October 2004[k] 19 years, 216 days Norodom[l] Ceremonial Hereditary and elective[m] [39]
King Frederik X
(b. 1968)
 Denmark 14 January 2024 124 days Glücksburg (official)[n]
Monpezat (agnatic)
Ceremonial Christian, Crown Prince of Denmark [43]
King Mswati III
(b. 1968)
 Eswatini 25 April 1986 38 years, 22 days Dlamini Absolute Hereditary and elective[o] [46]
Emperor Naruhito[p]
(b. 1960)
 Japan 1 May 2019[q] 5 years, 16 days Yamato[r] Ceremonial Fumihito, Prince Akishino (Presumptive heir)[s] [52]
King Abdullah II
(b. 1962)
 Jordan 7 February 1999[t] 25 years, 100 days Al Hāshim Executive Hereditary and elective (presumably Hussein, Crown Prince of Jordan)[u] [55] [56]
Emir Mishal Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah
(b. 1940)
 Kuwait 16 December 2023[v] 153 days Al Sabah[f] Executive Hereditary and elective[w] [61]
King Letsie III
(b. 1963)
 Lesotho 7 February 1996[x] 28 years, 100 days Moshesh Ceremonial Lerotholi Seeiso [62] [63]
Prince Hans-Adam II
(b. 1945)
 Liechtenstein 13 November 1989[y] 34 years, 186 days Liechtenstein Executive The Hereditary Prince Alois (currently Prince Regent) [64]
Grand Duke Henri
(b. 1955)
 Luxembourg 7 October 2000[z] 23 years, 223 days Luxembourg-Nassau[aa] Ceremonial Guillaume, Hereditary Grand Duke of Luxembourg [66]
Yang di-Pertuan Agong[ab] Ibrahim Iskandar
(b. 1958)
 Malaysia 31 January 2024[ac] 107 days Temenggong Ceremonial & Federal Elective[ad] [72]
Prince Albert II
(b. 1958)
 Monaco 6 April 2005[ae] 19 years, 41 days Grimaldi Executive Jacques, Hereditary Prince of Monaco [76]
King Mohammed VI
(b. 1963)
 Morocco 23 July 1999[af] 24 years, 299 days Alawi Executive Moulay Hassan, Crown Prince of Morocco [78]
King Willem-Alexander
(b. 1967)
 Netherlands 30 April 2013 11 years, 17 days Orange-Nassau[ag] Ceremonial Catharina-Amalia, Princess of Orange [81]
King Harald V
(b. 1937)
 Norway 17 January 1991[ah] 33 years, 121 days Glücksburg[n] Ceremonial Haakon, Crown Prince of Norway [82]
Sultan Haitham bin Tariq
(b. 1954)
 Oman 11 January 2020 4 years, 127 days Al Said Absolute Theyazin bin Haitham [83]
Emir Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani
(b. 1980)
 Qatar 25 June 2013 10 years, 327 days Al Thani Executive[84] Abdullah bin Hamad [85]
King Salman
(b. 1935)
 Saudi Arabia 23 January 2015 9 years, 115 days Al Saud Absolute Mohammed bin Salman[ai] [87]
King Felipe VI
(b. 1968)
 Spain 19 June 2014 9 years, 333 days Borbón-Anjou Ceremonial Leonor, Princess of Asturias (Presumptive heir)[aj] [89]
King Carl XVI Gustaf
(b. 1946)
 Sweden 15 September 1973[ak] 50 years, 245 days Bernadotte Ceremonial Victoria, Crown Princess of Sweden [91]
King Vajiralongkorn[al]
(b. 1952)
 Thailand 13 October 2016[am] 7 years, 217 days Chakri Ceremonial Dipangkorn Rasmijoti (Presumptive heir) [96]
King Tupou VI
(b. 1959)
 Tonga 18 March 2012 12 years, 60 days Tupou[an] Executive Tupoutoʻa ʻUlukalala [98]
President Mohamed bin Zayed Al Nahyan
(b. 1961)
 United Arab Emirates 14 May 2022 2 years, 3 days Al Nahyan[ao] Executive & Federal[ap] Hereditary and elective (presumably Khaled bin Mohamed Al Nahyan)[aq] [102]
Pope Francis[ar]
(b. 1936)
 Vatican City (Holy See) 13 March 2013 11 years, 65 days Absolute Elective [103]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The Bishop of Urgell and the President of France each hold the position of co-prince of Andorra, but there is no personal title attached to the role.
  2. ^ Charles is currently King of fifteen separate Commonwealth realms.
  3. ^ Coronation took place 6 May 2023.
  4. ^ Agnatically a member of the House of Glücksburg.
  5. ^ Hamad bin Isa reigned as Amir of the State of Bahrain until 14 February 2002, when he assumed the new title of King of Bahrain under a new Constitution.[30]
  6. ^ a b A clan of the Utub tribe.[31]
  7. ^ The House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha[32] is a branch of the House of Wettin.[33]
  8. ^ The Belgian monarch does not automatically assume the throne at the death or abdication of their predecessor; they only become monarch upon taking a constitutional oath.
  9. ^ Coronation took place 6 November 2008.[35]
  10. ^ Coronation took place 1 August 1968.[37]
  11. ^ Coronation took place 29 October 2004.[38]
  12. ^ A branch of the Varman dynasty. The surname "Norodom" is used by the descendants of Norodom I.[39][40]
  13. ^ The king is selected for life by the Royal Council of the Throne from amongst the male descendants of kings Ang Duong, Norodom, and Sisowath.[41]
  14. ^ a b Officially the House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, which is a branch of the House of Oldenburg.[42]
  15. ^ Succession is subject to customary law, and does not follow primogeniture. A council of elders selects who among the reigning king's wives will be mother of the next king. This woman will succeed as Ndlovukati upon her son's ascension to the throne, and will rule alongside him for the duration of his reign. The king's first two wives are considered ineligible.[44][45]
  16. ^ "Naruhito" is the current emperor's given name, but it is not his regnal name, and he is never referred to as this in Japanese. The era of Naruhito's reign bears the name "Reiwa", and according to custom he will be renamed "Emperor Reiwa" following his death.[citation needed][47]
  17. ^ The formal enthronement ceremony was held on 22 October 2019.[48]
  18. ^ The Japanese emperor does not have a family name.[49][50] The use of the name "Yamato" for the household derives from the ancient Yamato Court.[51] It is used often as a name for the imperial dynasty, but has no official basis.
  19. ^ Succession is based upon male primogeniture. However, Naruhito currently has no male children.
  20. ^ Formally enthroned on 9 June 1999.[53]
  21. ^ Succession is based upon primogeniture. However, the reigning king may also select his successor from among eligible princes.[54]
  22. ^ Formally enthroned on 20 December 2023 upon the invitation of Parliament.[57]
  23. ^ The heir is appointed by the reigning emir, and the nomination must also be approved by a majority of members in the National Assembly.[58] The throne was traditionally alternated between the two main branches of the Al Sabah family – the Al Salem and Al Jaber – until 2006.[59][60] The current emir is of the Al Jaber branch.
  24. ^ Coronation took place 31 October 1997. Has previously reigned as king from 12 November 1990 until 25 January 1995.[62]
  25. ^ Formally enthroned on 15 August 1990.[citation needed] Prior to his accession, Hans-Adam had served as prince regent since 26 August 1984.[64] On 15 August 2004, the prince formally appointed his son Alois, Hereditary Prince of Liechtenstein as regent, in preparation for his succession to the throne, but remained head of state in accordance with the constitution.[65]
  26. ^ Prior to formal enthronement, Henri had served as prince regent since 4 March 1998.[66]
  27. ^ The royal family of Luxembourg are members of the House of Nassau-Weilburg,[67] descended from the House of Nassau and the Parma branch of the House of Bourbon.
  28. ^ Roughly translates as "Supreme Head of State", and is commonly rendered in English as "King".[68]
  29. ^ Elected on 27 October 2023.[69] Term of office started on 31 January 2024.[70]
  30. ^ The Yang di-Pertuan Agong is elected to a five-year term by and from amongst the nine hereditary rulers of the Malay states, who form the Council of Rulers. The position has to date been, by informal agreement, systematically rotated between the nine; the order was originally based on seniority.[71]
  31. ^ Albert II was formally enthroned as prince in a two-part ceremony, in accordance with tradition, on 12 July and 19 November 2005.[73][74] He had previously served as regent from 31 March 2005 until his accession to the throne.[75]
  32. ^ Formally enthroned on 30 July 1999.[77]
  33. ^ The Dutch royal family is descended from the Houses of Nassau and Lippe. [79][80]
  34. ^ Formally enthroned on 21 January 1991, and consecrated on 23 June 1991. Prior to his accession, Harald had served as prince regent since 1 June 1990.[82]
  35. ^ Succession is determined by consensus within the House of Saud as to who will be Crown Prince. This consensus may change depending on the Crown Prince's actions:[86]
  36. ^ Succession is based upon male primogeniture. However, Felipe VI currently has no male children.[88]
  37. ^ Formally enthroned on 19 September 1973.[90]
  38. ^ Name is also written as Mahawachiralongkon.[92] He is also styled Rama X.[93]
  39. ^ Vajiralongkorn was proclaimed King on 1 December 2016 with retroactive effect to the date of his father's death.[93] The coronation took place from 4 – 6 May 2019.[94][95]
  40. ^ A line of the Tuʻi Kanokupolu dynasty.[97][98]
  41. ^ The Al Nahyan are a branch of the Al Falahi, a clan of the Yas tribe.[99]
  42. ^ The Prime Minister is the head of the government. However, with the consent of the Supreme Council, the office is appointed by the President, who retains considerable power.[100]
  43. ^ According to the Constitution, the President of the United Arab Emirates is elected by the Federal Supreme Council from among the individual rulers of the seven emirates.[100] However, by informal agreement the Presidency is always passed to the head of the Al Nahyan clan, the Sheikh of Abu Dhabi (see constituent monarchs), which makes it a de facto hereditary position. In addition, the appointed Prime Minister has always been the head of the Al Maktoum clan and Sheikh of Dubai.[101]
  44. ^ As Sovereign of the Vatican City State, by virtue of being Bishop of Rome.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Monarch". CollinsDictionary.com. Collins English Dictionary – Complete & Unabridged 11th Edition. Retrieved 22 September 2012.
  2. ^ Herb, Michael (1999). All in the family: absolutism, revolution, and democracy in the Middle East. New York: SUNY Press. p. 235. ISBN 978-0-7914-4168-8.
  3. ^ Spellman, W. M. (2001). Monarchies 1000–2000. London: Reaktion Books. pp. 22–23. ISBN 978-1-86189-087-0.
  4. ^ Harris, Nathanial (2009). Systems of Government: Monarchy. London: Evans Brothers. p. 38. ISBN 978-0-237-53932-0.
  5. ^ "Regent". CollinsDictionary.com. Collins English Dictionary – Complete & Unabridged 11th Edition. Retrieved 22 September 2012.
  6. ^ a b Hindley, Geoffrey (2000). The Royal Families of Europe. London: Constable & Robinson. pp. 1–6. ISBN 978-0-7867-0828-4.
  7. ^ Merriam-Webster's manual for writers and editors. Springfield, United States: Merriam-Webster, Inc. 1998. p. 94. ISBN 978-0-87779-622-0.
  8. ^ Forty, Sandra; Millidge, Judith; Riley, Ed (2009). World Royal Families. United States: Book Sales, Inc. p. 94. ISBN 978-0-7858-2530-2.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  9. ^ Constitution of Malaysia, Art. 32, Sec. 3.
  10. ^ Bouvier, John; Rawle, Francis (1914). Bouvier's Law Dictionary and Concise Encyclopedia. Vol. 2 (3rd ed.). Vernon Law Book Company. pp. 2237–2238.
  11. ^ Shawcross, William (1994). Cambodia's new deal: a report. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. p. 106. ISBN 978-0-87003-051-2.
  12. ^ Garner, James Wilford (1910). Introduction to Political Science: A Treatise on the Origin, Nature, Functions, and Organization of the State. American Book Company. pp. 169–178. ISBN 978-1-115-59599-5.
  13. ^ Government of Andorra (23 December 2009). "Recepció de Nadal del copríncep episcopal Joan-Enric Vives". Portal web del Govern d’Andorra (in Catalan). Government of Andorra. Retrieved 7 December 2010.
  14. ^ Constitution of Andorra, Ch. 3.
  15. ^ Government of the United Kingdom. "The King of the Commonwealth". Official website of the British Monarchy. The Royal Household. Retrieved 12 April 2010.
  16. ^ Constitution of Antigua and Barbuda, Art. 68.
  17. ^ Constitution of Australia, Art. 61.
  18. ^ Constitution of the Bahamas, Art. 71.
  19. ^ Constitution of Belize, Art. 36.
  20. ^ Constitution of Canada, Art. 9.
  21. ^ Constitution of Grenada, Art. 57.
  22. ^ Constitution of Jamaica, Art. 68.
  23. ^ Constitution Act 1986: Part 1.
  24. ^ Constitution of Papua New Guinea, Art. 82.
  25. ^ Constitution of Saint Kitts and Nevis, Art. 51.
  26. ^ Constitution of Saint Lucia, Art. 59.
  27. ^ Constitution of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Art. 50.
  28. ^ Constitution of Solomon Islands, Art. 1.
  29. ^ Constitution of Tuvalu, Art. 48.
  30. ^ a b "The Kingdom of Bahrain: The Constitutional Changes". The Estimate. The International Estimate, Inc. 22 February 2002. Archived from the original on 3 October 2009. Retrieved 12 November 2011.
  31. ^ Alghanim, Salwa (1998). The reign of Mubarak al-Sabah: Shaikh of Kuwait, 1896–1915. I.B.Tauris. p. 5. ISBN 978-1-86064-350-7.
  32. ^ "The Belgian Monarchy" (PDF). Government of Belgium, Chancellery of the Prime Minister. p. 11. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 March 2012. Retrieved 28 December 2012.
  33. ^ Herzogliche Hauptverwaltung. "The House of Wettin". Das Herzogliche Haus Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha. The Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha's Family Foundation. Archived from the original on 14 December 2011. Retrieved 9 December 2010.
  34. ^ Government of Belgium. "King Philippe". The Belgian Monarchy. Federal Public Service; Chancery of the Prime Minister. Retrieved 22 July 2013.
  35. ^ Denyer, Simon (7 November 2008). "Bhutan's Dragon King shows he is man of the people". Reuters. Thomson Reuters. Retrieved 12 November 2011.
  36. ^ Staff writer (15 December 2006). "Bhutanese king steps down early". BBC News. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 13 November 2011.
  37. ^ a b Government of Brunei. "Prime Minister". The Royal Ark. Office of the Prime Minister. Archived from the original on 7 October 2011. Retrieved 12 November 2011.
  38. ^ Chandara, L., Samean, Y., Vachonn, M., Plaut, E., Botumroath, L. and Soenthrith, S. (October 2004). "King Norodom Sihamoni's coronation: a special supplement to the Cambodia Daily". The Cambodia Daily. Archived from the original on 4 April 2011. Retrieved 15 November 2011.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  39. ^ a b Government of Cambodia. "The Monarchy". Royal Embassy of Cambodia in the United Kingdom. Archived from the original on 11 January 2012. Retrieved 3 December 2011.
  40. ^ Corfield, Justin J. (2009). The history of Cambodia. ABC-CLIO. p. 38. ISBN 978-0-313-35722-0.
  41. ^ Constitution of Cambodia, Art. 14.
  42. ^ Adams Woods, Frederick (2009). Mental and Moral Heredity in Royalty. BiblioBazaar, LLC. p. 225. ISBN 978-1-115-33425-9.
  43. ^ Government of Denmark. "Her Majesty The Queen of Denmark". The Danish Monarchy. Royal Court of Denmark. Archived from the original on 25 June 2010. Retrieved 12 April 2010.
  44. ^ Marwick, Brian Allan (1940). The Swazi: an ethnographic account of the natives of the Swaziland Protectorate. Cambridge University Press. pp. 5–75.
  45. ^ Rubin, N.N. (28 July 2009). "The Swazi Law of Succession: A Restatement". Journal of African Law. 9 (2). Cambridge University Press: 90–113. doi:10.1017/S0021855300001108. S2CID 143385608.
  46. ^ Simelane, H.S. (2005), "Swaziland: Mswati III, Reign of", in Shillington, Kevin (ed.), Encyclopedia of African history, vol. 3, Fitzroy Dearborn, pp. 1528–30, 9781579584559
  47. ^ Embassy of Japan in Pakistan (7 December 2007). "National Day of Japan to be celebrated" (Press release). Government of Japan. Archived from the original on 3 January 2009. Retrieved 7 December 2010.
  48. ^ "Naruhito: Japan's emperor proclaims enthronement in ancient ceremony". BBC News. 22 October 2019. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
  49. ^ Skya, Walter (2009). Japan's holy war: the ideology of radical Shintō ultranationalism. Duke University Press. p. 291. ISBN 978-0-8223-4423-0.
  50. ^ National Committee of Japanese Historians (1990). Historical studies in Japan. Vol. VII. Brill Publishers. p. 151. ISBN 978-4-634-65040-4.
  51. ^ Seagrave, Sterling; Seagrave, Peggy (2001). The Yamato Dynasty: The Secret History of Japan's Imperial Family. Broadway Books. pp. 4–10. ISBN 978-0-7679-0497-1.
  52. ^ Government of Japan. "Their Majesties the Emperor and Empress". Imperial Household Agency. Retrieved 12 April 2010.
  53. ^ MEDEA Institute. "Abdullah II (Jordan)". Archived from the original on 18 January 2012. Retrieved 12 November 2011.
  54. ^ Constitution of Jordan, Art. 28.
  55. ^ Government of Jordan. "His Majesty King Abdullah II". Abdullah II Official Website. The Royal Hashemite Court. Retrieved 12 November 2011.
  56. ^ Government of Jordan. "The Hashemites: Introduction". Office of King Hussein I. The Royal Hashemite Court. Retrieved 7 December 2010.
  57. ^ "New Kuwait Emir Sheikh Mishal pledges to be a 'loyal citizen' for nation, people". Arab News. 20 December 2023. Retrieved 21 December 2023.
  58. ^ Constitution of Kuwait, Art. 4.
  59. ^ Cordesman, Anthony H (2007). Gulf military forces in an era of asymmetric wars. Vol. 2. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 111. ISBN 978-0-275-99250-7.: "The royal family, Al Sabah, has two branches—Al Jaber and Al Salem—and has traditionally alternated in ruling Kuwait. This tradition, however, has changed following the death of Jaber Al Sabah [1977–2006]."
  60. ^ Political Risk Yearbook, 1998. Political Risk Services. 1998. p. 48. ISBN 978-1-85271-371-3.: "The two branches of the Al-Sabah family, the Jabers and the Salems, have traditionally alternated their rule, one providing the emir and the other the crown prince (also serving as prime minister)."
  61. ^ "Sheikh Mishal Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah named Emir of Kuwait". Public Television Company of Armenia. 16 December 2023. Retrieved 16 December 2023.
  62. ^ a b Government of Lesotho. "His Majesty King Letsie III". The Lesotho Monarchy. Archived from the original on 26 June 2009. Retrieved 28 April 2010.
  63. ^ Olivier, J. "Basotho in Lesotho". Sesotho Online. Retrieved 7 December 2010.
  64. ^ a b "Prince Hans-Adam II". Das Furstenhaus von Liechtenstein. Princely House of Liechtenstein. Archived from the original on 1 June 2023.
  65. ^ Image Liechtenstein. "The Principality of Liechtenstein" (PDF). Portal of the Principality of Liechtenstein. Retrieved 9 July 2011.
  66. ^ a b Government of Luxembourg. "Grand Duke Henri". Press and Information Service. Retrieved 11 November 2010.
  67. ^ "Droits de Succession: Ordre successoral" (in French). Grand Ducal Court of Luxembourg. Retrieved 28 December 2012.
  68. ^ Malaysian Administrative Modernisation and Management Planning Unit. "The Yang di-Pertuan Agong". myGovernment. Government of Malaysia. Archived from the original on 21 December 2011. Retrieved 4 December 2011.
  69. ^ "Malaysia picks powerful ruler of Johor state as country's new king under rotation system". AP News. 27 October 2023.
  70. ^ "Sultan Ibrahim of Johor state installed as Malaysia's 17th king". Reuters. 31 January 2024.
  71. ^ "Malaysian Monarchy System". Fortune.my. 29 June 2011. Archived from the original on 12 January 2012.
  72. ^ National Library of Malaysia. "Yang di-Pertuan Agong XIV". Government of Malaysia. Archived from the original on 14 January 2012. Retrieved 5 January 2011.
  73. ^ Agence France-Presse (20 November 2005). "Prince Albert's Monaco enthronement complete". ABC News Online. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 7 December 2010.
  74. ^ "Biography". Prince's Palace of Monaco. 2011. Archived from the original on 15 November 2013. Retrieved 10 December 2011.
  75. ^ Sector, Charlotte (6 April 2005). "Playboy Prince Fulfills His Destiny". ABC News. ABC News Internet Ventures. Retrieved 7 December 2010.
  76. ^ "The House of Grimaldi". Infinite Public Relations. Retrieved 12 April 2010.
  77. ^ Staff writers (24 July 1999). "Mohammed VI takes Moroccan throne". BBC News. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 15 November 2011.
  78. ^ Laurenson, John (11 March 2006). "The most powerful man in Morocco". BBC News. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 15 November 2011.
  79. ^ Government of the Netherlands. "Orange and Nassau". The Dutch Royal House. Government Information Service. Archived from the original on 24 November 2010. Retrieved 9 December 2010.
  80. ^ Steinberg, Glenn A. "The Former Ruling House of Lippe, 1939–1945". European Royalty during World War II. The College of New Jersey. Archived from the original on 15 July 2010. Retrieved 9 December 2010.
  81. ^ Government of the Netherlands. "Zijne Majesteit Koning Willem-Alexander" [His Majesty King Willem-Alexander]. The Dutch Royal House (in Dutch). Government Information Service. Retrieved 30 April 2013.
  82. ^ a b Government of Norway. "His Majesty King Harald". Official website of the Royal House of Norway. Royal Court of Norway. Retrieved 7 December 2010.
  83. ^ Nyrop, Richard F (2008). Area Handbook for the Persian Gulf States. Wildside Press LLC. p. 341. ISBN 978-1-4344-6210-7.
  84. ^ Thafer, Dania (14 October 2021). "Qatar's first elected parliament may have more power than other Persian Gulf legislatures. Here's why". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2 April 2022.
  85. ^ Government of Qatar. "H.H. The Amir's Biography". Amiri Diwan. Retrieved 18 February 2018.
  86. ^ Cordesman, Anthony H (2009). Saudi Arabia: national security in a troubled region. ABC-CLIO. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-313-38076-1. "In October 2006, King Abdullah issued a new succession law that amended the 1992 Basic Law and formalized the process by creating the Allegiance Commission. The new law both defines how a king will choose among possible candidates and provides a formal way for developing a consensus to choose the king's successor. The Allegiance Commission will select a king and crown prince upon the death or incapacitation of either. This commission expands the role of the ruling family in the selection process. ... It is composed of some 35 sons and grandsons of the late founder of the Kingdom, Abd al-Aziz al-Saud, who will vote in secret ballots on who could and could not be eligible to be future kings and crown princes."
  87. ^ "Saudi Arabia's King Abdullah dies". BBC News. 23 January 2015. Retrieved 23 January 2015.
  88. ^ Cahn, Lauren (8 July 2022). "The Stunning Transformation Of Princess Leonor, The Future Queen Of Spain". TheList.com. Retrieved 2 August 2022.
  89. ^ The Royal Household of His Majesty the King. "His Majesty the King Juan Carlos". The Royal Household of His Majesty the King. Retrieved 3 June 2014.
  90. ^ Government of Sweden (19 September 1973). "Kungl Maj:ts kungörelse (1973:702)". Department of Justice. Archived from the original on 19 February 2012. Retrieved 12 June 2010.
  91. ^ Government of Sweden. "H.M. King Carl XVI Gustaf". Sveriges Kungahus (in Swedish). Information and Press Department. Retrieved 7 December 2010.
  92. ^ "Thai Crown Prince Maha Vajiralongkorn proclaimed king". BBC News. 1 December 2016. Retrieved 2 December 2016.
  93. ^ a b Charuvastra, Teeranai (29 November 2016). "Prince Vajiralongkorn Proclaimed King Rama X". Khao Sod. Bangkok. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
  94. ^ "Thailand's King Vajiralongkorn crowned". BBC News. 4 May 2019. Retrieved 5 May 2019.
  95. ^ "Thai king coronation: Sacred water, royal regalia and a housewarming party". BBC News. 3 May 2019. Retrieved 3 May 2019.
  96. ^ "The Illustrious Chakri Family". Mahidol University. Archived from the original on 1 February 2009. Retrieved 28 April 2010.
  97. ^ Government of Tonga (28 July 2008). "Geneology of King Tupou VI". Office of the Lord Chamberlain. Archived from the original on 24 August 2010. Retrieved 9 December 2010.
  98. ^ a b Government of Tonga. "Tu'i Kanokupolu". Palace Office. Archived from the original on 30 November 2011. Retrieved 12 November 2011.
  99. ^ Shoup, John A; Maisel, Sebastian (2009). Saudi Arabia and the Gulf Arab States Today: A-J. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 323. ISBN 978-0-313-34444-2.. "The Al Nahyan ... are a branch of the Al Bu Falah tribe of the Bani Yas confederation, and although they have been a small section of the tribe, the Al Nahyan have traditionally provided the paramount shaykh for the confederation."
  100. ^ a b Constitution of the United Arab Emirates, Art. 51 & 54.
  101. ^ Noack, Sascha (2007). Doing Business in Dubai and the United Arab Emirates. GRIN Verlag. p. 16. ISBN 978-3-638-79766-5.
  102. ^ "President Sheikh Khalifa dies aged 73". The National. 13 May 2022. Retrieved 13 May 2022.
  103. ^ "Argentina's Jorge Mario Bergoglio elected Pope". BBC News. 13 March 2013. Retrieved 13 March 2013.

External links[edit]