List of current heads of state and government

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This is a list of current heads of state and heads of government. In some cases, mainly in presidential systems, there is only one leader being both head of state and head of government. In other cases, mainly in semi-presidential and parliamentary systems, the head of state and the head of government are different people. In semi-presidential and parliamentary systems, the head of government role (i.e. executive branch) is fulfilled by both the listed head of government and the head of state. In single-party systems, ruling party's leader (i.e. General Secretary) is usually the de facto top leader of the state, though sometimes this leader also holds the presidency or premiership. In some countries like Andorra and Vatican City (Holy See), a clergy member also acts as the head of state for both countries (Bishop of Urgell as Co-Prince of Andorra and the Pope) and head of government for the latter (President of the Governorate of Vatican City State).

The list includes the names of recently elected or appointed heads of state and government who will take office on an appointed date, as presidents-elect and prime ministers-designate, and those leading a government in exile if internationally recognised.

Member and observer states of the United Nations

Colour key
  Green cells indicate leaders whose offices constitutionally administer the executive of their respective state/government.
  Blue cells indicate de facto executive branch leaders whose offices lack de jure constitutional power.
Note: Names in small font generally denote acting, interim, transitional, temporary leaders, or representatives. Other notes and exceptions are provided at § Notes.
State Head of state Head of government
 Afghanistan Supreme Leader – Hibatullah Akhundzada Acting Prime Minister – Hasan Akhund
 Albania President – Bajram Begaj Prime Minister – Edi Rama
 Algeria President – Abdelmadjid Tebboune Prime Minister – Nadir Larbaoui
 Andorra Episcopal Co-Prince – Joan Enric Vives i Sicília
Co-Prince's Representative – Josep Maria Mauri
French Co-Prince – Emmanuel Macron[α]
Co-Prince's Representative – Patrick Strzoda
Prime Minister – Xavier Espot Zamora
 Angola President – João Lourenço
 Antigua and Barbuda King – Charles III[β]
Governor-General – Sir Rodney Williams
Prime Minister – Gaston Browne
 Argentina President – Javier Milei
 Armenia President – Vahagn Khachaturyan Prime Minister – Nikol Pashinyan
 Australia King – Charles III[β]
Governor-General – David Hurley
Prime Minister – Anthony Albanese
 Austria President – Alexander Van der Bellen Chancellor – Karl Nehammer
 Azerbaijan President – Ilham Aliyev Prime Minister – Ali Asadov
 Bahamas, The King – Charles III[β]
Governor-General – Dame Cynthia A. Pratt
Prime Minister – Philip Davis
 Bahrain King – Sheikh Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa Prime Minister – Prince Salman bin Hamad Al Khalifa
 Bangladesh President – Mohammed Shahabuddin Prime Minister – Sheikh Hasina
 Barbados President – Dame Sandra Mason Prime Minister – Mia Mottley
 Belarus President – Alexander Lukashenko[γ] Prime Minister – Roman Golovchenko
 Belgium King – Philippe Prime Minister – Alexander De Croo
 Belize King – Charles III[β]
Governor-General – Dame Froyla Tzalam
Prime Minister – Johnny Briceño
 Benin President – Patrice Talon
 Bhutan King – Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck Prime Minister – Tshering Tobgay
 Bolivia President – Luis Arce
 Bosnia and Herzegovina High Representative – Christian Schmidt[δ]
Presidency[ε] Chairwoman of the Council of Ministers – Borjana Krišto
Members:
 Botswana President – Mokgweetsi Masisi
 Brazil President – Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva
 Brunei Sultan and Prime Minister – Hassanal Bolkiah
 Bulgaria President – Rumen Radev Prime Minister – Nikolai Denkov
 Burkina Faso President of the Patriotic Movement for Safeguard and Restoration – Ibrahim Traoré
Interim President – Ibrahim Traoré Interim Prime Minister – Apollinaire Kyélem
 Burundi President – Évariste Ndayishimiye[γ] Prime Minister – Gervais Ndirakobuca
 Cambodia President of the People's Party – Hun Sen[1]
King – Norodom Sihamoni Prime Minister – Hun Manet
 Cameroon President – Paul Biya[γ] Prime Minister – Joseph Ngute
 Canada King – Charles III[β]
Governor General – Mary Simon
Prime Minister – Justin Trudeau
 Cape Verde President – José Maria Neves Prime Minister – Ulisses Correia e Silva
 Central African Republic President – Faustin-Archange Touadéra[γ] Prime Minister – Félix Moloua
 Chad Transitional President – Mahamat Déby Prime Minister – Succès Masra
 Chile President – Gabriel Boric
 China General Secretary of the Communist Party – Xi Jinping
President – Xi Jinping Premier – Li Qiang
 Colombia President – Gustavo Petro
 Comoros President – Azali Assoumani
 Congo, Democratic Republic of the President – Félix Tshisekedi Prime Minister – Jean-Michel Sama Lukonde
 Congo, Republic of the President – Denis Sassou Nguesso Prime Minister – Anatole Collinet Makosso
 Costa Rica President – Rodrigo Chaves Robles
 Croatia President – Zoran Milanović Prime Minister – Andrej Plenković
 Cuba First Secretary of the Communist Party – Miguel Díaz-Canel
President – Miguel Díaz-Canel Prime Minister – Manuel Marrero Cruz
 Cyprus President – Nikos Christodoulides
 Czech Republic President – Petr Pavel Prime Minister – Petr Fiala
 Denmark King – Frederik X Prime Minister – Mette Frederiksen
 Djibouti President – Ismaïl Omar Guelleh[γ] Prime Minister – Abdoulkader Kamil Mohamed
 Dominica President – Sylvanie Burton Prime Minister – Roosevelt Skerrit
 Dominican Republic President – Luis Abinader
 East Timor President – José Ramos-Horta Prime Minister – Xanana Gusmão
 Ecuador President – Daniel Noboa
 Egypt President – Abdel Fattah el-Sisi Prime Minister – Mostafa Madbouly
 El Salvador President – Nayib Bukele
Acting President – Claudia Rodríguez de Guevara
 Equatorial Guinea President – Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo[γ] Prime Minister – Manuela Roka Botey
 Eritrea President – Isaias Afwerki
 Estonia President – Alar Karis Prime Minister – Kaja Kallas
 Eswatini Ngwenyama – Mswati III Prime Minister – Russell Dlamini
Ndlovukati – Ntfombi
 Ethiopia President – Sahle-Work Zewde Prime Minister – Abiy Ahmed
 Fiji President – Ratu Wiliame Katonivere Prime Minister – Sitiveni Rabuka
 Finland President – Alexander Stubb Prime Minister – Petteri Orpo
 France President – Emmanuel Macron[α] Prime Minister – Gabriel Attal
 Gabon Chairman of the Committee for the Transition and Restoration of Institutions – Brice Oligui Nguema
Transitional President – Brice Oligui Nguema[2] Interim Prime Minister – Raymond Ndong Sima
 Gambia, The President – Adama Barrow
 Georgia President – Salome Zourabichvili Prime Minister – Irakli Kobakhidze
 Germany President – Frank-Walter Steinmeier Chancellor – Olaf Scholz
 Ghana President – Nana Akufo-Addo
 Greece President – Katerina Sakellaropoulou Prime Minister – Kyriakos Mitsotakis
 Grenada King – Charles III[β]
Governor-General – Dame Cécile La Grenade
Prime Minister – Dickon Mitchell
 Guatemala President – Bernardo Arévalo
 Guinea Chairman of the National Committee of Reconciliation and Development – Mamady Doumbouya
Interim President – Mamady Doumbouya Prime Minister – Bah Oury
 Guinea-Bissau President – Umaro Sissoco Embaló Prime Minister – Rui Duarte de Barros
 Guyana President – Irfaan Ali[γ] Prime Minister – Mark Phillips
 Haiti President – Vacant[ζ] Acting Prime Minister – Ariel Henry
 Honduras President – Xiomara Castro
 Hungary Acting President – László Kövér
President-elect – Tamás Sulyok
Prime Minister – Viktor Orbán
 Iceland President – Guðni Th. Jóhannesson Prime Minister – Katrín Jakobsdóttir
 India President – Droupadi Murmu Prime Minister – Narendra Modi
 Indonesia President – Joko Widodo
President-elect – Prabowo Subianto
 Iran Supreme Leader – Ali Khamenei[η] President – Ebrahim Raisi
 Iraq President – Abdul Latif Rashid Prime Minister – Mohammed Shia' Al Sudani
 Ireland President – Michael D. Higgins Taoiseach – Leo Varadkar
 Israel President – Isaac Herzog Prime Minister – Benjamin Netanyahu
 Italy President – Sergio Mattarella Prime Minister – Giorgia Meloni
 Ivory Coast President – Alassane Ouattara[γ] Prime Minister – Robert Beugré Mambé
 Jamaica King – Charles III[β]
Governor-General – Sir Patrick Allen
Prime Minister – Andrew Holness
 Japan Emperor – Naruhito[θ] Prime Minister – Fumio Kishida
 Jordan King – Abdullah II Prime Minister – Bisher Al-Khasawneh
 Kazakhstan President – Kassym-Jomart Tokayev[γ] Prime Minister – Oljas Bektenov
 Kenya President – William Ruto
 Kiribati President – Taneti Maamau
 Kuwait Emir – Sheikh Mishal Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah Prime Minister – Sheikh Mohammad Sabah Al-Salem Al-Sabah
 Kyrgyzstan President – Sadyr Japarov[γ] Chairman of the Cabinet of Ministers – Akylbek Japarov
 Laos General Secretary of the People's Revolutionary Party – Thongloun Sisoulith
President – Thongloun Sisoulith Prime Minister – Sonexay Siphandone
 Latvia President – Edgars Rinkēvičs Prime Minister – Evika Siliņa
 Lebanon President – Vacant Prime Minister – Najib Mikati
 Lesotho King – Letsie III Prime Minister – Sam Matekane
 Liberia President – Joseph Boakai
 Libya Chairman of the Presidential Council – Mohamed al-Menfi Prime Minister – Abdul Hamid Dbeibeh
 Liechtenstein Prince Regnant – Hans-Adam II Prime Minister – Daniel Risch
Regent – Hereditary Prince Alois
 Lithuania President – Gitanas Nausėda Prime Minister – Ingrida Šimonytė
 Luxembourg Grand Duke – Henri Prime Minister – Luc Frieden
 Madagascar President – Andry Rajoelina Prime Minister – Christian Ntsay
 Malawi President – Lazarus Chakwera
 Malaysia Yang di-Pertuan Agong – Ibrahim Iskandar Prime Minister – Anwar Ibrahim
 Maldives President – Mohamed Muizzu
 Mali Interim President – Assimi Goïta[γ] Interim Prime Minister – Choguel Kokalla Maïga
 Malta President – George Vella Prime Minister – Robert Abela
 Marshall Islands President – Hilda Heine
 Mauritania President – Mohamed Ould Ghazouani Prime Minister – Mohamed Ould Bilal
 Mauritius President – Prithvirajsing Roopun Prime Minister – Pravind Jugnauth
 Mexico President – Andrés Manuel López Obrador
 Federated States of Micronesia President – Wesley Simina
 Moldova President – Maia Sandu Prime Minister – Dorin Recean
 Monaco Sovereign Prince – Albert II Minister of State – Pierre Dartout
 Mongolia President – Ukhnaagiin Khürelsükh Prime Minister – Luvsannamsrain Oyun-Erdene
 Montenegro President – Jakov Milatović Prime Minister – Milojko Spajić
 Morocco King – Mohammed VI Prime Minister – Aziz Akhannouch
 Mozambique President – Filipe Nyusi[γ] Prime Minister – Adriano Maleiane
 Myanmar Chairman of the State Administration Council – Min Aung Hlaing
Acting President – Myint Swe Prime Minister – Min Aung Hlaing
 Namibia President – Nangolo Mbumba[γ] Prime Minister – Saara Kuugongelwa
 Nauru President – David Adeang
   Nepal President – Ram Chandra Poudel Prime Minister – Pushpa Kamal Dahal
 Netherlands King – Willem-Alexander Prime Minister – Mark Rutte
 New Zealand King – Charles III[β]
Governor-General – Dame Cindy Kiro[ι]
Prime Minister – Christopher Luxon
 Nicaragua President – Daniel Ortega
 Niger President of the National Council for the Safeguard of the Homeland – Abdourahamane Tchiani Prime Minister – Ali Lamine Zeine[7]
 Nigeria President – Bola Tinubu
 North Korea General Secretary of the Workers' Party – Kim Jong Un
President of the State Affairs Commission – Kim Jong Un Premier – Kim Tok Hun
 North Macedonia President – Stevo Pendarovski Acting Prime Minister – Talat Xhaferi
 Norway King – Harald V Prime Minister – Jonas Gahr Støre
 Oman Sultan and Prime Minister – Haitham bin Tariq
 Pakistan President – Arif Alvi
President-elect – Asif Ali Zardari
Caretaker Prime Minister – Anwaar ul Haq Kakar
Prime minister-designate – Shehbaz Sharif
 Palau President – Surangel Whipps Jr.
 Palestine President – Mahmoud Abbas Caretaker Prime Minister – Mohammad Shtayyeh[8]
 Panama President – Laurentino Cortizo
 Papua New Guinea King – Charles III[β]
Governor-General – Sir Bob Dadae
Prime Minister – James Marape
 Paraguay President – Santiago Peña
 Peru President – Dina Boluarte[γ]
 Philippines President – Bongbong Marcos
 Poland President – Andrzej Duda Prime Minister – Donald Tusk
 Portugal President – Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa Prime Minister – António Costa
 Qatar Emir – Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani Prime Minister – Sheikh Mohammed bin Abdulrahman bin Jassim Al Thani
 Romania President – Klaus Iohannis Prime Minister – Marcel Ciolacu
 Russia President – Vladimir Putin Prime Minister – Mikhail Mishustin
 Rwanda President – Paul Kagame[γ] Prime Minister – Édouard Ngirente
 Saint Kitts and Nevis King – Charles III[β]
Governor-General – Dame Marcella Liburd
Prime Minister – Terrance Drew
 Saint Lucia King – Charles III[β]
Acting Governor-General – Errol Charles
Prime Minister – Philip J. Pierre
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines King – Charles III[β]
Governor-General – Dame Susan Dougan
Prime Minister – Ralph Gonsalves
 Samoa O le Ao o le Malo – Afioga Tuimalealiʻifano Vaʻaletoʻa Sualauvi II Prime Minister – Fiamē Naomi Mataʻafa
 San Marino Captain Regent[κ] – Filippo Tamagnini Secretary for Foreign and Political Affairs – Luca Beccari
Captain Regent[κ] – Gaetano Troina
 São Tomé and Príncipe President – Carlos Vila Nova Prime Minister – Patrice Trovoada
 Saudi Arabia King – Salman Prime Minister – Mohammed bin Salman
 Senegal President – Macky Sall[γ] Prime Minister – Amadou Ba
 Serbia President – Aleksandar Vučić Prime Minister – Ana Brnabić
 Seychelles President – Wavel Ramkalawan
 Sierra Leone President – Julius Maada Bio[γ] Chief Minister – David Moinina Sengeh
 Singapore President – Tharman Shanmugaratnam Prime Minister – Lee Hsien Loong
 Slovakia President – Zuzana Čaputová Prime Minister – Robert Fico
 Slovenia President – Nataša Pirc Musar Prime Minister – Robert Golob
 Solomon Islands King – Charles III[β]
Governor-General – Sir David Vunagi
Prime Minister – Manasseh Sogavare
 Somalia President – Hassan Sheikh Mohamud Prime Minister – Hamza Abdi Barre
 South Africa President – Cyril Ramaphosa
 South Korea President – Yoon Suk-yeol[γ]
 South Sudan President – Salva Kiir Mayardit
 Spain King – Felipe VI Prime Minister – Pedro Sánchez
 Sri Lanka President – Ranil Wickremesinghe[γ] Prime Minister – Dinesh Gunawardena
 Sudan Transitional Sovereignty Council[λ] Acting Prime Minister – Osman Hussein
Abdel Fattah al-Burhan (Chairman)
Other members:[12][13]
  • Malik Agar (Deputy Chairman)
  • Shams al-Din Khabbashi
  • Yasser al-Atta
  • Ibrahim Jabir Karim
  • El Hadi Idris Yahya
  • El Tahrir Abubakr Hajar
  • Raja Nicola
  • Abdulgasim Bortom
  • Yousef Jad Karim
  • Abdelbagi al-Zubeir
  • Salma Abdeljabbar
 Suriname President – Chan Santokhi
 Sweden King – Carl XVI Gustaf Prime Minister – Ulf Kristersson
  Switzerland Federal Council[μ]
 Syria President – Bashar al-Assad[γ] Prime Minister – Hussein Arnous
 Tajikistan President – Emomali Rahmon[γ] Prime Minister – Kokhir Rasulzoda
 Tanzania President – Samia Suluhu Hassan[γ] Prime Minister – Kassim Majaliwa
 Thailand King – Maha Vajiralongkorn Prime Minister – Srettha Thavisin
 Togo President – Faure Gnassingbé[γ] Prime Minister – Victoire Tomegah Dogbé
 Tonga King – Tupou VI Prime Minister – Siaosi Sovaleni
 Trinidad and Tobago President – Christine Kangaloo Prime Minister – Keith Rowley
 Tunisia President – Kaïs Saïed[γ] Prime Minister – Ahmed Hachani
 Turkey President – Recep Tayyip Erdoğan
 Turkmenistan Chairman of the People's Council – Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow[14]
President – Serdar Berdimuhamedow
 Tuvalu King – Charles III[β]
Governor-General – Sir Tofiga Vaevalu Falani
Prime Minister – Feleti Teo
 Uganda President – Yoweri Museveni[γ] Prime Minister – Robinah Nabbanja
 Ukraine President – Volodymyr Zelenskyy Prime Minister – Denys Shmyhal
 United Arab Emirates President – Sheikh Mohamed bin Zayed Al Nahyan Prime Minister – Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum
 United Kingdom King – Charles III Prime Minister – Rishi Sunak
 United States President – Joe Biden
 Uruguay President – Luis Lacalle Pou
 Uzbekistan President – Shavkat Mirziyoyev[γ] Prime Minister – Abdulla Aripov
 Vanuatu President – Nikenike Vurobaravu Prime Minister – Charlot Salwai
 Vatican City (Holy See) Sovereign – Pope Francis President of the Governorate – Cardinal Fernando Vérgez Alzaga
 Venezuela President – Nicolás Maduro
 Vietnam General Secretary of the Communist Party – Nguyễn Phú Trọng
President – Võ Văn Thưởng Prime Minister – Phạm Minh Chính
 Yemen Chairman of the Presidential Leadership Council – Rashad al-Alimi Prime Minister – Ahmad Awad bin Mubarak
 Zambia President – Hakainde Hichilema
 Zimbabwe President – Emmerson Mnangagwa

Other states

The following states are in free association with another UN member state.

State Associated with Head of state Head of government
 Cook Islands  New Zealand King – Charles III[ν]
King's Representative – Sir Tom Marsters
Prime Minister – Mark Brown
 Niue  New Zealand King – Charles III[ν]
King's Representative – Dame Cindy Kiro[ι]
Premier – Dalton Tagelagi

The following states control at least part of their territory and are recognised by at least one UN member state.

State Also claimed by Head of state Head of government
 Abkhazia  Georgia President – Aslan Bzhania Prime Minister – Aleksander Ankvab
 Republic of China (Taiwan)  People's Republic of China President – Tsai Ing-wen Premier – Chen Chien-jen
President-elect – Lai Ching-te
 Kosovo  Serbia President – Vjosa Osmani Prime Minister – Albin Kurti
 Northern Cyprus  Cyprus President – Ersin Tatar Prime Minister – Ünal Üstel
 Sahrawi Republic  Morocco General Secretary of the Polisario Front – Brahim Ghali
President – Brahim Ghali Prime Minister – Bouchraya Hammoudi Bayoun
 South Ossetia  Georgia President – Alan Gagloyev Prime Minister – Konstantin Dzhussoyev

The following states control their territory, but are not recognised by any UN member states.

State Also claimed by Head of state Head of government
 Somaliland  Somalia President – Muse Bihi Abdi
 Transnistria  Moldova President – Vadim Krasnoselsky Prime Minister – Aleksander Rozenberg

Other governments

These alternative governments control part of their territory and are recognised as legitimate by at least one UN member state.

Government State Head of state Head of government
 Supreme Political Council  Yemen Leader of Ansar Allah – Abdul-Malik al-Houthi[15]
Chairman – Mahdi al-Mashat Prime Minister – Abdel-Aziz bin Habtour
 Syrian National Coalition  Syria President – Hadi al-Bahra Prime Minister – Abdurrahman Mustafa

These alternative governments control part of their territory, but are not recognized as legitimate by any UN member states.

Government State Head of state Head of government
 Government of National Stability  Libya Supreme Commander of the Libyan National Army – Khalifa Haftar
Chairman of the Presidential Council – Mohamed al-Menfi[ξ] Acting Prime Minister – Osama Hammad[16]
Hamas government in Gaza  Palestine Hamas Chief in the Gaza Strip – Yahya Sinwar
President – Mahmoud Abbas[ο] Head of the Government Administrative Committee – Essam al-Da'alis
 National Unity Government  Myanmar Acting President – Duwa Lashi La Prime Minister – Mahn Win Khaing Than
 Syrian Salvation Government  Syria Commander-in-Chief of Tahrir al-Sham – Abu Mohammad al-Julani[17]
President of the General Shura Council – Mustafa al-Mousa Prime Minister – Ali Keda

These alternative governments do not control their territory but are recognized as legitimate by at least one UN member state.

Government State Head of state Head of government
 Coordination Council  Belarus President and Head of the Cabinet – Sviatlana Tsikhanouskaya
 National Assembly (2015)  Venezuela President of the National Assembly – Dinorah Figuera[18]

Sui generis entities

Entity Head of entity Head of government
 European Union President of the European Council – Charles Michel[19] President of the European Commission – Ursula von der Leyen[20] 
Sovereign Military Order of Malta Prince and Grand Master – John T. Dunlap Grand Chancellor – Riccardo Paternò di Montecupo

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b The President of France and the French Co-Prince of Andorra are positions held by the same person.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Charles III is separately and equally monarch of 15 sovereign states known collectively as the Commonwealth realms. In each of these states (with the exception of the United Kingdom, where he permanently resides), he is represented at the national level by a governor-general.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z In this state, the president is both head of state and head of government; the office of prime minister may exist in these states, but it does not direct executive power—nor does the Kyrgyzstani Chairman of the Cabinet of Ministers, the Peruvian President of the Council of Ministers, or the Sierra Leonean Chief Minister.
  4. ^ The high representative is an international civilian overseer of the Dayton Agreement with authority to dismiss elected and non-elected officials and enact legislation.
  5. ^ The three-member Bosnian presidency is the head of state collectively.
  6. ^ According to the Constitution of Haiti as amended in 2012, the Council of Ministers collectively carries out the duties of the presidency during a presidential vacancy. The presidency has been vacant since the assassination of Jovenel Moïse in 2021.[3][4][5][6]
  7. ^ According to articles 89 to 91 of the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran, the Supreme Leader of Iran is the head of state, and the President is the head of government. The President is required to gain the Supreme Leader's official approval before being sworn in before Parliament, and the Supreme Leader also has the power to dismiss the elected President at any time.
  8. ^ The constitution of Japan does not define a formal head of state, but the Emperor by unwritten constitutional convention fulfills the functions and duties of this role.
  9. ^ a b The Governor-General of New Zealand and the King's Representative of Niue are positions held by the same person.
  10. ^ a b The Captain Regent representing the party with a plurality of seats in the legislature of San Marino, the Grand and General Council, exercises more legislative power than the Captain Regent belonging to the opposition.
  11. ^ The Transitional Sovereignty Council is the collective head of state of Sudan per the 2019 Draft Constitutional Declaration. While the council was intended to be a unity government incorporating civilian and military elements that used consensus decision making, Chairman Abdel Fattah al-Burhan, who is also Commander-in-Chief of the Sudanese Armed Forces, has monopolized power.[9][10][11]
  12. ^ The seven-member Swiss Federal Council is collectively head of state and government. As a party to the Council, the President serves solely in a primus inter pares capacity for one year.
  13. ^ a b Charles III is head of state of the Cook Islands and Niue in his capacity as King in Right of New Zealand. He is represented in each of these states by a King's Representative.
  14. ^ Al-Menfi is also considered head of state by the internationally-recognized Government of National Unity. Hamada is disputing the premiership of Abdul Hamid Dbeibeh, with the backing of the House of Representatives and the Libyan National Army.
  15. ^ Internationally-recognized president also recognized by Hamas since the Palestinian Unity Government of June 2014

References

  1. ^ Cai, Derek; Head, Jonathan (7 August 2023). "Cambodia: PM's son Hun Manet appointed next ruler in royal formality". Singapore: BBC News. Retrieved 7 August 2023. Hun Sen will however retain leadership of the ruling Cambodian People's Party - a position political analysts say still gives him ultimate control. • Murphy, Matt (6 August 2023). "Hun Sen: Cambodia election result confirms expected win for PM". BBC News. Retrieved 7 August 2023. [Hun Sen] is expected to become president of the Senate early next year and will serve as acting head of state when King Norodom Sihamoni is abroad.
  2. ^ "General Nguema appointed transitional president of Gabon following coup". Anadolu Agency. Kigali. 30 August 2023. Retrieved 31 August 2023.
  3. ^ Méheut, Constant; Crowley, Michael; Kitroeff, Natalie; Kurmanaev, Anatoly; Porter, Catherine (19 July 2021). "Political Crisis in Haiti Deepens Over Rival Claims to Power". The New York Times. Retrieved 20 May 2023.
  4. ^ "Haiti's Constitution of 1987 with Amendments through 2012" (PDF). Constitute Project. Retrieved 20 May 2023.
  5. ^ Fatton, Robert (23 July 2021). "Will Haitians get the chance to determine their future — without foreign interference?". The Washington Post. Retrieved 20 May 2023. On Tuesday, Henry was sworn in, pledging to hold new elections in 120 days. For now, Haiti has no president[...].
  6. ^ Sullivan, Becky (18 January 2023). "As its only remaining elected officials depart, Haiti reaches a breaking point". NPR. Retrieved 20 May 2023. The constitutional mandate of Haiti's de facto ruler, Prime Minister Ariel Henry — which some viewed as questionable from the start, as he was never technically sworn in — ended more than a year ago. The country has had no president since its last one, Jovenel Moïse, was assassinated in 2021.
  7. ^ "Niger military names 21-person cabinet ahead of key West African summit". Al Jazeera. 10 August 2023. Retrieved 14 August 2023.
  8. ^ Sawafta, Ali (26 February 2024). "Palestinian Prime Minister Shtayyeh resigns". Reuters. Reuters. Retrieved 26 February 2024. Abbas accepted Shtayyeh's resignation and asked him to stay on as caretaker until a permanent replacement is appointed.
  9. ^ "Sudan's Constitution of 2019" (PDF). Retrieved 23 March 2023.
  10. ^ "Sudan's reinstated PM Hamdok promises a path to democracy". Al Jazeera. 22 November 2021. Retrieved 22 March 2023. The 14-point deal between Hamdok and the military, signed in the presidential palace in Khartoum on Sunday, also provides for the release of all political prisoners detained during the coup and stipulates that a 2019 constitutional declaration be the basis for a political transition, according to details read out on state television.
  11. ^ Olewe, Dickens (20 February 2023). "Mohamed 'Hemeti' Dagalo: Top Sudan military figure says coup was a mistake". BBC News. Retrieved 23 March 2023.
  12. ^ "Sudan coup leader restores restructured Sovereignty Council". Radio Dabanga. Khartoum. 11 November 2021. Retrieved 26 March 2023.
  13. ^ "Sudan's Burhan dismisses Hemedti of his position". Al Bawaba. Retrieved 19 May 2023.
  14. ^ "Turkmenistan's president expands his father's power". Associated Press. Ashgabat. 22 January 2023. Retrieved 29 January 2023.
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External links

  • CIDOB Foundation (in Spanish)—contextualised biographies of world political leaders
  • EmilePhaneuf—an archived, partial list of official websites for heads of state
  • Portale Storia (in Italian)—a list of current rulers by country
  • Rulers—a list of rulers throughout time and places
  • United Nations—a list of heads of state, heads of government, and foreign ministers