List of current heads of state and government
This is a list of current heads of state and government, showing heads of state and heads of government where different, mainly in parliamentary systems. Often a leader is both in presidential systems. Some states have semi-presidential systems, where the head of government role (i.e. executive branch) is fulfilled by both the listed head of government and head of state.
The list also includes the names of recently elected or appointed heads of state and government who will take office on an appointed date, such as presidents–elect and prime ministers–designate, and those leading a government in exile if internationally recognised.
Member and observer states of the United Nations
- de jure) individually administer the governmental executive, legislature Yellow highlighted cells indicate state leaders whose constitutionally interpreted positions (e.g.
- party leaders chiefly regarded as exercising (e.g. de facto) further systemic influence, authority within their system of government Blue highlighted cells distinguish heads of state or
- Names in small font generally denote acting, transitional, temporary leaders, or representatives. Other notes and exceptions are provided at § Notes.
The following states control their territory and are recognised by at least one UN member state.
The following states/governments control their territory, but are not recognised by any UN member states.
These alternative governments are recognised as a sovereign state by at least one UN member.
- List of countries by system of government
- List of current dependent territory leaders
- List of current foreign ministers
- List of current longest ruling non-royal national leaders
- List of current Permanent Representatives to the United Nations
- List of current presidents of assembly
- List of current state leaders by date of assumption of office
- List of current presidents
- List of current vice presidents and designated acting presidents
- List of current prime ministers
- List of elected and appointed female heads of state
- List of elected or appointed female heads of government
- List of leaders of dependent territories
- List of longest-ruling non-royal national leaders since 1900
- List of the oldest living state leaders
- List of state leaders in 2017
- Lists of state leaders
- Lists of state leaders by year
- In this state, the president is both head of state and of government; the office of prime minister may exist in these states, but it does not direct executive power (neither does the Afghan Chief Executive Officer, nor the Myanma/Burmese State Counsellor, either). For a complete listing, please see Presidential system § Presidential systems with a prime minister.
- The President of France and the French Co-Prince of Andorra are positions held by the same person.
- Constitutionally, Elizabeth is separately and equally monarch of 16 sovereign states (alongside the United Kingdom) known collectively as the Commonwealth realms. In each of these states, with the exception of the UK (where she permanently resides) she is duly represented at the national level by a governor-general.
- The acting three-member Austrian Federal Presidential college (made up of the three Presidents of the National Council) is a collective and temporary head of state.
- The three-member Bosnian presidency is the head of state collectively.
- Temer assumed the Brazilian presidential powers and duties during the course of the suspension of Dilma Rousseff on 12 May 2016. Temer assumed the presidency outright when Rousseff was impeached on 31 August 2016.
- The Governor-General of New Zealand and the Governor-General of Niue are positions held by the same person.
- The term "Supreme Leader" is used as a description (for the sake of brevity) rather than being an official title of a single office. The three actual offices held by Kim are:
- Chairman of the Workers' Party of Korea
- Chairman of the State Affairs Commission
- Supreme Commander of the Korean People's Army
- The President (otherwise known as Chairman) of the Presidium of the Supreme People's Assembly accepts the credentials of foreign ambassadors, signs treaties, receives visiting heads of state, and represents North Korea on all state visits (ceremonial functions usually performed by heads of state in other states). The president has held these duties since 1998, when the constitution was revised.
- Since 2012, the Grand and General Council of San Marino has held a larger proportion of seats for the Christian Democratic Party than those for the Popular Alliance; it can thus be inferred that the partner belonging to the former party exercises wider legislative capabilities than the latter through its parliamentary superiority, outnumbering the latter party over 4,000 seats.
- Hwang assumed the South Korean presidential powers and duties during the course of the suspension of Park Geun-hye on 9 December 2016.
- The seven-member Swiss Federal Council is head of state and government collectively. As a party to the Council, the president serves solely in a primus inter pares capacity for one year.
- In theory, Erdoğan is barred from wielding political power (with the head of state constitutionally and legislatively bound to act within ceremonial capacity). Despite these legal constraints, Erdoğan has sought to preserve his persona as the paramount strongman of Turkish politics, and is widely perceived by both the Turkish public and media in general as in practice the paramount leader of Turkey itself (notwithstanding his resignation as prime minister and election to the Turkish presidency). Moreover, considering the unconstitutional nature of these circumstances, constitutional experts[who?] have frequently referred to his persistent partisan leverage favouring the Justice and Development Party (AKP), the ruling party he founded and hitherto led, as the extended root of his political capital.
- States in free association with New Zealand.
- CIDOB Foundation (Spanish)—contextualised biographies of world political leaders
- EmilePhaneuf—an archived, partial list of official websites for heads of state
- Portale Storia (Spanish)—a list of current rulers by country
- Rulers—a list of rulers throughout time and places
- United Nations—a list of heads of state, heads of government, and foreign ministers
- WorldStatesmen—an online encyclopedia of the leaders of nations and territories