List of current heads of state and government
This is a list of current heads of state and government, showing heads of state and heads of government where different, mainly in parliamentary systems. Often a leader is both in presidential systems. Some states have semi-presidential systems, where the head of government role (i.e. executive branch) is fulfilled by both the listed head of government and head of state.
The list includes the names of recently elected or appointed heads who will take office on an appointed date.
Member and observer states of the United Nations
- de jure) individually administer the governmental executive, legislature Yellow highlighted cells indicate state leaders whose constitutionally interpreted positions (e.g.
- de facto) further systemic influence, authority within their governance Blue highlighted cells distinguish heads of state chiefly regarded as exercising (e.g.
- Names in small font generally denote acting, transitional, temporary leaders or representatives
- Other notes and exceptions are provided in the Notes section below.
The following states control their territory and are recognised by at least one UN member state.
The following states/governments control their territory, but are not recognised by any UN member states.
These alternative governments are recognised as a sovereign state by at least one UN member.
- List of countries by system of government
- List of current dependent territory leaders
- List of current foreign ministers
- List of current longest ruling non-royal national leaders
- List of current Permanent Representatives to the United Nations
- List of current presidents of assembly
- List of current state leaders by date of assumption of office
- List of current vice presidents
- List of elected and appointed female heads of state
- List of elected or appointed female heads of government
- List of leaders of dependent territories
- List of longest-ruling non-royal national leaders since 1900
- List of state leaders in 2016
- Lists of state leaders
- Lists of state leaders by year
- In this state, the president is both head of state and government; the office of prime minister may exist in these states, but it does not direct executive power—neither does the Argentine Chief of the Cabinet of Ministers nor the Afghan Chief Executive Officer, either.
- The President of France and the French Co-Prince of Andorra are positions held by the same person.
- Elizabeth is separately and equally monarch of 16 sovereign states known collectively as the Commonwealth realms. In each of these states, with the exception of the United Kingdom—where she predominantly resides—she is represented at the national level by a governor-general (unhyphenated in Canada as governor general). In some of these states, opinion differs as to whether the Queen or governor-general should be designated as head of state; there is no questioning of the Queen's position as sovereign, above the governors-general, however.
- The three-member Bosnian presidency is head of state collectively.
- The Governor-General of New Zealand and the Governor-General of Niue are positions held by the same person.
- The term Supreme Leader is used as a description, for the sake of brevity, rather than being an official title of a single office. The actual offices held by Kim are: First Secretary of the Workers' Party of Korea; First Chairman of the National Defence Commission; Supreme Commander of the Korean People's Army.
- The President (otherwise known as Chairman) of the Presidium of the Supreme People's Assembly accepts the credentials of foreign ambassadors, signs treaties, receives visiting heads of state, and represents North Korea on all state visits—ceremonial functions normally performed by Heads of State in other states. The president has held these duties since 1998, when the constitution was revised.
- As of 1 October 2015[update], the Sammarinese Grand and General Council holds more parliamentary seats belonging to the former partner's political party (Christian Democratic Party) than those for the latter's party (Popular Alliance)—thus, it can be argued and inferred that the former exercises wider legislative capabilities between the partnership and from the diarchy through the coalition government and legislative body itself, and hence San Marino.
- The seven-member Swiss Federal Council is head of state and government collectively. Within this executive council, the president serves solely in a primus inter pares capacity for one year.
- In theory, Erdoğan is barred from wielding political power and as the Turkish head of state is, in strict accordance with the constitution of 1982 (which, as of 2016, remains unamended since a 2010 referendum), legislatively bound to act in a ceremonial capacity. In spite of this, he has continued to maintain his cultivated strongman persona, and is widely perceived by both the Turkish public and media in general as, in practice, the sole paramount leader of Turkey—notwithstanding his resignation as prime minister and (unprecedentedly with his direct 2014 election, held two weeks earlier, as the first consented via universal suffrage) then immediate elevation to the Turkish presidency. Moreover, due to the non-conforming and seemingly unconstitutional nature of these circumstances, pertaining explanations have usually referred to his sustained partisan leverage exerted vis-à-vis his personally loyal Justice and Development Party (AKP), the ruling majority political party he founded and then formally led in 2001–14, as the extended root of his political capital.
- States in free association with New Zealand.
- CIDOB Foundation (Spanish)—contextualised biographies of world political leaders
- EmilePhaneuf.com—an archived, partial list of official websites for heads of state
- Portale Storia (Spanish)—a list of current rulers by country
- Rulers—a list of rulers throughout time and places
- United Nations—a list of heads of state, heads of government, and foreign ministers
- WorldStatesmen.org—an online encyclopedia of the leaders of nations and territories