Church of the East

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Church of the East
Syriac: ܥܕܬܐ ܕܡܕܢܚܐ
Arch of Ctesiphon (aliraqi1959bagh 0180).jpg
Ruins of the ancient city and see of Seleucia-Ctesiphon
ClassificationEastern Christianity
OrientationSyriac Christianity
TheologyNestorianism
HeadCatholicos-Patriarchs of the East
RegionMiddle East, South India, Far East
LiturgyEast Syriac Rite
(Liturgy of Addai and Mari)
HeadquartersSeleucia-Ctesiphon
FounderThomas the Apostle, by its tradition
OriginApostolic Age, by its tradition
Nestorian Schism (431–544)
Sasanian Empire
SeparationsIts schism of 1552 divided it into two patriarchates, later four, but by 1830 again two, one of which is now the Chaldean Catholic Church, while the other split further in 1968 into the Assyrian Church of the East and the Ancient Church of the East
Other name(s)Nestorian Church, Persian Church

The Church of the East (Syriac: ܥܕܬܐ ܕܡܕܢܚܐĒdṯāʾ d-Maḏenḥā), also known as the Nestorian Church and the Persian Church, was an Eastern Christian Church that in 410 organised itself within the Sasanid Empire and in 424 declared its leader independent of other Christian leaders. From the Persian Empire it spread to other parts of Asia in late antiquity and the Middle Ages.

It was the eastern branch of Syriac Christianity, using the East Syriac Rite in its liturgy. It developed distinctive theological and ecclesiological traditions, and played a major role in the history of Christianity in Asia.

Summary of history[edit]

The Church of the East's declaration in 424 of the independence of its head, the Patriarch of the East, preceded by nine years the 431 Council of Ephesus, which condemned Nestorius and declared that Mary, mother of Jesus, can be described as Mother of God. Two of the generally accepted ecumenical councils were held earlier: the First Council of Nicea, in which a Persian bishop took part, in 325, and the First Council of Constantinople in 381. The Church of the East accepted the teaching of these two councils, but ignored the 431 council and those that followed, seeing them as concerning only the patriarchates of the Roman Empire − Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, Jerusalem − which for it were 'Western".[1]

Theologically, it adopted a dyophysite doctrine that emphasised the distinctiveness of the divine and the human natures of Jesus.

In the 6th century and thereafter, it expanded greatly, establishing communities in India (the Saint Thomas Christians), among the Mongols in Central Asia, and in China, which became home to a thriving community under the Tang dynasty from the 7th to the 9th century. At its height, between the 9th and 14th centuries, the Church of the East was the world's largest Christian church in geographical extent, with dioceses stretching from its heartland in Upper Mesopotamia to the Mediterranean Sea and as far afield as China, Mongolia, Central Asia, Anatolia, the Arabian Peninsula and India.

From its peak of geographical extent, the church entered a period of rapid decline that began in the 14th century, due largely to outside influences. The Chinese Ming dynasty overthrew the Mongols (1368) and ejected Christians and other foreign influences from China, and many Mongols in Central Asia converted to Islam. The Muslim Turco-Mongol leader Timur (1336–1405) nearly eradicated the remaining Christians in the Middle East. Nestorian Christianity remained largely confined to communities in Upper Mesopotamia and the Malabar Coast of the Indian subcontinent.

In the early modern period, its schism of 1552 led to a series of internal divisions and ultimately to its branching into three separate churches: the Chaldean Catholic Church, in full communion with the Holy See, and the independent Assyrian Church of the East and Ancient Church of the East.[2]

Description as Nestorian[edit]

Christological spectrum during the 5th–7th centuries showing the views of The Church of the East (light blue)

Nestorianism is a Christological doctrine that emphasises the distinction between the human and divine natures of Jesus. It was attributed to Nestorius, Patriarch of Constantinople from 428–431, whose doctrine represented the culmination of a philosophical current developed by scholars at the School of Antioch, most notably Nestorius's mentor Theodore of Mopsuestia, and stirred controversy when he publicly challenged the use of the title Theotokos (literally, "Bearer of God") for Mary, mother of Jesus,[3] suggesting that it denied Christ's full humanity. He argued that Jesus had two loosely joined natures, the divine Logos and the human Jesus, and proposed Christotokos (literally, "Bearer of the Christ") as a more suitable alternative title. His statements drew criticism from other prominent churchmen, particularly from Cyril, Patriarch of Alexandria, who had a leading part in the Council of Ephesus of 431, which condemned Nestorius for heresy and deposed him as patriarch.[4]

After 431, the state authorities in the Roman Empire suppressed Nestorianism, a reason for Christians under Persian rule to favour it and so allay suspicion that their loyalty lay with the hostile Christian-ruled empire.[5][6]

It was in the aftermath of the slightly later Council of Chalcedon (451) that the Church of the East formulated a distinctive theology. The first such formulation was adopted at the Synod of Beth Lapat in 484. This was developed further in the early seventh century, when in an at first successful war against the Byzantine Empire the Sasanid Persian Empire incorporated broad territories populated by West Syrians, many of whom were supporters of Monophysitism, the theological view most opposed to Nestorianism. These received support from Khosrow II, influenced by his wife Shirin. Drawing inspiration from Theodore of Mopsuestia, Babai the Great (551−628) expounded, especially in his Book of Union, what became the normative Christology of the Church of the East. He affirmed that the two qnome (individual natures) of Christ are unmixed but eternally united in his single parsopa (person). As happened also with the Greek terms φύσις (physis) and ὐπόστασις (hypostasis), these Syriac words were sometimes taken to mean something other than what was intended; in particular "two qnome" was interpreted as "two individuals".[7][8][9][10] Previously, the Church of the East accepted a certain fluidity of expressions, always within a dyophysite theology, but with Babai's assembly of 612, which canonically sanctioned the "two gnome in Christ" formula, a final christological distinction was created between the Church of the East and the "western" Chalcedonian Churches. [11][12][13]

The justice of imputing Nestorianism to Nestorius, whom the Church of the East venerated as a saint, is disputed.[14][15] David Wilmshurst states that for centuries "the word 'Nestorian' was used both as a term of abuse by those who disapproved of the traditional East Syrian theology, as a term of pride by many of its defenders [...] and as a neutral and convenient descriptive term by others. Nowadays it is generally felt that the term carries a stigma".[16] Sebastian P. Brock says: "The association between the Church of the East and Nestorius is of a very tenuous nature, and to continue to call that Church 'Nestorian' is, from a historical point of view, totally misleading and incorrect – quite apart from being highly offensive and a breach of ecumenical good manners."[17]

Apart from its religious meaning, the word "Nestorian" has also been used in an ethnic sense, as shown by the phrase "Catholic Nestorians".[18][19][20]

Organisation and structure[edit]

At the Council of Seleucia-Ctesiphon in 410, the Church of the East was declared to have at its head the bishop of the Persian capital Seleucia-Ctesiphon, who in the acts of the council was referred to as the Grand or Major Metropolitan, and who soon afterward was called the Catholicos of the East. Later, the title of Patriarch was used.

The Church of the East had, like other churches, an ordained clergy in the three traditional orders of bishop, priest (or presbyter), and deacon. Also like other churches, it had an episcopal polity: organisation by dioceses, each headed by a bishop and made up of several individual parish communities overseen by priests. Dioceses were organised into provinces under the authority of a metropolitan bishop. The office of metropolitan bishop was an important one, coming with additional duties and powers; canonically, only metropolitans could consecrate a patriarch.[21] The Patriarch also has the charge of the Province of the Patriarch.

For most of its history the church had six or so Interior Provinces. In 410 these were listed in the hierarchical order of: Seleucia-Ctesiphon (central Iraq), Beth Lapat (western Iran), Nisibis (on the border between Turkey and Iraq), Prat de Maishan (Basra, southern Iraq), Arbela (Erbil, Turkestan region of Iraq), and Karka de Beth Slokh (Kirkuk, northeastern Iraq]]. In addition it had an increasing number of Exterior Provinces further afield within the Sasanian Empire and soon also beyond the empire's borders. By the 10th century, the church had between 20[5] and 30 metropolitan provinces[22] According to John Foster, in the 9th century there were 25 metropolitans[23] including in China and India. The Chinese provinces were lost in the 11th century, and in the subsequent centuries, other exterior provinces went into decline as well. However, in the 13th century, during the Mongol Empire, the church added two new metropolitan provinces in North China, Tangut and Katai and Ong.[22]

Scriptures[edit]

The Peshitta, in some cases lightly revised and with missing books added, is the standard Syriac Bible for churches in the Syriac tradition: the Syriac Orthodox Church, the Syrian Catholic Church, the Assyrian Church of the East, the Ancient Church of the East, the Chaldean Catholic Church, the Maronites, the Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church, the Syro-Malabar Catholic Church and the Syro-Malankara Catholic Church.

The Old Testament of the Peshitta was translated from Hebrew, although the date and circumstances of this are not entirely clear. The translators may have been Syriac-speaking Jews or early Jewish converts to Christianity. The translation could have been done separately for different texts, and the whole work was probably done by the second century. Most of the Deuterocanonical books of the Old Testament are found in the Syriac, and the Wisdom of Sirach is held to have been translated from the Hebrew and not from the Septuagint.[24]

The New Testament of the Peshitta, which originally excluded certain disputed books (Second Epistle of Peter, Second Epistle of John, Third Epistle of John, Epistle of Jude, Book of Revelation), had become the standard by the early 5th century.

Images[edit]

It was often said in the 19th century that the Church of the East was opposed to images of any kind. The cult of the image was never as strong in the Syriac Churches as it was in the Byzantine Church, but they were indeed present in the tradition of the Church of the East.[25] Opposition to religious images eventually became the norm due to the rise of Islam in the region, where it forbade any type of depictions of Saints and biblical prophets. As such, the Church was forced to get rid of their icons.[26]

There is both literary and archaeological evidence for the presence of images in the Church. Writing in 1248 from Samarkand, an Armenian official records visiting a local church and seeing an image of Christ and the Magi. John of Cora (Giovanni di Cori), Latin bishop of Sultaniya in Persia, writing about 1330 of the East Syrians in Khanbaliq says that they had ‘very beautiful and orderly churches with crosses and images in honour of God and of the saints’.[25] Apart from the references, there is a painting of a Nestorian Christian figure, which was discovered by Aurel Stein at the Library Cave of the Mo-kao Caves in 1908, it’s probably an image of Christ.

An illustrated 13th-century Nestorian Peshitta Gospel book written in Estrangela from northern Mesopotamia or Tur Abdin, currently in the State Library of Berlin, proves that in the 13th century the Church of the East was not yet aniconic.[27] Another Nestorian Gospel manuscript preserved in the Bibliothèque nationale de France contains an illustration that depicts Jesus Christ in the circle of a ringed cross surrounded by four angels.[28] Three Syriac manuscripts from early 19th century or earlier—they were published in a compilation titled The Book of Protection by Hermann Gollancz in 1912—contain some illustrations of no great artistic worth that show that use of images continued.

A life-size male stucco figure discovered in a late-6th-century church in Seleucia-Ctesiphon, beneath which were found the remains of an earlier church, also shows that the Church of the East used figurative representations.[27]

Early history[edit]

Although the Nestorian community traced their history to the 1st century AD, the Church of the East first achieved official state recognition from the Sassanid Empire in the 4th century with the accession of Yazdegerd I (reigned 399–420) to the throne of the Sasanian Empire. In 410 the Synod of Seleucia-Ctesiphon, held at the Sasanian capital, allowed the Church's leading bishops to elect a formal Catholicos (leader). Catholicos Isaac was required both to lead the Assyrian Christian community, and to answer on its behalf to the Sasanian emperor.[29][30]

Under pressure from the Sasanian Emperor, the Church of the East sought to increasingly distance itself from the Greek Orthodox Church (at the time being known as the church of the Eastern Roman Empire). Therefore, In 424, the bishops of the Sasanian Empire met in council under the leadership of Catholicos Dadishoʿ (421–456) and determined that they would not, henceforth, refer disciplinary or theological problems to any external power, and especially not to any bishop or Church Council in the Roman Empire.[31]

Thus, the Mesopotamian churches did not send representatives to the various Church Councils attended by representatives of the "Western Church". Accordingly, the leaders of the Church of the East did not feel bound by any decisions of what came to be regarded as Roman Imperial Councils. Despite this, the Creed and Canons of the First Council of Nicaea of 325, affirming the full divinity of Christ, were formally accepted at the Council of Seleucia-Ctesiphon in 410.[32] The Church's understanding of the term hypostasis differs from the definition of the term offered at the Council of Chalcedon of 451. For this reason, the Assyrian Church has never approved the Chalcedonian definition.[32]

The theological controversy that followed the Council of Ephesus in 431 proved a turning point in the Church's history. The Council condemned as heretical the Christology of Nestorius, whose reluctance to accord the Virgin Mary the title Theotokos "God-bearer, Mother of God" was taken as evidence that he believed two separate persons (as opposed to two united natures) to be present within Christ. (For the theological issues at stake, see Assyrian Church of the East and Nestorianism.)

The Sasanian Emperor, hostile to the Byzantines, saw the opportunity to ensure the loyalty of his Christian subjects and lent support to the Nestorian Schism. The Emperor took steps to cement the primacy of the Nestorian party within the Assyrian Church of the East, granting its members his protection,[33] and executing the pro-Roman Catholicos Babowai in 484, replacing him with the Nestorian Bishop of Nisibis, Barsauma. The Catholicos-Patriarch Babai (497–503) confirmed the association of the Assyrian Church with Nestorianism.

Parthian and Sasanian periods[edit]

Christians were already forming communities in Mesopotamia as early as the 1st century under the Parthian Empire. In 266, the area was annexed by the Sasanian Empire (becoming the province of Asōristān), and there were significant Christian communities in Upper Mesopotamia, Elam, and Fars.[34] The Church of the East traced its origins ultimately to the evangelical activity of Thaddeus of Edessa, Mari and Thomas the Apostle. While under the jurisdiction of the patriarchate of Antioch, leadership and structure remained disorganised until 315 when Papa bar Aggai (310–329), bishop of Seleucia-Ctesiphon, imposed the primacy of his see over the other Mesopotamian and Persian bishoprics which were grouped together into the Catholicate of Seleucia-Ctesiphon; Papa took the title of Catholicos of the East, or universal leader.[35] This position received an additional title in 410, becoming Catholicos and Patriarch of the East.[36][37]

These early Christian communities in Mesopotamia, Elam, and Fars were reinforced in the 4th and 5th centuries by large-scale deportations of Christians from the eastern Roman Empire.[38] However, the Persian Church faced several severe persecutions, notably during the reign of Shapur II (339–79), from the Zoroastrian majority who accused it of Roman leanings.[39] Shapur II attempted to dismantle the Catholicate's structure and put to death some of the clergy including the catholicoi Simeon bar Sabba'e (341),[40] Shahdost (342), and Barba'shmin (346).[41] Afterward, the office of Catholicos lay vacant nearly 20 years (346–363).[42] In 363, under the terms of a peace treaty, Nisibis was ceded to the Persians, causing Ephrem the Syrian, accompanied by a number of teachers, to leave the School of Nisibis for Edessa still in Roman territory.[43] The church grew considerably during the Sasanian period,[5] but the pressure of persecution led the Catholicos Dadisho I in 424 to convene the Synod of Markabta at Seleucia and declare the Catholicate independent from the Patriarch of Antioch.[44]

Meanwhile, in the Roman Empire, the Nestorian Schism had led many of Nestorius' supporters to relocate to the Sasanian Empire, mainly around the theological School of Nisibis. The Persian Church increasingly aligned itself with the Nestorian schismatics, a measure encouraged by the Zoroastrian ruling class. The church became increasingly Nestorian in doctrine over the next decades, furthering the divide between Roman and Nestorian Christianity. In 484 the Metropolitan of Nisibis, Barsauma, convened the Synod of Beth Lapat where he publicly accepted Nestorius' mentor, Theodore of Mopsuestia, as a spiritual authority.[13] In 489, when the School of Edessa in Mesopotamia was closed by Byzantine Emperor Zeno for its Nestorian teachings, the school relocated to its original home of Nisibis, becoming again the School of Nisibis, leading to a wave of Nestorian immigration into the Sasanian Empire.[45] The Patriarch of the East Mar Babai I (497–502) reiterated and expanded upon his predecessors' esteem for Theodore, solidifying the church's adoption of Nestorianism.[5]

A 6th century Nestorian church, St. John the Arab, in the Assyrian village of Geramon.

Now firmly established in the Persian Empire, with centres in Nisibis, Ctesiphon, and Gundeshapur, and several metropolitan sees, the Church of the East began to branch out beyond the Sasanian Empire. However, through the 6th century the church was frequently beset with internal strife and persecution from the Zoroastrians. The infighting led to a schism, which lasted from 521 until around 539, when the issues were resolved. However, immediately afterward Byzantine-Persian conflict led to a renewed persecution of the church by the Sasanian emperor Khosrau I; this ended in 545. The church survived these trials under the guidance of Patriarch Aba I, who had converted to Christianity from Zoroastrianism.[5]

By the end of the 5th century and the middle of the 6th, the area occupied by the Church of the East included "all the countries to the east and those immediately to the west of the Euphrates", including the Sasanian Empire, the Arabian Peninsula, Socotra, Mesopotamia, Media, Bactria, Hyrcania, and India; and possibly also to places called Calliana, Male, and Sielediva (Ceylon).[46] Beneath the Patriarch in the hierarchy were nine metropolitans, and clergy were recorded among the Huns, in Persarmenia, Media, and the island of Dioscoris in the Indian Ocean.[47]

The Church of the East also flourished in the kingdom of the Lakhmids until the Islamic conquest, particularly after the ruler al-Nu'man III ibn al-Mundhir officially converted in c. 592.

Islamic rule[edit]

Ecclesiastical provinces of the Church of the East in 10th century
A 9th-century mural of a cleric of the Church of the East from the palace of al-Mukhtar in Samarra, Iraq.

After the Sasanian Empire was conquered by Muslim Arabs in 644, the newly established Rashidun Caliphate designated the Church of the East as an official dhimmi minority group headed by the Patriarch of the East. As with all other Christian and Jewish groups given the same status, the Church was restricted within the Caliphate, but also given a degree of protection. Nestorians were not permitted to proselytise or attempt to convert Muslims, but their missionaries were otherwise given a free hand, and they increased missionary efforts farther afield. Missionaries established dioceses in India (the Saint Thomas Christians). They made some advances in Egypt, despite the strong Monophysite presence there, and they entered Central Asia, where they had significant success converting local Tartars. Nestorian missionaries were firmly established in China during the early part of the Tang dynasty (618–907); the Chinese source known as the Nestorian Stele describes a mission under a proselyte named Alopen as introducing Nestorian Christianity to China in 635. In the 7th century, the Church had grown to have two Nestorian archbishops, and over 20 bishops east of the Iranian border of the Oxus River.[48]

The patriarch Timothy I (780–823), a contemporary of the caliph Harun al-Rashid, took a particularly keen interest in the missionary expansion of the Church of the East. He is known to have consecrated metropolitans for Damascus, for Armenia, for Dailam and Gilan in Azerbaijan, for Rai in Tabaristan, for Sarbaz in Segestan, for the Turks of Central Asia, for China, and possibly also for Tibet. He also detached India from the metropolitan province of Fars and made it a separate metropolitan province, known as India.[49] By the 10th century the Church of the East had a number of dioceses stretching from across the Caliphate's territories to India and China.[5]

Nestorian Christians made substantial contributions to the Islamic Umayyad and Abbasid Caliphates, particularly in translating the works of the ancient Greek philosophers to Syriac and Arabic.[50] Nestorians made their own contributions to philosophy, science (such as Hunayn ibn Ishaq, Qusta ibn Luqa, Masawaiyh, Patriarch Eutychius, Jabril ibn Bukhtishu) and theology (such as Tatian, Bar Daisan, Babai the Great, Nestorius, Toma bar Yacoub). The personal physicians of the Abbasid Caliphs were often Assyrian Christians such as the long serving Bukhtishu dynasty.[51][52]

Expansion[edit]

Church of the East and its largest extent during the Middle Ages.

After the split with the Western World and synthesis with Nestorianism, the Church of the East expanded rapidly due to missionary works during the Medieval period. During the period between 500–1400 the geographical horizons of the Church of the East extended well beyond its heartland in present-day northern Iraq, north eastern Syria and south eastern Turkey. Communities sprang up throughout Central Asia, and missionaries from Assyria and Mesopotamia took the Christian faith as far as China, with a primary indicator of their missionary work being the Nestorian Stele, a Christian tablet written in Chinese script found in China dating to 781 AD. Their most important conversion, however, was of the Saint Thomas Christians of the Malabar Coast in India, as they are now the largest group of non ethnically Assyrian Christians on earth, with around 10 million followers when all denominations are added together and their own diaspora is included.[53] The St Thomas Christians were believed by tradition to have been converted by St Thomas, and were in communion with the Church of the East until the end of the medieval period.[54]

India[edit]

The Saint Thomas Christian community of Kerala, India, who as per tradition trace their origins to the evangelism of Thomas the Apostle, had a long connection with the Church of the East. The earliest known organised Christian presence in Kerala dates to 295/300 when Nestorian Christian settlers and missionaries from Persia headed by bishop David of Basra settled in the region.[55] The Saint Thomas Christians traditionally credit the mission of Thomas of Cana, a Nestorian from the Middle East, with the further expansion of their community.[56] From at least the early 4th century, the Patriarch of the Church of the East provided the Saint Thomas Christians with clergy, holy texts, and ecclesiastical infrastructure, and around 650 Patriarch Ishoyahb III solidified the church's jurisdiction in India.[57] In the 8th century Patriarch Timothy I organised the community as the Ecclesiastical Province of India, one of the church's Provinces of the Exterior. After this point the Province of India was headed by a metropolitan bishop, provided from Persia, who oversaw a varying number of bishops as well as a native Archdeacon, who had authority over the clergy and also wielded a great amount of secular power. The metropolitan see was probably in Cranganore, or (perhaps nominally) in Mylapore, where the shrine of Thomas was located.[56]

In the 12th century Indian Nestorianism engaged the Western imagination in the figure of Prester John, supposedly a Nestorian ruler of India who held the offices of both king and priest. The geographically remote Malabar church survived the decay of the Nestorian hierarchy elsewhere, enduring until the 16th century when the Portuguese arrived in India. The Portuguese at first accepted the Nestorian sect, but by the end of the century they had determined to actively bring the Saint Thomas Christians into full communion with Rome under the Latin Rite. They installed Portuguese bishops over the local sees and made liturgical changes to accord with the Latin practice. In 1599 the Synod of Diamper, overseen by Aleixo de Menezes, Archbishop of Goa, led to a revolt among the Saint Thomas Christians; the majority of them broke with the Catholic Church and vowed never to submit to the Portuguese in the Coonan Cross Oath of 1653. In 1661 Pope Alexander VII responded by sending a delegation of Carmelites headed by Chaldean Catholics to re-establish the East Syriac rites under an Eastern Catholic hierarchy; by the next year, 84 of the 116 communities returned, forming the Syro-Malabar Catholic Church. The rest, which became known as the Malankara Church, soon entered into communion with the Syriac Orthodox Church; from the Malankara Church has also come the Syro-Malankara Catholic Church.

China[edit]

The Nestorian Stele, created in 781, describes the introduction of Nestorian Christianity to China

Christianity reached China by 635, and its relics can still be seen in Chinese cities such as Xi'an. The Nestorian Stele, set up on 7 January 781 at the then-capital of Chang'an, attributes the introduction of Christianity to a mission under a Persian cleric named Alopen in 635, in the reign of Emperor Taizong of Tang during the Tang dynasty.[58][59] The inscription on the Nestorian Stele, whose dating formula mentions the patriarch Hnanishoʿ II (773–80), gives the names of several prominent Christians in China, including the metropolitan Adam, the bishop Yohannan, the 'country-bishops' Yazdbuzid and Sargis and the archdeacons Gigoi of Khumdan (Chang'an) and Gabriel of Sarag (Loyang). The names of around seventy monks are also listed.[60]

Nestorian Christianity thrived in China for approximately 200 years, but then faced persecution from Emperor Wuzong of Tang (reigned 840–846). He suppressed all foreign religions, including Buddhism and Christianity, causing it to decline sharply in China. A Syrian monk visiting China a few decades later described many churches in ruin. The Church disappeared from China in the early 10th century, coinciding with the collapse of the Tang dynasty and the tumult of the next years (the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period).[61]

Christianity in China experienced a significant revival during the Mongol-created Yuan dynasty, established after the Mongols had conquered China in the 13th century. Marco Polo in the 13th century and other medieval Western writers described many Nestorian communities remaining in China and Mongolia; however, they clearly were not as vibrant as they had been during Tang times.

Mongolia and Central Asia[edit]

The Church of the East enjoyed a final period of expansion under the Mongols. Several Mongol tribes had already been converted by Nestorian missionaries in the 7th century, and Christianity was therefore a major influence in the Mongol Empire.[62] Genghis Khan was a shamanist, but his sons took Christian wives from the powerful Kerait clan, as did their sons in turn. During the rule of Genghis's grandson, the Great Khan Mongke, Nestorian Christianity was the primary religious influence in the Empire, and this also carried over to Mongol-conquered China, during the Yuan Dynasty. It was at this point, in the late 13th century, that the Church of the East reached its greatest geographical extent. But Mongol power was already waning, as the Empire dissolved into civil war, and it reached a turning point in 1295, when Ghazan, the Mongol ruler of the Ilkhanate, made a formal conversion to Islam when he took the throne.

Jerusalem and Cyprus[edit]

Rabban Bar Sauma had initially conceived of his journey to the West as a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, so it is possible that there was a Nestorian presence in the city ca.1300. There was certainly a recognisable Nestorian presence at the Holy Sepulchre from the 1348 through 1575, as contemporary Franciscan accounts indicate.[63] At Famagusta, Cyprus, a Nestorian community was established just before 1300, and a church was built for them ca.1339.[64][65]

Decline[edit]

The end to the Churches expansion came in 1400, when the massacres of Christians by Timur (1336–1405) destroyed many bishoprics, including the ancient Assyrian city and cultural capital of Ashur and from Tikrit, and then completed the eradication of Christians from much of central and southern Mesopotamia/Iraq.

Due to this disaster, the Church of the East, which had previously extended as far as China, was largely reduced to an Assyrian Neo-Aramaic-speaking remnant living in its original heartland in Upper Mesopotamia[66] (With the exception of the St Thomas Christians in India). The Assyrian churches area of influence was from this point up until the Assyrian genocide a triangular area between Amid (modern Diyarbakır), Mêrdîn (modern Mardin), and Edessa to the west; Salmas to the east; Hakkari and Harran to the north; and Mosul, Kirkuk, and Arbela (modern Erbil) to the south; essentially a region comprising, in modern terms, northern Iraq, south east Turkey, north east Syria and the north western fringe of Iran.

Due to the destruction of Assur, The See was moved to the Assyrian town of Alqosh (Kara Akosh) during the 1400s, and Shimun IV Basidi (1437–1493) was appointed Patriarch, establishing a new, hereditary line of succession.[67]

Collapse of the exterior provinces[edit]

Mongol tribes that adopted Syriac Christianity ca. 600 – 1400

The "exterior provinces" of the Church of the East, with the important exception of India, collapsed during the second half of the fourteenth century. Although little is known of the circumstances of the demise of the Nestorian dioceses in Central Asia (which may never have fully recovered from the destruction caused by the Mongols a century earlier), it probably stemmed from a combination of persecution, disease, and isolation.

The blame for the destruction of the Nestorian communities east of northern Iraq has often been thrown upon the Turco-Mongol leader of the Timurid Empire, Tamerlane, whose campaigns during the 1390s spread havoc throughout Persia and Central Asia. However, in many parts of Central Asia, Christianity had died out decades before Tamerlane's campaigns. The surviving evidence from Central Asia, including a large number of dated graves, indicates that the crisis for the Church of the East occurred in the 1340s rather than the 1390s. Several contemporary observers, including the papal envoy Giovanni de' Marignolli, mention the murder of a Latin bishop in 1339 or 1340 by a Muslim mob in Almaliq, the chief city of Tangut, and the forcible conversion of the city's Christians to Islam.

At the end of the 19th century, tombstones in two East Syriac cemeteries were discovered[by whom?] and dated in Mongolia. They dated from 1342, and several commemorated deaths during a Black Death outbreak in 1338.[citation needed] In China the last references to Nestorian and Latin Christians date from the 1350s. It is likely[original research?] that all foreign Christians were expelled from China soon after the revolution of 1368, which replaced Mongol Yuan dynasty rule in China with the xenophobic Ming dynasty.

By the 15th century, Nestorian Christianity was largely confined to the Eastern Aramaic-speaking Assyrian communities of northern Mesopotamia, in and around the rough triangle formed by Mosul and Lakes Van and Urmia - the same general region where the Church of the East had first emerged between the 1st and 3rd centuries AD.[68] Small Nestorian communities were located further west, notably in Jerusalem and Cyprus, but the Malabar Christians of India represented the only significant survival of the once-thriving exterior provinces of the Church of the East.[69]

Schisms and divisions[edit]

From the middle of the 16th century, and throughout following two centuries, the Church of the East was affected by several internal schisms. Some of those schisms were caused by individuals or groups who chose to accept union with the Catholic Church. Other schisms were provoked by rivalry between various fractions within the Church of the East. Lack of internal unity and frequent change of allegiances led to the creation and continuation of separate patriarchal lines. In spite of many internal challenges, and external difficulties (political oppression by Ottoman authorities and frequent persecutions by local non-Christians), the traditional branches of the Church of the East managed to survive that tumultuous period, and eventually consolidate during the 19th century in form of the Assyrian Church of the East. At the same time, after many similar difficulties, groups united with the Catholic Church were finally consolidated as the Chaldean Catholic Church.

Schism of 1552[edit]

Around the middle of the fifteenth century the patriarch Shemʿon IV Basidi made the patriarchal succession hereditary, normally from uncle to nephew. This practice, which resulted in a shortage of eligible heirs, eventually led to a schism in the Church of the East.[70] The patriarch Shemʿon VII Ishoʿyahb (1539–58) caused great offence at the beginning of his reign by designating his twelve-year-old nephew Khnanishoʿ as his successor, presumably because no older relatives were available.[71] Several years later, probably because Khnanishoʿ had died in the interim, he designated as successor his fifteen-year-old brother Eliya, the future patriarch Eliya (VI) VII (1558–91).[21] These appointments, combined with other accusations of impropriety, caused discontent throughout the church, and by 1552 Shemʿon VII Ishoʿyahb had become so unpopular that a group of bishops, principally from the Amid, Sirt and Salmas districts in northern Mesopotamia, chose a new patriarch, electing a monk named Yohannan Sulaqa, the former superior of Rabban Hormizd Monastery near the Assyrian town of Alqosh.[72] However, no bishop of metropolitan rank was available to consecrate him, as canonically required. Franciscan missionaries were already at work among the Nestorians,[73] and they persuaded Sulaqa's supporters to legitimise their position by seeking their candidate's consecration by Pope Julius III (1550–5).[74][21]

Sulaqa went to Rome to put his case in person. At Rome he made a satisfactory Catholic profession of faith and presented a letter, drafted by his supporters in Mosul, which set out his claims to be recognised as patriarch. On April 9, having satisfied the Vatican that he was a good Catholic, Sulaqa was consecrated bishop and archbishop in the basilica of Saint Peter. On April 28 he was recognised as "patriarch of Mosul and Athur" by pope Julius III in the bull Divina disponente clementia and received the pallium from the pope's hands at a secret consistory in the Vatican. These events, which marked the birth of the Chaldean Catholic Church, created a permanent schism in the Church of the East.[74]

Sulaqa was consecrated "patriarch of Mosul and Athur" in Rome in April 1553 and returned to northern Mesopotamia towards the end of the same year.[72] In December 1553 he obtained documents from the Ottoman authorities recognising him as an independent "Chaldean" patriarch, and in 1554, during a stay of five months in Amid, consecrated five metropolitan bishops (for the dioceses of Gazarta, Hesna d'Kifa, Amid, Mardin and Seert). Shemʿon VII Ishoʿyahb responded by consecrating two more underage members of the patriarchal family as metropolitans for Nisibis and Gazarta. He also won over the governor of ʿAmadiya, who invited Sulaqa to ʿ Amadiya, imprisoned him for four months, and put him to death in January 1555.[72]

The Eliya line of Alqosh[edit]

Patriarch Shemon VII Ishoyahb (1539–58), who resided in the Rabban Hormizd Monastery near Alqosh, continued to actively oppose union with Rome, and was succeeded by his nephew Eliya (designated as Eliya "VII" in older historiography, but renumbered as Eliya "VI" in recent scholarly works).[75] During his patriarchal tenure, from 1558 to 1591, the Church of the East preserved its traditional christology and full ecclesiastical independence.[76] His successor Eliya (VII) VIII (1591–1617) negotiated on several occasions with the Catholic Church, in 1605, 1610 and 1615-1616, but without final conclusion.[77] Further negotiations with the Catholic Church were canceled during the patriarchal tenure of his successor Eliya (VIII) IX (1617–1660).[78] David Wilmshurst noted that his successor, patriarch Eliya (IX) X (1660–1700) also was a "vigorous defender of the traditional faith".[79] This line of patriarchs continued throughout the 18th century, residing in the ancient Monastery of Rabban Hormizd, that was eventually attacked in 1743, at the beginning of the Ottoman-Persian War (1743-1746).[80] The Eliya line of patriarchs ended in 1804, with the death of Eliya (XII) XIII Ishoʿyahb.[81][75]

The Shimun line of Qochanis[edit]

The parallel line, united with the Catholic Church since 1552, continued under Shimun VIII Sulaqa's successors. First of them was Abdisho IV Maron (1555-1570) who remained in full communion with the Catholic Church. He visited Rome and was confirmed by the pope in 1562.[82] Soon after his death, connections with Catholic Church were loosened for the first time during the patriarchal tenure of Yahballaha V who did not seek confirmation from Rome.[83] His successor Shimun IX Dinkha (1580-1600) restored full communion with the Catholic Church and was officially confirmed by the pope in 1584.[84] After his death, the heredity of the patriarchal office was introduced. Patriarchs of this line commonly used the name Shimun, thus creating the Shimun line.

During the tenure of next patriarch Shimun X Eliyah (1600-1638) ties with Rome were loosened again. In 1616, he signed traditional profession of faith that was not accepted by the pope, leaving the patriarch without confirmation.[85] Hes successor Shimun XI Eshuyow (1638–1656) eventually restored communion with the Catholic Church in 1653, receiving confirmation from the pope.[79] By that time, tendencies towards traditional faith within the Shimun line were growing stronger. Next patriarch Shimun XII Yoalaha sent his profession of faith to the pope, but was deposed soon after that by his bishops because of his Catholic sympathies. The pope tried to intervene on his behalf, but without success.[79]

With the next patriarch Shimun XIII Dinkha (1662-1700), Shimun line definitively broke communion with the Catholic Church. In 1670, he gave a traditionalist reply to an approach that was made from Rome, and by 1672 all connections with the pope were ended.[86][87]. From that time, there were two traditionalist patriarchal lines, the senior Eliya line in Alqosh, and the junior Shimun line in Qochanis.[88]

The Josephite line of Amid[edit]

In the Western regions, a new start for the so-called Chaldean Patriarchate began in 1672 when Mar Joseph I, then the metropolitan of Amid under the jurisdiction of the patriarch of the Eliya line, entered in communion with the Catholic Church, separating from the Patriarchal see of Alqosh. In 1681 the Holy See granted him the title of "Patriarch of the Chaldeans deprived of its patriarch" as leader of the Assyrian people who stayed in communion with Rome, and thus forming the third patriarchate of the Church of the East.[89]

All Joseph I's successors took the name of Joseph. The life of this patriarchate was difficult: the leadership was continually vexed by traditionalists, while the community struggled under the tax burden imposed by the Ottoman authorities. Nevertheless, its influence expanded from the original towns of Amid and Mardin toward the area of Mosul, where they relocated the see.

Final consolidation of remaining lines[edit]

In 1780, a group seceded from the Eliya hereditary line in Alqosh, and elected Yohannan VIII Hormizd, who made a Catholic profession of faith. He entered full communion with the Roman see and was appointed Archbishop of Mosul. Only after death of Joseph V Augustine Hindi in 1827, Yohannan was recognised as Patriarch by the Pope, in 1830. This merged the various fractions committed to the union with the Catholic Church, thus forming the modern Chaldean Catholic Church.

At the same time, long rivalry between senior Eliya line of Alqosh and junior Shimun line of Qochanis ended in 1804 when last primate of the Eliya line, patriarch Eliya (XII) XIII Ishoyahb (1778-1804), died in the ancient Rabban Hormizd Monastery. His branch did not elect new patriarch, thus enabling patriarch Shimun XVI Yohannan (1780-1820) of the Shimun line to became the sole primate of traditionalist branches.[90][91] Consolidated since 1804, the reunited traditionalist line became known as the Assyrian Church of the East, with its headquarters now located in Chicago in the United States of America.[88]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ Wilhelm Baum, Dietmar W. Winkler, The Church of the East: A Concise History (Routledge 2003), pp. 3 and 30
  2. ^ Wilmshurst 2000.
  3. ^ Foltz 1999, p. 63.
  4. ^ "Cyril of Alexandria, Third epistle to Nestorius, including the twelve anathemas". Monachos.net. Archived from the original on 2012-01-12.
  5. ^ a b c d e f "Nestorian". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved January 28, 2010.
  6. ^ "Nestorius". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 11 November 2018.
  7. ^ Sebastian Brock, "The Christology of the Church of the East in the Synods of the Church of the East in the Synods of the Fifth to Early Seventh Centuries: Preliminary Considerations and Materials" in Everett Ferguson, Doctrinal Diversity: Varieties of Early Christianity (Taylor & Francis 1999), Volume 4, pp. 286−287
  8. '^ Philip Wood, The Chronicle of Seert (Oxford University Press 2013), p. 136
  9. ^ Hilarion Alfeyev, The Spiritual World Of Isaac The Syrian (Liturgical Press 2016)
  10. ^ a-771hoHeAhXMFsAKHRzVA3wQ6AEIODAD#v=onepage&q=qnome%20babai&f=false Sebastian P. Brock, Fire from Heaven: Studies in Syriac Theology and Liturgy (Ashgate 2006), p. 174
  11. ^ Richard E. Payne, "Persecuting Heresy in Early Islamic Iraq: The Catholicos Ishoyahb III and the Elites of Nisibis" in Andrew Cain, Noel Emmanuel Lenski, The Power of Religion in Late Antiquity (Ashgate 2009), p. 398
  12. ^ Meyendorff 1989.
  13. ^ a b Baum & Winkler 2003, p. 28-29.
  14. ^ J. F. Bethune-Baker, Nestorius and His Teaching (Cambridge University Press 2014), chapter VI
  15. ^ Walbert Bühlmann, Dreaming about the Church (Rowman & Littlefield 1987), pp. 111 and 164
  16. ^ David Wilmshurst, The Ecclesiastical Organisation of the Church of the East, 1318-1913 (Peeters 2000), p. 4
  17. ^ Sebastian P. Brock, Fire from Heaven: Studies in Syriac Theology and Liturgy (Ashgate 2006), p. 14
  18. ^ Joost Jongerden, Jelle Verheij, Social Relations in Ottoman Diyarbekir, 1870-1915 (BRILL 2012), p. 21
  19. ^ Gertrude Lowthian Bell, Amurath to Amurath (Heinemann 1911), p. 281
  20. ^ Gabriel Oussani, "The Modern Chaldeans and Nestorians, and the Study of Syriac among them" in Journal of the American Oriental Society, vol. 22 (1901), p. 81; cf. Albrecht Classen (editor), East Meets West in the Middle Ages and Early Modern Times (Walter de Gruyter 2013), p. 704
  21. ^ a b c Wilmshurst 2000, p. 21-22.
  22. ^ a b Wilmshurst 2000, p. 4.
  23. ^ Foster 1939, p. 34.
  24. ^ Syriac Versions of the Bible by Thomas Nicol
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  26. ^ "The Shadow of Nestorius".
  27. ^ a b Baumer, Christoph (2016). The Church of the East: An illustrated History of Assyrian Christianity (New Edition). London: I.B. Tauris. pp. 75 and 94. ISBN 978-1-78453-683-1.
  28. ^ Jean-Pierre Drège [la] (1992). Marco Polo y la Ruta de la Seda. Coll. “Aguilar Universal” (in Spanish). 31. Translated by Mari Pepa López Carmona. Madrid: Aguilar, S. A. de Ediciones. pp. 43 and 187. ISBN 978-84-0360-187-1.
  29. ^ Fiey 1970.
  30. ^ Chaumont 1988.
  31. ^ Hill 1988, p. 105.
  32. ^ a b Cross & Livingstone 2005, p. 354.
  33. ^ Outerbridge 1952.
  34. ^ Baum & Winkler 2003, p. 1.
  35. ^ Ilaria Ramelli, “Papa bar Aggai”, in Encyclopedia of Ancient Christianity, 2nd edn., 3 vols., ed. Angelo Di Berardino (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2014), 3:47.
  36. ^ Fiey 1967, p. 3–22.
  37. ^ Roberson 1999, p. 15.
  38. ^ Daniel & Mahdi 2006, p. 61.
  39. ^ Foster 1939, p. 26-27.
  40. ^ Burgess & Mercier 1999, p. 9-66.
  41. ^ Donald Attwater & Catherine Rachel John, The Penguin Dictionary of Saints, 3rd edn. (New York: Penguin Books, 1993), 116, 245.
  42. ^ Tajadod 1993, p. 110–133.
  43. ^ Labourt 1909.
  44. ^ Jugie 1935, p. 5–25.
  45. ^ Brock 2006, p. 73.
  46. ^ Stewart 1928, p. 13-14.
  47. ^ Stewart 1928, p. 14.
  48. ^ Foster 1939, p. 33.
  49. ^ Fiey 1993, p. 47 (Armenia), 72 (Damascus), 74 (Dailam and Gilan), 94–6 (India), 105 (China), 124 (Rai), 128–9 (Sarbaz), 128 (Samarqand and Beth Turkaye), 139 (Tibet).
  50. ^ Hill 1993, p. 4-5, 12.
  51. ^ Rémi Brague, Assyrians contributions to the Islamic civilization
  52. ^ Britannica, Nestorian
  53. ^ K.C. Zachariah (November 2001). The Syrian Christians of Kerala: Demographic and Socioeconomic Transition in the Twentieth Century (PDF) (Report). Thiruvananthapuram: Centre for Development Studies.
  54. ^ "NSC NETWORK – Early references about the Apostolate of Saint Thomas in India, Records about the Indian tradition, Saint Thomas Christians & Statements by Indian Statesmen". Nasrani.net. Archived from the original on 3 April 2010. Retrieved 2010-03-31.
  55. ^ Frykenberg 2008, p. 102–107, 115.
  56. ^ a b Baum & Winkler 2003, p. 52.
  57. ^ Baum & Winkler 2003, p. 53.
  58. ^ Ding 2006, p. 149-162.
  59. ^ Stewart 1928, p. 169.
  60. ^ Stewart 1928, p. 183.
  61. ^ Moffett 1999, p. 14-15.
  62. ^ Jackson 2014, p. 97.
  63. ^ Luke 1924, p. 46–56.
  64. ^ Fiey 1993, p. 71.
  65. ^ Wilmshurst 2000, p. 66.
  66. ^ Frazee 2006.
  67. ^ Marthaler 2003, p. 366.
  68. ^ Frazee 2006, p. 55.
  69. ^ Wilmshurst 2000, p. 345-347.
  70. ^ Wilmshurst 2000, p. 19.
  71. ^ Wilmshurst 2000, p. 21.
  72. ^ a b c Wilmshurst 2000, p. 22.
  73. ^ Lemmens 1926, p. 17-28.
  74. ^ a b Habbi 1966, p. 99-132.
  75. ^ a b Hage 2007, p. 473.
  76. ^ Wilmshurst 2000, p. 22, 42 194, 260, 355.
  77. ^ Wilmshurst 2000, p. 24.
  78. ^ Wilmshurst 2000, p. 24-25.
  79. ^ a b c Wilmshurst 2000, p. 25.
  80. ^ Wilmshurst 2000, p. 205, 263.
  81. ^ Wilmshurst 2000, p. 263.
  82. ^ Wilmshurst 2000, p. 22-23.
  83. ^ Wilmshurst 2000, p. 23.
  84. ^ Wilmshurst 2000, p. 23-24.
  85. ^ Wilmshurst 2000, p. 24, 315.
  86. ^ Wilmshurst 2000, p. 25, 316.
  87. ^ Baum & Winkler 2003, p. 114, 118, 174-175.
  88. ^ a b Murre van den Berg 1999, p. 235-264.
  89. ^ Baum & Winkler 2003, p. 119, 174.
  90. ^ Baum & Winkler 2003, p. 120, 175.
  91. ^ Wilmshurst 2000, p. 316-319, 356.

Sources[edit]