List of current heads of state and government
This is a list of current heads of state and heads of government. In some cases, mainly in presidential systems, there is only one leader being both head of state and head of government. In other cases, mainly in semi-presidential and parliamentary systems, the head of state and the head of government are different people. In semi-presidential and parliamentary systems, the head of government role (i.e. executive branch) is fulfilled by both the listed head of government and the head of state.
The list includes the names of recently elected or appointed heads of state and government who will take office on an appointed date, as presidents-elect and prime ministers-designate, and those leading a government in exile if internationally recognised.
Member and observer states of the United Nations
Green cells indicate leaders whose offices constitutionally administer the executive of their respective state/government.
Blue cells indicate non–ceremonial heads of state with limited power (e.g. Bhutan) or de facto government leaders whose offices lack de jure constitutional power (e.g. Peru).
- Note: Names in small font generally denote acting, transitional, temporary leaders, or representatives. Other notes and exceptions are provided at § Notes.
The following states control their territory and are recognised by at least one UN member state.
|State||Also claimed by||Head of state||Head of government|
|Abkhazia||Georgia||President – Aslan Bzhania||Prime Minister – Alexander Ankvab|
|Republic of China (Taiwan)||People's Republic of China||President – Tsai Ing-wen||President of the Executive Yuan – Su Tseng-chang|
|Cook Islands||New Zealand[ν]||Queen – Elizabeth II[β]
Queen's Representative – Tom Marsters
|Prime Minister – Mark Brown|
|Kosovo||Serbia||President – Vjosa Osmani||Prime Minister – Albin Kurti|
|Niue||New Zealand[ν]||Queen – Elizabeth II[β]
Governor-General – Dame Patsy Reddy[θ]
Governor-general-designate – Dame Cindy Kiro
|Premier – Dalton Tagelagi|
|Northern Cyprus||Cyprus||President – Ersin Tatar||Prime Minister – Ersan Saner|
|Sahrawi Republic||Morocco||General Secretary of the Polisario Front – Brahim Ghali|
|President – Brahim Ghali||Prime Minister – Bouchraya Hammoudi Bayoun|
|South Ossetia||Georgia||President – Anatoly Bibilov||Prime Minister – Gennady Bekoyev|
The following states control their territory, but are not recognised by any UN member states.
|State||Also claimed by||Head of state||Head of government|
|Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan||Afghanistan||Emir – Mawlawi Hibatullah Akhundzada|
|Artsakh||Azerbaijan||President – Arayik Harutyunyan|
|Donetsk People's Republic||Ukraine||Head of the Republic – Denis Pushilin||Prime Minister – Alexander Ananchenko|
|Luhansk People's Republic||Ukraine||Head of the Republic – Leonid Pasechnik||Prime Minister – Sergey Kozlov|
|Somaliland||Somalia||President – Muse Bihi Abdi|
|Transnistria||Moldova||President – Vadim Krasnoselsky||Prime Minister – Aleksandr Martynov|
These alternative governments are recognized as legitimate by at least one UN member.
Sui generis entities
- President of the Republic
- List of countries by system of government
- List of current longest-ruling non-royal national leaders
- List of current state leaders by date of assumption of office
- List of current monarchs of sovereign states
- List of current vice presidents and designated acting presidents
- List of current foreign ministers
- List of current presidents of legislatures
- List of elected and appointed female heads of state and government
- List of leaders of dependent territories
- List of oldest living state leaders
- List of national governments
- Lists of state leaders
- Lists of state leaders by year
- List of state leaders in the 21st century
- List of state leaders in 2021
- The President of France and the French Co-Prince of Andorra are positions held by the same person.
- Constitutionally, Elizabeth II is separately and equally monarch of 16 sovereign states—alongside the United Kingdom (UK)—known collectively as the Commonwealth realms. In each of these states, with the exception of the UK (where she permanently resides), she is duly represented at the national level by a governor-general.
- The three-member Bosnian presidency is the head of state collectively.
- In this state, the president is both head of state and head of government; the office of prime minister may exist in these states, but it does not direct executive power—nor does the Kyrgyzstani Chairman of the Cabinet of Ministers, the Myanma/Burmese State Counsellor, the Peruvian President of the Council of Ministers, the Saudi Arabian First Deputy Prime Minister, or the Sierra Leonean Chief Minister.
- According to articles 89 to 91 of the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran, the Supreme Leader of Iran is the head of state, and the President is the head of government. However, the President is still required to gain the Supreme Leader's official approval before being sworn in before Parliament, and the Supreme Leader also has the power to dismiss the elected President at any time.
- In actuality the constitution of Japan does not define a formal head of state. The Emperor by unwritten constitutional convention fulfills the functions and duties of the head of state.
- As part of a cease fire agreement, the three-member Libyan presidency is the head of state collectively.
- The Governor-General of New Zealand and the Governor-General of Niue are positions held by the same person.
- The term "Supreme Leader" is used as a description (for the sake of brevity) rather than being an official title of a single office.
The three actual offices held by Kim are:
- General Secretary of the Workers' Party of Korea
- President of the State Affairs Commission of the DPRK—constitutionally defined as the supreme leader of North Korea
- Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the DPRK
- The Chairman of the Standing Committee of the Supreme People's Assembly accepts the credentials of foreign ambassadors and represents North Korea on all state visits—ceremonial functions usually performed by heads of state in other states. The Chairman of the Supreme People's Assembly has held these duties since 1998, when the constitution was revised.
- The seven-member Swiss Federal Council is collectively head of state and government. As a party to the Council, the President serves solely in a primus inter pares capacity for one year.
- The office of head of state of Venezuela has been disputed between Nicolás Maduro and the President of the National Assembly of Venezuela, Juan Guaidó, since 11 January 2019. See also the Other governments section of this list article.
- States in free association with New Zealand.
- CIDOB Foundation (in Spanish)—contextualised biographies of world political leaders
- EmilePhaneuf—an archived, partial list of official websites for heads of state
- Portale Storia (in Italian)—a list of current rulers by country
- Rulers—a list of rulers throughout time and places
- United Nations—a list of heads of state, heads of government, and foreign ministers