|• Jawi||بندارايا ملاک|
|• Simplified Chinese||马六甲市|
|• Tamil||மலாக்கா மாநகரம்|
|Nickname(s): Bandaraya Bersejarah
|Granted city status||2003|
|• Mayor||Zainal Hussin|
|• City||277 km2 (107 sq mi)|
|• Metro||307.86 km2 (118.87 sq mi)|
|Elevation||6 m (20 ft)|
|Time zone||MST (UTC+8)|
|• Summer (DST)||Not observed (UTC)|
|Postal code||75xxx to 78xxx|
Malacca City (Malaysian pronunciation: [ˈbanˈdar ˈməˈlaˈka] Jawi: بندر ملاک Chinese: 马六甲市; pinyin: ma liu jia shi Tamil: மலாக்கா மாநகரம்), formerly known as Kota Melaka, is the capital city of the Malaysian state of Malacca. It had a population of 484,885 as of 2010. It is one of the Malaysian oldest cities in the Straits of Malacca with the other being Alor Setar and George Town, having become a successful entrepôt during the era of the Malacca Sultanate. The present-day city was founded by Parameswara, a Sumatran prince who had escaped to the Malay Peninsula when Srivijaya fell to the Majapahit. Following the establishment of the Malacca Sultanate, it drew the attention of traders from the Middle East, South Asia and East Asia, as well as the Portuguese, who intended to dominate the trade route in Asia. After Malacca was conquered by Portugal, it became an area of conflict when the sultanates of Aceh and Johor began to attempt to take control from the Portuguese.
Aceh weakened following a number of wars between these territories, while Johor survived and expanded its influence over territory previously lost to Aceh in Sumatra when they co-operated with the Dutch who arrived to establish dominance over Java and Maluku Islands. However, due to royal internal strife between the Malay and Bugis, the Johor-Riau Empire was divided into the sultanates of Johor and Riau-Lingga. This separation became a permanent divide when the British arrived to establish their presence in the Malay Peninsula. The Dutch, who already felt threatened in the presence of the British, began conquering the Riau-Lingga Sultanate along with the rest of Sumatra, while Johor came under the British influence following the signing of the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824.
When the British managed to extend their influence over the Malay Peninsula, the town soon became an area of development under the Straits Settlements as part of the British Empire. The development and prosperity was however halted when the Japanese arrived as part of World War II from 1942 to 1945. During the occupation, many of the town's residents were taken and forced to construct the Death Railway in Burma (present-day Myanmar). After the war, the town was returned to the British and remained as the capital of Malacca. This was continued until the formation of Malaysia in 1963, and in 2008, it was listed as one of Malaysian UNESCO World Heritage Site together with George Town of Penang for its long history.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Capital city
- 4 Geography
- 5 Demography
- 6 Economy
- 7 Transport
- 8 Other utilities
- 9 Culture and leisure
- 10 International relations
- 11 See also
- 12 References
- 13 External links
According to legend, the site that is now the city was named Melaka when Parameswara, who had fled from Sumatra, arrived there. While he was resting under a tree known as a Melaka tree, he saw his warrior's hunting dogs were challenged and kicked into a river by a tiny mouse deer. Amused by this, he choose to name the site Melaka since he was resting under a Melaka tree while watching this occur. When the town came under Portuguese administration, its name was spelt "Malaca", under Dutch administration as "Malakka" or "Malacka", while under British rule, the town's name was spelt "Malacca". The Straits of Malacca were named after the town at the time of the Malacca Sultanate.
Founding of Malacca
Malacca Town was established when Parameswara, who had escaped from Palembang in Sumatra, decided to built a new kingdom following Malay Srivijaya's fall in 1377 after being attacked by Javanese Majapahit. Before he reached the site, he arrived in Temasek which he decided to make the centre of the new Malay Kingdom's administration. But when Parameswara lived there, he killed a Malay chief appointed by the Siamese King as the Regent of Singapura named Temagi to take over the throne. Fearing for a further reprisals by Siam when the news reached the Siamese Kingdom, Parameswara decided to move into a new place while leaving Temasek which was then attacked by Majapahit. He then headed to the north of Malay Peninsula and arriving at Muar where he tried to establish another new kingdom at either Biawak Busuk or Kota Buruk, but found the locations were unsuitable.
He continue his journey to the north where he reportedly visited Sening Ujong (now Sungai Ujong) before arriving at a Malay fishing village at the mouth of Bertam River (now Malacca River). He decided to stop there to have a rest. While he was resting under a tree, he saw his follower's hunting dogs fighting with a small mouse deer before being kicked out into a river. Amused by this, he thought the place he rested must be a weird place; following this happening in 1396 he announced the place was called Melaka. Soon, the site became the centre of the Malay world in the 15th and the 16th centuries and was the most prosperous entrepôt in the Malay Archipelago. During the time, many Arabs, Persian, Gujaratis, Tamils, Bengalis and Chinese come to trade. Other group found riches in the prosperous of the entrepôt including the Japanese, Siamese and Jews. To prevent the Malaccan empire from falling to the Siamese and Majapahit, he forged a relationship with the Ming Dynasty of China for protection. Following the establishment of these relations, the prosperousness of the Malacca entrepôt was then recorded by the first Chinese visitor, Ma Huan, who travelled together with Admiral Zheng He. On his descriptions, he wrote;
Malacca was a well-established town surrounded by a palisade with four gates and watch towers. Inside the walled towers was a second fortification, a kind of citadel, within whose confines were the merchants' godowns, the treasury and food storehouses. The Malacca River divided the town into two almost equal halves, the southern half being the inner citadel and the ruler's compound and the northern half, reached by a bridge some distance from the river mouth, containing the residents of many foreign merchants. The bridge and its approaches comprised the main venue for all commercial kinds. Constructed on the bridge was about a score of market stalls: an easy location for small watercraft to reach with their loads of produce and also close to the docks where foreign sea-going vessels unloaded goods for transhipment.— Ma Huan, Chinese Muslim voyager and translator.
Due to the large influence of Arab, Persian and Indian traders, Malacca soon turned into an Islamic sultanate and Parameswara was converted to Islam when he married a princess from Pasai, thus changing his name to Sultan Iskandar Shah. With the rise of Malacca as an empire, both the Majapahit and Siamese kingdoms were unable to conquer it, especially with the Chinese protection. During this time, an Hindu−Malay and Tamil−Malay society were also formed. He died in 1414 and the throne was succeeded by his son, Megat Iskandar Shah. Malacca Town continued to prosper until the eighth Sultanate of Malacca Mahmud Shah, with different races who came to trade associated with particular trade specialties; the Gujaratis, Tamils, and Bengalis were mostly cloth merchants, the Arabs and Persians waiting for their vessels to be filled with goods from China, the Chinese mainly dealt in silk, camphor and porcelain while the natives of Malay Archipelago, like the Bugis and other island peoples, were mainly spice and sandalwood traders, and the Minangkabau brought pepper with some gold, while the Javanese mainly controlled the rice and imported foodstuffs. The Chinese established their own place in the town like other traders, occupying the southeast side of the port around a hill called Bukit Cina, where they constructed temples and a well called Hang Li Poh's Well, named after Hang Li Po, the fifth wife of the sixth Sultan of Malacca, Mansur Shah, who is a Chinese princess from the Ming Dynasty.
Due to its riches, the news of the success of Malacca reached the Portuguese who had an established presence on Indian ports. The Portuguese, under King Manuel I, sent a representative named Diogo Lopes de Sequeira to establish contact with the Sultanate. At the first, Sequeira was well received by Sultan Mahmud Shah. But the Tamil Muslim community, who already had an established presence in Malacca, convinced the Sultan to eliminate the Portuguese based on their treatment of the Muslims of Goa. Reacting to the report, Sultan Mahmud then ordered several men from the Portuguese representative to be captured and killed, but some of them managed to escape with their ships. Thus in April 1511, Afonso de Albuquerque who was the Portuguese expedition leader together with his armada, arrived in Malacca to sever its Islamic and Venetian trade. His intention was described within his own words when he arrived to Malacca:
If they were only to take "Malaca" out of the hands of the Moors, Cairo and Mecca would be entirely ruined, and Venice would then be able to obtain no spiceries except what her merchants might buy in Portugal.
The Portuguese launch their first attack on 25 July 1511 but this was met with failure. Albuquerque then launched another attack on 15 August 1511, this attack proved successful as Malacca Town was captured on that day. After successfully capturing the town, the Portuguese constructed a fortress called A Famosa using rocks and stones taken from Muslim graves, mosques and other buildings. A numbers of churches, convents, a bishop's palace together with administrative buildings such as the governor's place were built. The Portuguese imposed higher taxes over Chinese traders and restricted their ownership of land. The news of the town's capture reached the Ming Dynasty of China, while the Chinese were also displeased about many Chinese children having been kidnapped by the Portuguese in Tuen Mun since their arrival from Malacca. As a retaliation to Portugal's activity in Malacca, a number of Portuguese were later killed by the Chinese in the Battles of Tunmen and Xicaowan in China.
By the mid-16th century, the two sultanates of Aceh and Johor had arisen to take control of the town of Malacca from the Portuguese which then became the centre of struggle between the three. By 1564, Aceh had retaken Aru (a territory which Sumatra had previously lost to Johor) and destroyed Johor's capital, Johor Lama, with the Johor Royal Family at the time been taken to Aceh to rule Johor as a vassal state. Other attacks were done in 1570, 1613 and in 1623, when Johor tried to breakaway from Aceh. Aceh's ambition for domination later led to a clash with the Portuguese in Malacca. The three involved in a triangular war but when both the Portuguese and the Johor saw Aceh as a threat due to its constant attacks against them, the two began to collaborate to fight Aceh. In 1582, the Portuguese assisted Johor to thwart an attack by Aceh but relations ended when Johor attacked the Portuguese in 1587. Aceh continued its attacks against the Portuguese, and was later destroyed when a large additional armada from the Portuguese port in Goa came to defend the town of Malacca and destroy the sultanate.
After Aceh was left weakened, the Dutch East India Company (VOC) arrived and Johor formed a treaty with them to flush out the Portuguese in the second capture of Malacca. The Dutch succeeded at overtaking the town while Johor managed to re-establish its suzerainty over many of its former dependencies in Sumatra, such as Siak (1662) and Indragiri (1669). The Dutch expand the size of the fort town and built a significant amount of additional infrastructure. But as the Dutch had less interest in the Malay Peninsula and Sumatra than they had in Java and the Maluku Islands; the Dutch remained neutral in local disputes between Malay Sultanates there until 1756 when the Bugis who rule the Riau-Lingga Sultanate began to threat Dutch maritime trade, until the 18th century, when English rivalry started to establish its presence over areas in the northern Malay Peninsula named Prince of Wales Island and Province Wellesley (now Penang Island and Seberang Perai, Penang). The Dutch began to seize the Bugis areas of Riau and expelled the Bugis from both Riau and Selangor, fearing these areas would fall under British rule. Malacca town were placed under direct control from Batavia (present-day Jakarta, Indonesia).
However, from 1795 until 1818, Malacca was temporary placed under British Resident as the Netherlands have been conquered by France in the Napoleonic Wars before being returned to the Dutch on 1818. As a consequence to the British invasion of Java in 1811 from France, a treaty was later signed in 1824 between the British and Dutch, resulting in the Johor-Riau Empire separated under two colonial powers along with Malacca which was then officially handed to the British in 1825 and integrated as part of the Straits Settlements. The town came under direct control from a Resident in Penang and the old fort in the town was then dismantled. The British set a regulation for the transformation of infrastructure with the construction of, for example, back alleys, chimneys, back yards, fire escapes, fire alleys, and pedestrian arcades.
World War II, post-independence and present
|Malacca and George Town, Historic Cities of the Straits of Malacca|
|Name as inscribed on the World Heritage List|
|Criteria||ii, iii, iv|
|Inscription||2008 (32nd Session)|
During the first stage of the World War II, the town's residents continued to live normally until the news of the Sinking of Prince of Wales and Repulse on 10 December 1941 reached the town and struck panic. British colonial officials began to flee and thousands of the town's residents hide in rubber estates and jungles since they heard about the Japanese cruelty committed in other parts of Malaya following them being conquered by the Japanese. The Japanese Army arrived in the town on 14 January 1942 in a convoy of bicycles, but as they mainly focusing on the retreatment of the British to the south of Malay Peninsula of Singapore, there was no major battle in the town or other parts of Malacca. During their occupation, a kempeitai headquarters was established in a former British building of "Government Rest House" which served as a place for arrests, torture and executions. Those who still lived in the town were given low rice rations with tapioca supplement and a number of them were taken to Thailand and forced to construct the Burma–Siam Railway.
When the Allies began to counter-attack the Japanese, they officially surrendered to the Allies on August 1945 with the town left undamaged as there were no heavy battles and administered as part of the British Military Administration until the formation of the Malayan Union and then the Federation of Malaya. After Malaya achieved its independence on 31 August 1957, a colonial building named "Malacca Club" was built by the British in the town as the social centre for Britons in British Malaya. The building was then turned into a memorial after 38 years to commemorate the Malayan independence day. After the Federation of Malaya, together with North Borneo, Sarawak and Singapore formed the Federation of Malaysia in 1963, Malacca was extensively developed and in 2003 it was granted city status. On 7 July 2008, Malacca City was listed as one of the historical cities in Malaysia, together with George Town in the northern Malay Peninsula.
Malacca City is the centre of political and economic administration for the state of Malacca. There is one Members of Parliament (MP) representing one parliamentary constituency in the city: Kota Melaka (P.138). The city also elects five representatives to the state legislature from the state assembly districts of Kesidang, Kota Laksamana, Duyong, Bandar Hilir and Telok Mas.
The city is administered by the Malacca City Council (Majlis Bandaraya Melaka Bersejarah, MBMB). Formerly known as Malacca Municipal Council (Majlis Perbandaran Melaka Bandaraya Bersejarah, MPMBB), it was merged with the "Melaka Municipality Area" on 1 January 1977 with a new combined area of 114.7 square miles (303 square kilometres). Then on 15 April 2003, MPMBB was upgraded into MBMB before part of its area, covering 57.66 kilometres separated for Hang Tuah Jaya Municipal Council (MPHTJ). MBMB area is currently at 277 sq kilometres as a result of land reclamation, with a new administration area of 30.86 sq kilometres. Together these areas comprise a metropolitan area of 307.86 sq kilometres. The current mayor is Datuk Zainal Hussin.
The city is located on both sides of the Malacca River near its mouth, flowing into the Straits of Malacca. The city is approximately 152 kilometres from Malaysia's capital city, Kuala Lumpur and 245 kilometres from Singapore. Due to large-scale land reclamation, it has grown in size, especially in the south. Its physical features are characterised by flat and gently undulating land stretching from its coast.
The historic central area of the city is located near the old coastline; it includes St Paul's Hill with the ruins of the Portuguese fortress, A Famosa and the Dutch Square on the right (eastern) bank of the river, and the old Chinatown on the left (western) bank. The Chinese Hill (Bukit Cina), where a large old Chinese cemetery is located, was formerly located to the northeast of the town, but is now surrounded by new buildings on all sides.
Malacca's weather is hot and humid throughout the year with rainfall, the intensity of which depends on the time of the year. It is one of the driest cities in Malaysia, receiving just under 2,000 mm (79 in) of rainfall while most areas in Peninsular Malaysia receive an average of around 2,500 mm (98 in) of rainfall annually. However, Malacca has no dry season as average rainfall is more than 100 mm (3.9 in) for each month. Malacca is classified as having a tropical rainforest climate under the Köppen climate classification system. The relatively stable weather allows Malacca to be visited year-round. Temperatures generally range between 30 °C (86 °F) to 35 °C (95 °F) during the day and 27 °C (81 °F) to 29 °C (84 °F) at night, although the temperature may fall after periods of heavy rainfall. Generally, Malacca's annual rainfall is below the annual rainfall of Malaysia as a whole. It usually rains in the evening after a hot and humid afternoon.
|Climate data for Malacca (1961–1990)|
|Average high °C (°F)||31.4
|Average low °C (°F)||22.5
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||73.3
|Average rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm)||7||7||10||13||12||10||12||12||13||14||17||11||138|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||193.0||202.5||214.8||207.5||210.5||193.9||201.3||191.2||171.5||179.6||156.9||166.8||2,289.5|
Ethnicity and religion
The Malaysian Census in 2010 reported the population of Malacca City was 484,885. Malays comprised the majority with 273,844, followed by Chinese with 158,828, Indian with 20,310 and others totalling 9,732. Around 22,171 were identified as a Non-Malaysian citizens. Due to a large amount of interracial marriage since the era of the Malacca Sultanate, the city features its own ethnic mixtures of Baba Nyonya, Chitty and Kristang peoples. The Majority of the Malays were Muslims, and the Chinese and Peranakan were either Buddhist, Confucianist, Taoist or followers of other Chinese folk religions. The Indians, including the Chitty, were mainly Hindus while the Kristang were mostly Christian.
The Baba Nyonya are Straits-born Chinese, who have resided for generations since the era of the Malacca Sultanate as traders and intermarried with the local Malay women. They adopted the local culture and the Malay language as part of their lives while at the same time preserving some of their Chinese heritage. The Chitty are also a mixture of Indian traders with local women of various ethnic backgrounds such as Malays, Javanese, Bataks and Chinese. The Kristang exist as a result of marriage between the European Portuguese men with Malay women during the era of Portuguese Malacca.
Malacca Straits Mosque, a newly built mosque in the city's metro area
The main language spoken in the city is the Malay, although the Baba Nyonya and Chitty have their own variations of Baba and Chitties creoles respectively. The Malaccan Portuguese have their own version of Portuguese creole, known as Kristang language.
Since the era of Malacca Sultanate, the city has prospered as a successful entrepôt, putting it in the same position as Venice, Cairo and Canton. When the European conquest begin, Malacca had developed into a cosmopolitan city with a long-standing European heritage. The arrival of Chinese traders and coolie during the sultanate era and European colonisation saw a large boost to the economy, especially during the administration of Dutch and the British. In modern times, the tertiary-based industry is more dominant than the primary-based industry due to its historical riches with the melting pots of cultural influences which attracted many local and foreign tourists to visiting the city, which also became part of the state economy income. In addition to its strategic location in the maritime Silk Road, the city benefited from the rise of China and India as world economic powers. Malacca City has hosted numerous national, regional and international conferences, congresses and trade fairs in the Malacca International Trade Centre. In early 2016, the Malacca state government has start to develop a new economic development area in the central city centre which will be known as the Hang Tuah Trade Centre that will encompassing trade centres, higher education, hospitality and business.
Internal roads linking different parts on the city are mostly federal roads constructed and maintained by the Malaysian Public Works Department. The city is accessible through the North-South Expressway and the coastal Syed Abdullah Aziz Road. There is also an old trunk road system, which once served as a main passageway to the city until the mid 1980s, when the North-South Expressway was built. In the old city centre, trishaw services are available through the Stadhuis Red Square.
There was previously a proposal by the state government of Malacca to revive a bridge project named Malacca Strait Bridge that will connect land transportation in the city with the Indonesian city of Dumai on Sumatra island.
Melaka Sentral is the main bus and taxi terminal for the city, with services in and around the city as well as domestic services. Most taxis in the city are executive taxis with either four, six or fourteen seats; but only two types of taxis, the limousine (4 seats) and bas persiaran (14 seats), provide services to Singapore with the rest providing services only to other parts of Peninsular Malaysia. A Singaporean bus service called Delima Express also provides a daily services to the city and Kuala Lumpur, as well with many others Singaporean bus companies such as Luxury Coach, Konsortium Travel, Starmart Express, Sri Maju Group and Citiexchange Express & Services.
There was a railway line from Tampin to Malacca City built by the British but it was dismantled by the Japanese troops during World War II to build the Burma-Siam Railway (known as the Death Railway) using its tracks. The railway line was never re-built after the war ended, though there was a proposal recently[when?] that under the 10th Malaysia Plan (RMK10), the railway line could be rebuilt from Tampin to Malacca City with an extension to Batang Melaka. A line for the Malacca Monorail was also left nonoperational, while a project to develop the Melaka Aerorail was postponed.
The main airport; Malacca International Airport (MIA) (ICAO: WMKM) is located in Batu Berendam but serves the city as well as northern Johor. Its international routes include Guangzhou in China, Ho Chi Minh City (formerly Saigon) in Vietnam and Surabaya, Medan and Palembang in Indonesia.
The main water transportation in the city is the Malacca River Cruise with evening cruises along the Malacca River. The cruise routes is an area marking the border between historic Chinatown and Malay area. The Melaka Gateway is a project under construction involving the development of one natural and two man-made islands off the coast of Malacca which will feature an international cruise terminal and aid water transport in the city. An international shipping port is also planned to be build as part of China's Maritime Silk Route economic belt.
Courts of law and legal enforcement
The city high court complex is located along Tun Abdul Razak Road, while another court for Sharia law is located on Old Ayer Keroh Road. The Malacca Police Contingent Headquarters is also located on Old Ayer Keroh Road. The main district police headquarters is located in Central Malacca. There are around thirteen police stations and eight police substations (Pondok Polis) serving the city. The main prison is located along the Ayer Keroh road, and was built in 1969. Another three prisons are located in the districts of Central Malacca, Tanjung Kling, Telok Mas and Sungai Udang. The Bandar Hilir Prison has been transformed into a museum with all the inmates moved to Sungai Udang Prison.
There are three public hospitals, twelve health clinics (which fifty-two are private) and three 1Malaysia clinics in Malacca City. Malacca General Hospital, which is located along Mufti Haji Khalil Road, is the main and oldest hospital in the state with 359 beds. Oriental Melaka Straits Medical Centre is the largest private hospital with 300 beds. Mahkota Medical Centre, located on Syed Abdul Aziz Road, is the second largest with 266 beds.
Various government or state schools are available in the city. The secondary schools include the Malacca High School, Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Tinggi Melaka, Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Tinggi Perempuan and Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Katholik. Other types of secondary schools such as religious, vocational, technical and fully residential schools are available inside and outside the city's metropolitan area. There are also a number of independent private schools in the city. These include Melaka International School, Wesley Methodist School and Pay Fong High School.
The Malacca Public Library headquarters is the main library in the state, located off Bukit Baru Road. Another public library branch is in the Malacca Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), while other libraries or private libraries were available in other universities as well as in schools and colleges. Other village libraries are also available through the districts of Central Malacca.
Culture and leisure
Attractions and recreational spots
The Malacca Sultanate Palace was built to represent the Malay culture and Malaccan history during the sultanate era. The building was constructed without the using any nails. The city also includes a variety of other cultural attractions such as the Chinatown, Little India and Portuguese Settlement. The Chinatown feature a strong Chinese cultural influences, with Clan Houses and regional Chinese eateries located around the areas where many Chinese traders have settling since the era of Sultanate of Malacca. The most recognisable part of the Chinatown is the Jonker Walk where many outdoor stage performances occur. The Kopitiam and restaurants around the city serve mixed cultural influences of Malay and Baba Nyonya as well as various regional Chinese cuisines such as Teochew and European cuisines. The No 8 Heeren Street Heritage Centre is an old two-storey shop house which has been undergoing restoration for years. The Cheng Ho Cultural Museum is the site where Zheng He, a famous Muslim Chinese voyager, was believed to have set up a large warehouse complex along the northern side of the Malacca River, while the Straits Chinese Jewellery Museum is a site where there has been a collection of Chinese jewellery design and motifs since the establishment of relations between Malacca and the Ming dynasty of China. Little India is the site where Indian culture is presented with a variety of Indian shops and restaurants as well as fabric shops selling various saris, Punjabi suits and other Indian fabric designs. Located within the Portuguese settlement is a "Mini Lisbon" which has became the city's centre of Portuguese culture, with many Eurasians descended from marriages between Portuguese men and local women that took place after the Portuguese conquest of Malacca residing there.
The Dutch Square is an area surrounded by Dutch buildings such as the Stadthuys, Christ Church, British Queen Victoria's Fountain, and Chinese settlers structure of Tan Beng Swee Clock Tower in honour of a generous late Chinese tycoon, Tan Beng Swee. The original clock tower was imported from England but has since been replaced with the one from Japan. The Portuguese traces mostly on A Famosa which also can seen across the square on the bank of Malacca River. The Kuomintang Cenotaph (Malacca Warrior Monument) in Bukit Cina is a memorial where thousands of Chinese people in Malacca were killed by the Japanese during their occupation.
Leisure and conservation areas
Malacca Zoo is the main zoo in the city metropolitan, featuring 215 species of birds, mammals, reptiles and amphibians including the Sumatran rhinoceros, the Malayan gaur, Serow and the Indochinese tiger. An oceanarium located inside the Shore shopping malls complex features a variety of fish species and other sea creatures.
Other attractions include the Maritime Museum and Taming Sari Tower. The Maritime Museum features a replica of a historical ship, the Flor de la Mar, and describes the trading history of Malacca, while the Taming Sari offers a scenic view of the city centre. The Padang Pahlawan is the site where Tunku Abdul Rahman, the father of Malayan independence, made his first independence announcement. St. Paul's Hill is where the Governor's Museum, Malacca Literature Museum and Malacca Light are located.
A number of shopping malls and traditional art and craft shops are available around the city, with the most popular shopping malls being Dataran Pahlawan Malacca Megamall, The Shore, and the ÆON Bandaraya Melaka and JUSCO shopping centres.
The main cinemas in the city are the Golden Screen Cinemas (GSC), with one located inside the building of Dataran Pahlawan Malacca Megamall with a capacity of 2,004, while the second largest, in ÆON Bandaraya Melaka, has a capacity of 1,793. Another cinema, known as the MBO Cinemas, with a capacity of 1,212 is located in the MBO Melaka Mall.
The second largest football stadium in the state of Malacca, Hang Tuah Stadium, is located in the city; it has a capacity of around 15,000 and is the oldest stadium in the state. The stadium is the second home ground for Malacca United S.A., after Hang Jebat Stadium in Krubong.
Malacca City currently has eleven sister cities:
- "Background" (in Malay and English). Melaka Historic City Council. 8 October 2015. Archived from the original on 12 October 2015. Retrieved 12 October 2015.
- "Malaysia Elevation Map (Elevation of Melaka)". Flood Map : Water Level Elevation Map. Archived from the original on 16 March 2015. Retrieved 25 September 2015.
- "Total population by ethnic group, Local Authority area and state, Malaysia" (PDF). Statistics Department, Malaysia. 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 November 2013. Retrieved 12 March 2012.
- "Eight new sites, from the Straits of Malacca, to Papua New Guinea and San Marino, added to UNESCO’s World Heritage List". UNESCO (World Heritage Site). 7 July 2008. Archived from the original on 6 September 2015. Retrieved 8 July 2008..
- "The legendary Melaka tree". Forest Research Institute, Malaysia. 25 April 2014. Archived from the original on 27 September 2015. Retrieved 27 September 2015.
- Achyut Yagnik (2 February 2011). Ahmedabad: From Royal city to Megacity. Penguin Books Limited. pp. 21–. ISBN 978-81-8475-473-5.
- Hugh; Colleen Gantzer (27 September 2015). "Where Malaysia was born". The Tribune. Archived from the original on 27 September 2015. Retrieved 27 September 2015.
• "Malaca Os irredutíveis filhos de Albuquerque" (in Portuguese). Diário de Notícias. 2 September 2011. Archived from the original on 27 September 2015. Retrieved 27 September 2015.
• José Valério (9 June 2014). As Moedas Desconhecidas de Malaca: uma nova perspectiva (in Portuguese). José Valério. pp. 23–. GGKEY:8JB3W3RRAYB.
- Dennis De Witt (2008). History of the Dutch in Malaysia: In Commemoration of Malaysia's 50 Years as an Independent Nation and Over Four Centuries of Friendship and Diplomatic Ties Between Malaysia and the Netherlands. Nutmeg Publishing. pp. 11–. ISBN 978-983-43519-0-8.
- "Sri Tri Buana/Parameswara". National Library Board. 1299. Archived from the original on 29 September 2015. Retrieved 29 September 2015.
- Lim SK (1 November 2011). Asia Civilizations: Ancient to 1800 AD. Asiapac Books Pte Ltd. pp. 153–. ISBN 978-981-229-594-1.
- Abdul Shukor Ismail (Datoʹ Haji) (1984). Sejarah ringkas Muar (in Malay). Manaf.
- Jaime Koh; Stephanie Ho Ph.D. (22 June 2009). Culture and Customs of Singapore and Malaysia. ABC-CLIO. pp. 9–. ISBN 978-0-313-35116-7.
- Donald B. Freeman (17 April 2003). Straits of Malacca: Gateway Or Gauntlet?. McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP. pp. 127–. ISBN 978-0-7735-2515-3.
- Wong Hui Shin (20 June 2012). Sunshine Little Kitchen. AuthorHouse. pp. 49–. ISBN 978-1-4772-1460-2.
- Zheng He's Voyages Down the Western Seas. 五洲传播出版社. 2005. pp. 58–. ISBN 978-7-5085-0708-8.
- Geraldo Affonso Muzzi (4 January 2014). The Portuguese in Malay Land. Ediçoes Vercial. pp. 11–. ISBN 978-989-8392-65-7.
- Timothy P. Daniels (2005). Building Cultural Nationalism in Malaysia: Identity, Representation, and Citizenship. Psychology Press. pp. 18–. ISBN 978-0-415-94971-2.
- Merle Calvin Ricklefs (1 January 1993). A History of Modern Indonesia Since C. 1300. Stanford University Press. pp. 23–. ISBN 978-0-8047-2194-3.
- The Cambridge History of the British Empire: New Zealand. 7/2. CUP Archive. 1933. pp. 11–. GGKEY:55QQ9L73P70.
- Zhidong Hao (2011). Macau History and Society. Hong Kong University Press. pp. 11–. ISBN 978-988-8028-54-2.
- M.C. Ricklefs; Bruce Lockhart; Albert Lau; Portia Reyes, Maitrii Aung-Thwin (19 November 2010). A New History of Southeast Asia. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 150–. ISBN 978-1-137-01554-9. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- Paulo Jorge Sousa Pinto (1996). "Melaka, Johor and Aceh: A bird’s eye view over a Portuguese-Malay Triangular Balance (1575–1619)" (PDF). Files of the Calouste Gulbenkian Cultural Centre, Composite, printed and stitched in Graphic Arts Workshops & Xavier Barbosa, Limited, Braga. Academia.edu. pp. 109–112. Retrieved 4 October 2015.
- A. GUTHRIE (of the Straits Settlements, and OTHERS.) (1861). The British Possessions in the Straits of Malacca. [An Address to the Secretary of State for the Colonies, Signed by A. Guthrie and Others, and Dated April 20th, 1861, in Reference to the Transfer of the Administration of the British Possessions in the Straits of Malacca to the Colonial Office.]. pp. 1–.
- Michael Leifer (1 January 1978). Malacca, Singapore, and Indonesia. BRILL. pp. 9–. ISBN 90-286-0778-1.
- Johannes Widodo (2002). "Melaka - A Cosmopolitan City in Southeast Asia". Academia.edu. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- Pek Leng Tan (2011). An Uncommon Hero: M.K. Rajakumar in Politics and Medicine. GB Gerakbudaya Enterprise S. pp. 6–. ISBN 978-967-5832-27-7.
- C. Peter Chen. "Invasion of Malaya and Singapore (8 December 1941 - 15 February 1942)". World War II Database. Archived from the original on 12 October 2015. Retrieved 13 October 2015.
- Samuel S. Dhoraisingam (1 January 2006). Peranakan Indians of Singapore and Melaka: Indian Babas and Nonyas—Chitty Melaka. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. pp. 20–. ISBN 978-981-230-346-2.
- "Melaka History". Melaka State Government. Archived from the original on 5 October 2015. Retrieved 5 October 2015.
- Arthur Cotterell (15 July 2014). A History of South East Asia. Marshall Cavendish International Asia Pte Ltd. pp. 341–. ISBN 978-981-4634-70-0.
- "List of Parliamentary Elections Parts and State Legislative Assemblies On Every States". Ministry of Information Malaysia. Archived from the original on 18 May 2014. Retrieved 19 May 2014.
- "Organisation Chart" (in Malay and English). Melaka Historic City Council. 10 September 2015. Archived from the original on 14 September 2015. Retrieved 12 October 2015.
- "Malacca City to Kuala Lumpur Distance". Google Maps. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
- "Malacca City to Singapore Distance". Google Maps. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
- "Touristic Impressions of Social Transformation in Melaka" (PDF). EMP Group of Companies. 1998. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 October 2015. Retrieved 12 October 2015.
- "The Tourism Industry in the State of Melaka" (PDF). University of Malaya Repository. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- S. Nieuwolt (September 1966). "A Comparison of Rainfall in the Exceptionally Dry Year 1963 and Average Conditions in Malaya (Ein Vergleich zwischen Niederschlägen während des Jahres 1963 und den Durchschnittsverhältnissen in Malaya)" (in English and German). Erdkunde (Archive for Scientific Geography, University of Bonn). pp. 169–181. Retrieved 12 October 2015. (full document)
- "Malacca Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 7 May 2014.
- Elzbieta Thurgood. "The Development of Articles in Baba Malay" (PDF). California State University, Chico. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
- Noriah Mohamed. "The Malay Chetty Creole Language of Malacca: A Historical and Linguistic Perspective" (PDF). Universiti Sains Malaysia Repository. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
- Ian Hancock (2009). "The Portuguese Creoles of Malacca" (PDF). Bucureşti, Romania: Institutul de Lingvistică al Academiei. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
- Michael G. Vann. "When the World Came to Southeast Asia — Malacca and the Global Economy" (PDF). The Association for Asian Studies. p. 21. Archived (PDF) from the original on 18 October 2015. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- Laurence J. C. Ma; Carolyn L. Cartier (2003). The Chinese Diaspora: Space, Place, Mobility, and Identity. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 79–. ISBN 978-0-7425-1756-1.
- "Ekonomi di Melaka" (in Malay). Malacca State Development Corporation. Archived from the original on 16 November 2015. Retrieved 16 November 2015.
- Wang Wei (26 April 2015). "Malacca Stands to Benefit from "Belt And Road" Initiative". Xinhua News Agency. CRIEnglish.com. Archived from the original on 18 October 2015. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- Sam Bateman; Joshua Ho (3 June 2014). Southeast Asia and the Rise of Chinese and Indian Naval Power: Between Rising Naval Powers. Routledge. pp. 90–. ISBN 978-1-135-14726-6.
- "(Synopsis) Auditor's General Report on the activities of the Malacca State Government Departments and Agencies and the Management of State Government Companies" (PDF). National Audit Department, Malaysia. 2009. p. 6/vi. Archived (PDF) from the original on 25 November 2015. Retrieved 25 November 2015.
- Amir Mamat (11 January 2016). "Melaka wujud Pusat Perdagangan Hang Tuah" (in Malay). Berita Harian. Archived from the original on 12 January 2016. Retrieved 12 January 2016.
- Bart August; Kevin Teh (23 September 2014). "You Can Do It Too: Roadtrip To Malacca". Going Places Magazine. Archived from the original on 16 November 2015. Retrieved 16 November 2015.
- Va Sonyka (29 October 2015). "Five Things to Do in Majestic Malacca". Khmer Times. Archived from the original on 6 November 2015. Retrieved 6 November 2015.
- Helga Zepp-LaRouche; Michael O. Billington; Ramtanu Maitra; Dennis Small, Bruce Director, Jason Ross, Paul Gallagher, Hussein Askary, Rachel Douglas, Benjamin Deniston (1 December 2014). The New Silk Road Becomes the World Land-Bridge. Executive Intelligence Review. pp. 1–. ISBN 978-0-943235-24-0. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- Melaka from the Top. Nutmeg Publishing. 2010. pp. 19–. ISBN 978-983-43519-2-2.
- "Vehicle Models". Malacca Taxi. Archived from the original on 21 October 2015. Retrieved 21 October 2015.
- "Singapore → Melaka". Delima Singapore. Archived from the original on 29 October 2015. Retrieved 29 October 2015.
- "Going to Malacca by Express Bus". My Express Bus. Archived from the original on 29 October 2015. Retrieved 29 October 2015.
- Leong Shen-Li (11 January 2006). "Rail link to Malacca again". The Star. Retrieved 18 November 2015.
- Allison Lai (11 December 2010). "Malacca's monorail service comes to a stop". The Star. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
- R.S.N. Murali (4 July 2015). "Five new routes for Malacca airport". The Star. Retrieved 25 November 2015.
- Rebecca Gibson (11 February 2014). "New terminal for Malaysia". Cruise & Ferry. Archived from the original on 16 November 2015. Retrieved 16 November 2015.
- R.S.N. Murali (21 February 2015). "Global port in the works for Malacca". The Star. Retrieved 16 November 2015.
- "Alamat Mahkamah Tinggi Sesyen & Majistret" (in Malay). Malacca Law Courts Official Website. Archived from the original on 10 November 2015. Retrieved 10 November 2015.
- "Contact Us". Malacca Syariah Court. Archived from the original on 10 November 2015. Retrieved 10 November 2015.
- "Malacca Police Contingent". Malacca Police Contingent. Archived from the original on 8 March 2015. Retrieved 10 November 2015.
- "Direktori PDRM Melaka - Melaka Tengah". Royal Malaysia Police. Archived from the original on 22 July 2015. Retrieved 10 November 2015.
- "Penjara istimewa Dusun Datuk Murad" (in Malay). Utusan Malaysia. 20 March 2008. Retrieved 10 November 2015.
- "Prison Address & Directory". Prison Department of Malaysia. Archived from the original on 1 August 2015. Retrieved 1 August 2015.
- "Penjara Bandar Hilir mula dikosongkan" (in Malay). Utusan Malaysia. 1 June 2010. Retrieved 10 November 2015.
- "Malacca E-Commerce (State Health Clinic)". MelakaCom.net. Archived from the original on 4 November 2015. Retrieved 4 November 2015.
- "Malacca E-Commerce (Private Clinic)". MelakaCom.net. Archived from the original on 4 November 2015. Retrieved 4 November 2015.
- "List of 1Malaysia Clinics (See Melaka)" (in Malay and English). Ministry of Health. Retrieved 4 November 2015.
- "Health (Government Hospital)". Melaka Historic City Council. Archived from the original on 4 November 2015. Retrieved 4 November 2015.
- "Jabatan Perubatan" (in English and Malay). Malacca General Hospital. Archived from the original on 4 November 2015. Retrieved 4 November 2015.
- "Who We Are". Oriental Melaka Straits Medical Centre. Archived from the original on 4 November 2015. Retrieved 4 November 2015.
- "Introduction". Mahkota Medical Centre. Archived from the original on 4 November 2015. Retrieved 4 November 2015.
- "Education" (in Malay and English). Melaka State Government. Archived from the original on 14 November 2015. Retrieved 14 November 2015.
- "SENARAI SEKOLAH MENENGAH DI NEGERI MELAKA (List of Secondary Schools in Malacca) – See Malacca" (PDF). Educational Management Information System. Retrieved 4 August 2015.
- "List of Schools in Malacca". Department of Education, Malacca. Archived from the original on 14 November 2015. Retrieved 14 November 2015.
- "History". Melaka International School. Archived from the original on 16 November 2015. Retrieved 16 November 2015.
- "Message from Principal". Wesley Methodist School Melaka. Retrieved 16 November 2015.
- "Malacca Public Library Location" (in English and Malay). Malacca Public Library. Archived from the original on 15 November 2015. Retrieved 15 November 2015.
- "Perpustakaan UiTM" (in Malay). UiTM Malacca Library. Retrieved 15 November 2015.
- "Taburan Perpustakaan Desa di Malaysia" (in Malay). National Library of Malaysia. Retrieved 20 December 2015.
- Leong Siok Hui (30 April 2011). "A Malaccan gem". The Star. Retrieved 18 November 2015.
- "History". Cheng Ho Cultural Museum. Archived from the original on 23 November 2015. Retrieved 23 November 2015.
- Narina Exelby (26 February 2015). "Melaka: five ways to see the world in one Malaysian city". South China Morning Post. Archived from the original on 24 November 2015. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
- "Portuguese Square". Tourism Malaysia. Archived from the original on 6 November 2015. Retrieved 6 November 2015.
- Karl-Heinz Reger; Nelles Verlag Staff (1997). Malaysia - Singapore - Brunei. Nelles Verlag. pp. 113–. ISBN 978-3-88618-902-1.
- M. Veera Pandiyan (16 August 2013). "Bukit China: A hill steeped in legend and history". The Star. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
- "Melaka Zoo". Cuti.my. Archived from the original on 25 November 2015. Retrieved 25 November 2015.
- "Padang Pahlawan, that's the new name for freedom ground". The Straits Times. National Library Board. 11 October 1968. p. 5. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
- "GSC Dataran Pahlawan". Golden Screen Cinemas. Archived from the original on 27 November 2015. Retrieved 27 November 2015.
- "GSC Aeon Bandaraya Melaka". Golden Screen Cinemas. Archived from the original on 27 November 2015. Retrieved 27 November 2015.
- "Our Cinemas (Locate Us)". MBO Cinemas. Retrieved 27 November 2015.
- "Stadiums in Malaysia (Hang Tuah)". World Stadiums. Archived from the original on 27 March 2014. Retrieved 27 November 2015.
- "Consulate of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in Malacca". Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Saudi Arabia). Retrieved 25 September 2015.
- Marina Tan (9 January 1998). "Valpairaso, land of steep hills, trains, sea and curves". New Straits Times. Retrieved 25 September 2015.
- "Tangier becomes Valparaíso’s newest sister city". Valpo Times. 31 October 2014. Archived from the original on 27 September 2015. Retrieved 27 September 2015.
Valparaíso is also twinned with Barcelona (Spain), Bat Yam (Israel), Busan (South Korea), Callao (Peru), Cebu City (Philippines), Córdoba (Argentina), Genoa (Italy), Gwangyang (South Korea), Long Beach (California, USA), Malacca (Malaysia), Mersin (Turkey), Novorossiysk (Russia), Oviedo (Spain), Rosario (Argentina), Salvador (Brazil) and Shanghai (China).
- "List of Sister cities of Hunan". Hunan Government. Archived from the original on 21 December 2015. Retrieved 21 December 2015.
- Chan (23 September 2015). "Guangdong & Malacca sign sister relationship memo". News Guangdong. Archived from the original on 25 September 2015. Retrieved 25 September 2015.
- "Haikou's 23rd Sister City, Melaka City". Haikou Tour. Archived from the original on 25 September 2015. Retrieved 25 September 2015.
- "Nanjing, People’s Republic of China (Other Sister Cities)" (PDF). City of Perth. p. 11. Archived (PDF) from the original on 25 September 2015. Retrieved 25 September 2015.
Other Nanjing Sister Cities: Alsace, Barranquilla, Belo Horizonte, Birmingham, Bloemfontein, Daejeon, Eindhoven, Florence, Hauts-de-Seine, Leipzig, London (Ontario), Malacca Town, Mexicali, Nagoya and St. Louisline feed character in
|quote=at position 79 (help)
- "Nanjing, the sister city of Bandar Seri Begawan". The Brunei Times. Archived from the original on 25 September 2015. Retrieved 28 November 2011.
WHAT do these cities have in common with Bandar Seri Begawan? Alsace in France, Barranquilla in Colombia, Belo Horizonte in Brazil, Bloemfontein in South Africa, Daejeon in South Korea, Dallas in the Unites States, Eindhoven in the Netherlands, Florence in Italy, Hauts-de-Seine in France, Leipzig in Germany, Limassol in Cyprus, London in Ontario, Canada, Malacca in Malaysia, Mexicali in Mexico, Nagoya in Japan, Perth in Australia, St Louis in the United States and finally Sunderland in United Kingdom. These cities and Bandar Seri Begawan belong to a special club. They are all twin or sister cities of Nanjing, China.
- Edna Tarigan (2 January 2014). "Jakarta's ‘Kota Tua’ and Melaka are now sister cities". The Jakarta Post. The Jakarta Post Travel. Archived from the original on 6 February 2014. Retrieved 25 September 2015.
- Wahyu Setyo (19 June 2014). "Melaka, Kembaran Kota Tua Jakarta di Malaysia" (in Indonesian). DetikCom. Archived from the original on 25 September 2015. Retrieved 25 September 2015.
- "Overseas sisters, friendship interchange city". Kirishima City. 2005. Archived from the original on 25 September 2015. Retrieved 25 September 2015.
- "Bandar Kembar Melaka, Hoorne" (PDF). Bernama (in Malay). National Library of Malaysia. 7 July 1989. Archived (PDF) from the original on 25 September 2015. Retrieved 25 September 2015.
- "Twin Cities plan will boost Malacca". New Sunday Times. 25 April 2002. Retrieved 9 July 2013.
- Dennis de Witt (May 2001). "Malacca, a Dutch conquest forgotten". The Dutch Courier. Malaysian Dutch Descendants Project. Archived from the original on 25 September 2015. Retrieved 25 September 2015.
- Lester V. Ledesma. "Sister Cities (Vigan and Melaka living parallel lives)". Cebu Smile. Archived from the original on 25 September 2015. Retrieved 25 September 2015.
- "Geminações de Cidades e Vilas: Lisbon" [Twinning Cities and Towns: Lisbon] (in Portuguese). Lisbon, Portugal: Associação Nacional de Municípios Portugueses [National Association of Portuguese Municipalities]. Retrieved 12 March 2015.
- "Acordos de geminação, de cooperação e de amizade" [Twinning agreements, cooperation and friendship] (in Portuguese). Lisbon, Portugal: Camara Municipal de Lisboa. Retrieved 12 March 2015.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Melaka.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Malacca.|