Snowflake as a slang term involves the derogatory usage of the word snowflake to refer to a person. Its meaning may include a person perceived by others to have an inflated sense of uniqueness or an unwarranted sense of entitlement, or to be over-emotional, easily offended, and unable to deal with opposing opinions. Common usages include the terms special snowflake, Generation Snowflake, and snowflake as a politicized insult.
Background and usage
It is popularly believed but not proven that each snowflake has a unique structure. Most usages of "snowflake" make reference to the physical qualities of snowflakes, such as their unique structure or fragility, while a minority of usages make reference to the white color of snow.
Unique or special snowflake
In 1996, Chuck Palahniuk's novel Fight Club was published containing the quote: "you are not special, you are not a beautiful and unique snowflake". The 1999 film adaptation of the novel also contains this line. Following Fight Club, the terminology "special snowflake" and "special snowflake syndrome" was applied to individuals who behaved as if they were very special. Such terminology refers to a person who believes their status as a unique individual means that they are destined for great success or deserve a special career with abundant praise and admiration. According to Merriam-Webster, in the 2000s, snowflake referred "mostly to millennials who were allegedly too convinced of their own status as special and unique people to be able (or bothered) to handle the normal trials and travails of regular adult life".
Palahniuk has often been credited with coining the metaphorical use of snowflake. According to Merriam-Webster, however, "Palahniuk was hardly the first person to use the metaphor. It's the stuff of self-help books and inspirational posters and elementary school assurances. The imagery before negation is lovely; we are each unique snowflakes, each worth treasuring because each is uniquely beautiful. Palahniuk's denial of the individual's snowflake status struck a chord." The unique as a snowflake metaphor has been used with elementary school students to celebrate their individuality and teamwork.
The term "Generation Snowflake" was popularized following a 2015 student/faculty confrontation at Yale University which was later discussed in Claire Fox's 2016 book, I Find That Offensive!. The confrontation arose between university students and faculty Head of College, Nicholas Christakis. The confrontation, which was recorded and uploaded to YouTube, shows university students arguing with Christakis over a disagreement regarding Halloween costumes and the degree to which Yale university should intervene regarding student costumes which may be perceived as cultural appropriation. Fox described the video as showing a: "screaming, almost hysterical mob of students" and that the backlash to the viral video led to the disparaging moniker "generation snowflake" for the students.
According to a 2016 article by Helen Rumbelow published in The Australian: "The term 'generation snowflake' started in the United States. Parents cherished their offspring as 'precious little snowflakes', each alike but unique, or 'everyone is special'." Claire Fox argues recent parenting philosophy led to parenting methods which "denied resilience-building freedoms that past generations enjoyed".
The term "snowflake generation" was one of Collins Dictionary's 2016 words of the year. Collins defines the term as "the young adults of the 2010s, viewed as being less resilient and more prone to taking offence than previous generations".
The terms "generation snowflake" and "snowflake generation" are frequently used in reference to use of trigger warnings and safe spaces, or to describe young adults as "anti-free speech", specifically in reference to a practice referred to as "no-platforming". It has also been used to refer to a reported increase in mental health issues among young adults.
Following Brexit in the UK and the election of Donald Trump as 45th President of the U.S., generation snowflake was often shortened to simply snowflake and became a politicized insult. A November 2016 article from The Guardian commented: "Until very recently, to call someone a snowflake would have involved the word 'generation'."
Snowflake as a politicized insult is typically used by those on the political right to insult those on the political left. In an article from the Los Angeles Times, Jessica Roy says the alt-right in the United States pejoratively describes most liberals and those protesting against Donald Trump as "snowflakes", short for "special snowflake". A 2017 article from Think Progress commented: "The insult expanded to encompass not just the young, but liberals of all ages; it became the epithet of choice for right-wingers to fling at anyone who could be accused of being too easily offended, too in need of "safe spaces, too fragile". Jonathon Green, editor of "Green's Dictionary of Slang" points out snowflake is an unusual insult in that it calls someone weak and fragile without using misogynistic or homophobic references. [check quotation syntax]
Actor George Takei extended the metaphor to emphasize the power of snowflakes saying: "The thing about 'snowflakes' is this: They are beautiful and unique, but in large numbers become an unstoppable avalanche that will bury you." Others have returned the insult back at those with right-wing politics, arguing "oversensitive whiners can be found all over the political spectrum" including President Trump. Comedian Neal Brennan referred to Donald Trump as "the biggest snowflake in America," while a January 2017 opinion piece from The Guardian refers to President Trump as "Snowflake-in-Chief" and CNN commentator Van Jones called Trump "President Snowflake" based on his response to the FBI's Russia probe in May 2017.
In the 1860s "snowflake" was used by abolitionists in Missouri to refer to those who opposed the abolition of slavery. The term referred to the color of snow, referring to valuing white people over black people. This usage was not believed to have extended beyond the state of Missouri in the 1800s.
In popular culture
In December 2016, the term snowflake was referenced in the ABC sitcom Last Man Standing, in an episode titled Precious Snowflake about microaggressions and politically correct speech restrictions on a university campus.
The American live sketch comedy show, Saturday Night Live, in March 2017 aired a skit about a Trump loving dog, who through the aid of technology, was able to berate the anti-Trump humans in the room as "liberal snowflakes".
In 2017, a U.S. company created a "snowflake test" purportedly to be used by employers to "weed out overly sensitive, liberal candidates who are too easily offended."
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