Same-sex union legislation

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  Marriage open to same-sex couples
  Recognized when performed in certain other jurisdictions
  Government/court announced intention to legalize marriage
  Civil unions/domestic partnerships
  Government/court announced intention to legalize civil unions
  Unregistered cohabitation
  Same-sex unions not legally recognized

Colors higher in the list override those lower down.
rings = individual cases
Legal status of same-sex unions
Marriage
Performed
Recognized
  1. When performed in Mexican states that have legalized same-sex marriage
  2. When performed in the Netherlands proper
  3. Marriages performed in some municipalities and recognized by the state

* Not yet in effect

LGBT portal

Same-sex marriage is legal (nationwide or in some parts) in the following countries: Argentina, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Denmark,[nb 1] France, Iceland, Ireland, Luxembourg, Mexico,[nb 2] the Netherlands,[nb 3] New Zealand,[nb 4] Norway, Portugal, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom[nb 5] the United States,[nb 6] and Uruguay. A similar law in Finland will be in force in 2017.

Same-sex marriage is recognized, but not performed, in Israel and Malta. Furthermore, same-sex marriages performed in the Netherlands are recognized in Aruba, Curaçao and Sint Maarten.

Whether same-sex couples should be allowed to marry has been and remains the topic of debate worldwide. Twenty-eight countries and five jurisdictions worldwide have passed constitutional and/or statutory amendments that explicitly prohibit the legal recognition of same-sex marriage and sometimes other forms of legal unions as well.[1] Twenty countries and twenty-five jurisdictions worldwide have authorized civil unions or unregistered cohabitation for same-sex couples as an alternative to marriage. The legal name of those unions as well as the amount of rights that they provide can vary greatly.

Legislative efforts to recognise same-sex unions[edit]

National level[edit]

The first legislation of unregistered cohabitation was introduced in the Netherlands in June 1979.[2][3] However, the first substantial recognition of same-sex couples didn't occur before the introduction of a new legal form, that of registered partnerships, which was first enacted in Denmark in June 1989.[4] Many countries have followed with similar legislation since then. Legislation of these forms of legal unions still occur with a variety of different names, even after the introduction of same sex marriage, although sometimes they are overwritten by subsequent legislation of same-sex marriage.

There are currently twenty-one countries that have an alternative form of legal recognition other than marriage on a national level. Those are Andorra, Australia, Austria, Chile, Costa Rica, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Ecuador, Estonia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Israel, Italy, Liechtenstein, Malta, San Marino (although only for one entitlement), Slovenia and Switzerland.

As of December 2016, legislation to allow an alternative form of legal recognition of same-sex couples other than marriage have been proposed, is pending, or have passed at least one legislative house on a national level in Bolivia, Costa Rica, Israel, Monaco, Peru, the Philippines, San Marino, Thailand and Venezuela.

The first same-sex marriage bill ever voted on was passed in the Netherlands[nb 3] in December 2000 and went into force in 2001. Belgium passed a same-sex marriage bill in 2003. Spain and Canada legalized same-sex marriage in 2005 and South Africa legalized it in 2006 thus becoming the next three countries to pass such bills. Same-sex marriage was legalized in both Norway and Sweden in 2009 and in Portugal, Iceland and Argentina in 2010. Denmark[nb 1] opened marriage to same-sex couples in 2012. Brazil, France, Uruguay and New Zealand[nb 4] gave same-sex couples the right to marry in 2013. The United Kingdom[nb 5] allows same-sex marriage since 2014. Same-sex marriage in Luxembourg, the United States[nb 6] and Ireland became legal in 2015. Same-sex marriage in Colombia was legalized in 2016. The law in Finland is expected to take effect on 1 March 2017.

As of December 2016, legislation to allow same-sex marriage have been proposed, is pending, or have passed at least one legislative house on a national level in Australia, Austria, Chile, Costa Rica, Germany, Nepal, Switzerland and Taiwan.

Country Date Same-sex union Upper house Lower house Head of state Law
enacted?
Yes No Yes No
Netherlands Netherlands June 1979 Unregistered cohabitation[2][3] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Netherlands Netherlands December 1980 Unregistered cohabitation (expansion)[2][3] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Netherlands Netherlands November 1984 Unregistered cohabitation (expansion)[2][3] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Denmark Denmark June 1986 Unregistered cohabitation[3][5][6] N/A 78 62 Signed Yes Yes
Sweden Sweden June 1987 Unregistered cohabitation[7] N/A Passed N/A[a 1] Yes Yes
Denmark Denmark June 1989 Registered partnership[8][9] N/A 71 47 Signed Yes Yes[a 2]
Norway Norway July 1991 Unregistered cohabitation[10] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Norway Norway April 1993 Registered partnership[11] 18 16 58 40 Signed Yes Yes[a 2]
Sweden Sweden June 1994 Registered partnership[12] N/A 171 141 N/A[a 1] Yes Yes[a 2]
Spain Spain November 1994 Unregistered cohabitation[3] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Hungary Hungary May 1996 Unregistered cohabitation[3][13] N/A 207 73 Signed Yes Yes
Iceland Iceland June 1996 Confirmed cohabitation[14][15] N/A 44 1 Signed Yes Yes[a 2]
Slovakia Slovakia May 1997 Registered partnership[16] N/A Failed No No
Netherlands Netherlands July 1997 Registered partnership[2] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Andorra Andorra December 1997 De facto family union[17] N/A 11 17 No No
Czech Republic Czech Republic June 1998 Registered partnership[18] Failed No No
France France October 1998 Civil solidarity pact[19] Failed No No
Belgium Belgium January 1999 Legal cohabitation[20][21] 39 8 98 10 Signed Yes Yes
Sweden Sweden March 1999 Registered partnership (expansion)[22] N/A Passed N/A[a 1] Yes Yes[a 2]
Denmark Denmark June 1999 Registered partnership (expansion: adoption rights)[23] N/A 61 48 Signed Yes Yes[a 2]
France France November 1999 Civil solidarity pact and concubinage[24] Passed 315 249 Signed Yes Yes
Czech Republic Czech Republic December 1999 Registered partnership[25] 69 91 No No
Slovakia Slovakia February 2000 Registered partnership[16] N/A Failed No No
Canada Canada April 2000 Common-law partnership[26][27][28] Passed 174 72 Signed Yes Yes
Iceland Iceland May 2000 Confirmed cohabitation (expansion: adoption and immigration rights)[29] N/A 49 1 Signed Yes Yes[a 2]
Germany Germany November 2000 Registered life partnership[30] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Netherlands Netherlands December 2000 Marriage[31][32] 49 26 109 33 Signed Yes Yes
Norway Norway December 2000 Registered partnership (expansion)[10][33] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes[a 2]
Portugal Portugal March 2001 De facto union[34][35] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
New Zealand New Zealand April 2001 De facto relationship[36] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Czech Republic Czech Republic April 2001 Unregistered cohabitation[37] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Norway Norway June 2001 Registered partnership (expansion: adoption rights)[38][39] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes[a 2]
Finland Finland September 2001 Registered partnership[40] N/A 99 84 Signed Yes Yes
Czech Republic Czech Republic October 2001 Registered partnership[41] Failed No No
Sweden Sweden June 2002 Registered partnership (expansion: adoption rights)[42] N/A Passed N/A[a 1] Yes Yes[a 2]
Belgium Belgium February 2003 Marriage[43] 46 15 91 22 Signed Yes Yes
Denmark Denmark May 2003 Registered partnership (expansion)[44] N/A 49 60 No No
Denmark Denmark May 2003 Registered partnership (expansion)[45] N/A 45 60 No No
Denmark Denmark May 2003 Registered partnership (expansion)[46] N/A 43 61 No No
Denmark Denmark June 2003 Registered partnership (expansion)[47] N/A 11 94 No No
Croatia Croatia July 2003 Unregistered cohabitation[48] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Luxembourg Luxembourg May 2004 Free union[49] N/A Failed No No
Luxembourg Luxembourg May 2004 Marriage[50] N/A Failed No No
Luxembourg Luxembourg July 2004 Partnership[51] N/A 33 7 Signed Yes Yes
Panama Panama September 2004 Civil union[52] N/A Failed No No
Germany Germany October 2004 Registered life partnership (expansion: adoption rights)[53] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Norway Norway November 2004 Marriage[54] N/A Failed No No
United Kingdom United Kingdom November 2004 Civil partnership[55] 251 136 426 49 Signed Yes Yes
New Zealand New Zealand November 2004 De facto relationship (expansion)[56] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
New Zealand New Zealand December 2004 Civil union[57] N/A 65 55 Signed Yes Yes
Czech Republic Czech Republic February 2005 Registered partnership[58] Failed No No
Andorra Andorra March 2005 Stable couple union[59] N/A Passed Signed [a 3] Yes Yes
Slovenia Slovenia March 2005 Registered partnership[60] N/A[a 4] Failed No No
New Zealand New Zealand March 2005 Civil union and de facto relationship (expansion)[61][62] N/A 76 43 Signed Yes Yes
Sweden Sweden June 2005 Registered partnership (expansion)[63] N/A Passed N/A[a 1] Yes Yes[a 2]
Switzerland Switzerland June 2005 Registered partnership[64] Passed Passed N/A Yes Yes
Specific referendum (58.04%)
Spain Spain July 2005 Marriage[65] Vetoed [a 5] 183 136 Signed Yes Yes
Canada Canada July 2005 Marriage[66] 47 21 158 133 Signed Yes Yes
Slovenia Slovenia July 2005 Partnership[67] N/A[a 4] 44 3 Signed Yes Yes
Croatia Croatia October 2005 Registered partnership[68] N/A Failed No No
Czech Republic Czech Republic March 2006 Registered partnership[69] 65 14 86 54 Vetoed [a 6] Yes Yes
Belgium Belgium May 2006 Marriage (expansion: adoption rights)[70][71] 34 33 77 62 Signed Yes Yes
Spain Spain May 2006 Marriage (expansion: lesbian parenthood equality)[72] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Denmark Denmark June 2006 Registered partnership (expansion)[73] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes[a 2]
Iceland Iceland June 2006 Confirmed cohabitation (expansion)[74][75] N/A 41 0 Signed Yes Yes[a 2]
France France June 2006 Civil solidarity pact (expansion)[76] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
South Africa South Africa November 2006 Marriage and civil partnership[77] 36 11 230 41 Signed Yes Yes
Portugal Portugal December 2006 De facto union (expansion: immigration rights)[78] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Finland Finland December 2006 Registered partnership (expansion)[79][80] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Colombia Colombia June 2007 Civil union[81] 29 34 62 43 No No
Hungary Hungary December 2007 Registered partnership[82] N/A 185 154 Signed No No[a 7]
Uruguay Uruguay December 2007 Cohabitation union[83][84] 17 5 Passed Signed Yes Yes
Iceland Iceland May 2008 Confirmed cohabitation (expansion)[85][86] N/A 54 0 Signed Yes Yes[a 2]
Norway Norway June 2008 Marriage[87] 23 17 84 41 Signed Yes Yes
Ecuador Ecuador September 2008 De facto union[88] General constitutional referendum (69.46%) Yes Yes
Portugal Portugal October 2008 Marriage[89] N/A Failed No No
Portugal Portugal October 2008 Marriage[89] N/A Failed No No
United Kingdom United Kingdom November 2008 Civil partnership (expansion)[90] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Australia Australia November 2008 De facto relationship[91] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Sweden Sweden April 2009 Marriage[92] N/A 261 22 N/A[a 1] Yes Yes
Hungary Hungary April 2009 Registered partnership[93][94] N/A 199 159 Signed Yes Yes
France France May 2009 Recognition of unions performed abroad as PACS[95] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Finland Finland May 2009 Registered partnership (expansion: adoption rights)[96] N/A 108 29 Signed Yes Yes
Denmark Denmark June 2009 Registered partnership (expansion)[97] N/A 107 2 Signed Yes Yes[a 2]
Portugal Portugal August 2009 De facto union (expansion: inheritance rights)[98] N/A Passed Vetoed No No
Uruguay Uruguay September 2009 Cohabitation union (expansion: adoption rights)[99][100] 17 6 40 13 Signed Yes Yes
Austria Austria December 2009 Registered partnership[101] 44 8 110 64 Signed Yes Yes
Portugal Portugal January 2010 Marriage[102] N/A Failed No No
Portugal Portugal January 2010 Marriage[103] N/A Failed No No
Portugal Portugal January 2010 Registered civil union[104] N/A Failed No No
Australia Australia February 2010 Marriage[105] 5 45 No No
Portugal Portugal May 2010 Marriage[106] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Denmark Denmark May 2010 Registered partnership (expansion: adoption rights)[107] N/A 60 54 Signed Yes Yes[a 2]
Denmark Denmark June 2010 Marriage[108] N/A 52 57 No No
Iceland Iceland June 2010 Marriage[109][110] N/A 49 0 Signed Yes Yes
Republic of Ireland Ireland July 2010 Civil partnership and unregistered cohabitation[111][112] 48 4 Passed Signed Yes Yes
Argentina Argentina July 2010 Marriage[113] 33 27 125 109 Signed Yes Yes
Luxembourg Luxembourg August 2010 Partnership (expansion)[114] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Portugal Portugal August 2010 De facto union (expansion: inheritance rights)[115][116] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Germany Germany September 2010 Marriage[117] Failed No No
Germany Germany October 2010 Registered life partnership (expansion: tax law)[118] Failed No No
Germany Germany April 2011 Registered life partnership (expansion: tax law and adoption rights)[119] Failed No No
Liechtenstein Liechtenstein June 2011 Registered partnership[120] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Specific referendum (68.76%)
France France June 2011 Marriage[121] 222 293 No No
Germany Germany June 2011 Registered life partnership (expansion: tax law)[122] Failed No No
Portugal Portugal February 2012 Marriage (expansion: adoption rights)[123] N/A Failed No No
Portugal Portugal February 2012 Marriage (expansion: adoption rights)[123] N/A Failed No No
Slovenia Slovenia March 2012 Partnership (expansion)[124] Specific referendum (45.36%) No No
Israel Israel May 2012 Marriage[125] N/A 11 39 No No
Denmark Denmark June 2012 Marriage[126] N/A 85 24 Signed Yes Yes
Germany Germany June 2012 Marriage[127][128] 260 309 No No
San Marino San Marino June 2012 Unregistered cohabitation (only one entitlement)[129] N/A 33 20 Signed Yes Yes
Australia Australia September 2012 Marriage[130] 42 98 No No
Australia Australia September 2012 Marriage[131] 26 41 No No
Germany Germany October 2012 Registered life partnership (expansion: tax law)[132] 253 288 No No
Slovakia Slovakia November 2012 Registered partnership[133] N/A 14 94 No No
Poland Poland January 2013 Registered partnership[134][135] Failed No No
Poland Poland January 2013 Registered partnership[136][137] Failed No No
Poland Poland January 2013 Registered partnership[138] Failed No No
Poland Poland January 2013 Registered partnership[139] Failed No No
Poland Poland January 2013 Partnership agreement[140][141] Failed No No
Germany Germany March 2013 Registered life partnership (expansion: tax law)[142][143] Passed No No
Germany Germany March 2013 Marriage[144] Passed No No
New Zealand New Zealand April 2013 Marriage[145] N/A 77 44 Signed Yes Yes
Colombia Colombia April 2013 Marriage[146] 17 51 No No
Uruguay Uruguay May 2013 Marriage[147][148] 23 8 71 21 Signed Yes Yes
Portugal Portugal May 2013 Marriage (expansion: adoption rights)[149] N/A 77 104 No No
Portugal Portugal May 2013 Marriage (expansion: adoption rights)[149] N/A Failed No No
Portugal Portugal May 2013 Marriage (expansion: adoption rights)[149] N/A Failed No No
France France May 2013 Marriage[150][151] 171 165 331 225 Signed Yes Yes
Australia Australia June 2013 Recognition of marriage performed abroad[152] 28 44 No No
Germany Germany July 2013 Registered life partnership (expansion: tax law)[153][154] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
United Kingdom United Kingdom
(England and Wales)
July 2013 Marriage[155][156] Passed 366 161 Signed Yes Yes
Austria Austria July 2013 Registered partnership (expansion: adoption rights)[157][158] 45 8 Passed Signed Yes Yes
Netherlands Netherlands December 2013 Marriage (expansion: lesbian parenthood equality)[159][160] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Portugal Portugal March 2014 Marriage (expansion: adoption rights)[161] N/A 107 112 No No
Malta Malta April 2014 Civil union[162] N/A 37 0 Signed Yes Yes
Belgium Belgium May 2014 Marriage (expansion: lesbian parenthood equality)[163][164] 48 2 114 10 Signed Yes Yes
Germany Germany May 2014 Registered life partnership (expansion: adoption rights)[165][166] 111 432 No No
Andorra Andorra May 2014 Marriage[167][168] N/A 6 21 No No
Germany Germany June 2014 Registered life partnership (expansion: adoption rights)[169] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Romania Romania June 2014 Civil partnership[170][171] 2 110 4 298 No No
Luxembourg Luxembourg June 2014 Marriage[172][173] N/A 56 4 N/A[a 8] Yes Yes
Croatia Croatia July 2014 Life partnership[174] N/A 89 16 N/A[a 9] Yes Yes
Germany Germany July 2014 Registered life partnership (expansion: tax law)[175][176][177] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
San Marino San Marino September 2014 Recognition of marriage performed abroad[178] N/A 15 35 No No
Argentina Argentina October 2014 Cohabitation union[179][180] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Andorra Andorra December 2014 Civil union[181][182] N/A 20 3 Signed Yes Yes
Portugal Portugal January 2015 Marriage (expansion: adoption rights)[183][184] N/A 89 119 No No
Portugal Portugal January 2015 Marriage (expansion: adoption rights)[183][184] N/A 91 119 No No
Portugal Portugal January 2015 Marriage (expansion: adoption rights)[183][184] N/A 91 120 No No
Portugal Portugal January 2015 Marriage (expansion: medically assisted reproduction)[183][184] N/A Failed No No
Republic of Ireland Ireland April 2015 Civil partnership and unregistered cohabitation (expansion: adoption rights)[185][186] 20 2 Passed Signed Yes Yes
Chile Chile April 2015 Civil union agreement[187][188] 25 6 78 9 Signed Yes Yes
Ecuador Ecuador June 2015 De facto union (expansion)[189][190][191][192] N/A 89 1 Signed Yes Yes
Israel Israel July 2015 Civil union[193] N/A 39 50 No No
Republic of Ireland Ireland August 2015 Marriage (constitutional amendment)[194] 29 3 Passed Signed Yes Yes
Specific constitutional referendum (62.07%)
October 2015 Marriage (statutory legislation)[195][196][197] Passed Passed Signed
Germany Germany November 2015 Registered life partnership (expansion)[198][199] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Cyprus Cyprus December 2015 Civil cohabitation[200][201] N/A 39 12 Signed Yes Yes
Romania Romania December 2015 Civil partnership[202][203][204] 8 49 Failed No No
Slovenia Slovenia December 2015 Marriage[205][206] N/A[a 4] 51 28 No No
Specific referendum (36.53%)
Greece Greece December 2015 Cohabitation agreement[207] N/A 194 55 Signed Yes Yes
Portugal Portugal February 2016 Marriage and de facto union (expansion: adoption rights)[208] N/A Passed Vetoed [a 10] Yes Yes
Israel Israel February 2016 Civil union[209] N/A 40 47 No No
Luxembourg Luxembourg April 2016 Recognition of marriage performed abroad before 1 January 2015[210] N/A 50 3 N/A[a 8] Yes Yes
Slovenia Slovenia April 2016 Partnership (expansion)[211][212] N/A[a 4] 54 15 N/A[a 9] Yes Yes
Italy Italy May 2016 Civil union and cohabitation agreement[213][214][215] 173 71 372 51 Signed Yes Yes
Portugal Portugal June 2016 Marriage and de facto union (expansion: medically assisted reproduction)[216] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Switzerland Switzerland June 2016 Registered partnership (expansion: adoption rights)[217][218] 25 14 125 68 N/A Yes Yes
Liechtenstein Liechtenstein November 2016 Registered partnership (expansion)[219][220] N/A 25 0 Signed Yes Yes
Greece Greece December 2016 Cohabitation agreement (expansion)[221] N/A 201 21 Pending
Finland Finland February 2015 Marriage (framework law)[222] N/A 101 90 Signed Yes Yes
April 2016 Marriage (implementation laws)[223][224][225] N/A 106 42 Signed
December 2016 N/A Pending
Estonia Estonia October 2014 Cohabitation agreement (framework law)[226][227] N/A 40 38 Signed Yes Yes
2016 Cohabitation agreement (implementation law)[228][229] N/A Pending
Chile Chile 2016 Civil union agreement (expansion)[230][231][232] Pending 70 0
Switzerland Switzerland 2016 Registered partnership (expansion: immigration rights)[233][234] Pending 122 62
Austria Austria 2016 Registered partnership (expansion: naming rights and registration at the Standesamt)[235][236] Pending
Chile Chile 2017 Civil union agreement (expansion: adoption rights)[237][238][239][240] Pending
Chile Chile 2017 Marriage[241][242][240] Pending
Australia Australia Unknown Marriage[243] Pending
Austria Austria Unknown Marriage[244][245][246] Pending
Bolivia Bolivia Unknown Family life agreement[247][248] Pending
Costa Rica Costa Rica Unknown De facto union[249] N/A Pending
Costa Rica Costa Rica Unknown Marriage[250][251] N/A Pending
Czech Republic Czech Republic Unknown Registered partnership (expansion: adoption rights)[252] Pending
Germany Germany Unknown Marriage[253][254][255][256] 40 29 Pending
Italy Italy Unknown Civil union and cohabitation agreement (expansion: adoption rights)[257] Proposed
Malta Malta Unknown Civil union (expansion: in vitro fertilisation)[258] N/A Proposed
Malta Malta Unknown Cohabitation[259] N/A Pending
Monaco Monaco Unknown Cohabitation agreement[260] Passed Pending
Nepal Nepal Unknown Marriage[261] N/A Proposed
Peru Peru Unknown Civil union[262][263] N/A Pending
Philippines Philippines Unknown Civil union[264] Pending
San Marino San Marino Unknown Partnership[265] N/A Proposed
Switzerland Switzerland Unknown Marriage[266][267] Pending
Taiwan Taiwan Unknown Marriage[268][269] N/A Pending
Thailand Thailand Unknown Civil partnership[270] N/A Proposed
Venezuela Venezuela Unknown Civil union[271] N/A Proposed

Notes:

  1. ^ a b c d e f According to the 1974 Constitution, the King of Sweden is head of state but does not sign or veto any laws enacted by Parliament.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Replaced by the gender-neutral marriage law.
  3. ^ Only one of the two Co-Princes of Andorra signed the law.
  4. ^ a b c d The Slovenian Parliament is incompletely bicameral.
  5. ^ The Spanish Senate voted 131 "yes" to 119 "no" to veto the law. The veto was later overridden by the Spanish Congress of Deputies.
  6. ^ Veto overridden.
  7. ^ Ruled unconstitutional.
  8. ^ a b Since the 2008 constitutional change, the assent of the Grand Duke of Luxembourg is not required for the enactment of laws adopted by the Parliament.
  9. ^ a b The President merely promulgates the laws adopted by the Parliament.
  10. ^ Veto overridden.

Sub-national level[edit]

For status in U.S. states, see Same-sex marriage legislation in the United States

In countries with a federal system of governance, states and territories often may grant recognition to same-sex couples in their own jurisdictions, although unitary states with a level of devolution, such as Spain or the United Kingdom, also offer such legalities to local authorities. The first jurisdiction to enact unregistered cohabitation was British Columbia in Canada in July 1992. The first jurisdiction to legalize registered partnership was Greenland as part of the Kingdom of Denmark in April 1996. Finally, the first sub-national jurisdiction to legalize same-sex marriage was the Canadian province of Ontario in June 2003.

As of December 2016, there are twenty-five jurisdictions worldwide have legalized some kind of alternative form of legal union of same-sex couples other than marriage. Those are five Australian states (New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania and Victoria), one Australian territory (the Australian Capital Territory), a constituent country of the United Kingdom (Northern Ireland), all the special municipalities of Taiwan (Kaoshiung, New Taipei, Taichung, Tainan, Taipei and Taoyuan), the Taiwanese provincial city of Chiayi, four counties of Taiwan (Changhua, Chiayi, Hsinchu and Yilan), two special wards of Tokyo (Shibuya and Setagaya), one special city of Japan (Takarazuka), one city of Japan (Iga), one core city of Japan (Naha), the British Crown dependencies of Jersey and the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar.

As of December 2016, legislation to allow or expand any kind of alternative form of legal recognition of same-sex couples other than marriage have been proposed, is pending, or have passed at least one legislative house in Aruba, a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.

For the time being, fifty jurisdictions worldwide have legalized same-sex marriage. Those are:

As of December 2016, legislation to allow same-sex marriage have been proposed, is pending, or have passed at least one legislative house in the Mexican states of Aguascalientes, Baja California, Baja California Sur, Chiapas, Durango, Guanajuato, México, Nuevo León, Oaxaca, Puebla, Querétaro, Sinaloa, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Tlaxcala, Veracruz, Yucatán and Zacatecas, the Mexican city of Tijuana, the Danish constituent country of the Faroe Islands, as well as the British Crown dependencies of Guernsey and Jersey, and the British Overseas Territories of Gibraltar, the Falkland Islands and Saint Helena.

State/Territory Country Date Same-sex union Upper House Lower house Head of State Law
enacted?
Yes No Yes No
British Columbia British Columbia Canada Canada July 1992 Marriage-like relationship[272][273] N/A 30 17 Signed Yes Yes
British Columbia British Columbia Canada Canada July 1993 Marriage-like relationship (expansion)[274] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
British Columbia British Columbia Canada Canada July 1993 Marriage-like relationship (expansion)[275] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
British Columbia British Columbia Canada Canada July 1993 Marriage-like relationship (expansion)[276] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Australian Capital Territory Australian Capital Territory Australia Australia May 1994 Domestic relationship[277] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Ontario Ontario Canada Canada June 1994 Domestic partnership[278] N/A 58 69 No No
British Columbia British Columbia Canada Canada June 1995 Marriage-like relationship (expansion)[279] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
British Columbia British Columbia Canada Canada July 1995 Marriage-like relationship (expansion: adoption rights)[280] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Greenland Greenland Denmark Denmark April 1996 Registered partnership[281][282] N/A 104 1 Signed Yes Yes
Ceuta Ceuta Spain Spain April 1997 De facto union[283] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
British Columbia British Columbia Canada Canada July 1997 Marriage-like relationship (expansion)[284] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Catalonia Catalonia Spain Spain June 1998 Stable couple union[285][286] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Yukon Yukon Canada Canada December 1998 Unregistered cohabitation[287] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Aragon Aragon Spain Spain March 1999 Stable non-married couple[285][288] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Yukon Yukon Canada Canada April 1999 Unregistered cohabitation (expansion)[289][290] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Alberta Alberta Canada Canada May 1999 Unregistered cohabitation[291] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Quebec Quebec Canada Canada May 1999 De facto union[292] N/A 80 0 Signed Yes Yes
New South Wales New South Wales Australia Australia June 1999 De facto relationship[293] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
British Columbia British Columbia Canada Canada July 1999 Marriage-like relationship (expansion)[294] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Ontario Ontario Canada Canada October 1999 Conjugal relationship[295] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Navarre Navarre Spain Spain July 2000 Stable couple[285][296] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Castilla-La Mancha Castile-La Mancha Spain Spain July 2000 De facto couple[297] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
British Columbia British Columbia Canada Canada July 2000 Marriage-like relationship (expansion)[298] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Australian Capital Territory Australian Capital Territory Australia Australia August 2000 Domestic relationship (expansion)[299] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Nova Scotia Nova Scotia Canada Canada November 2000 Domestic partnership[300][301] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Newfoundland and Labrador Newfoundland and Labrador Canada Canada December 2000 Conjugal relationship[302] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
New Brunswick New Brunswick Canada Canada December 2000 Family relationship[303] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Canton of Geneva Geneva Switzerland Switzerland February 2001 Registered partnership[304][305] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Valencian Community Valencia Spain Spain April 2001 De facto union[306] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Victoria (Australia) Victoria Australia Australia June 2001 Domestic relationship[307] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Manitoba Manitoba Canada Canada July 2001 Common-law relationship[308] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Saskatchewan Saskatchewan Canada Canada July 2001 Unregistered cohabitation[309] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Saskatchewan Saskatchewan Canada Canada July 2001 Unregistered cohabitation (expansion: adoption rights)[310] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Victoria (Australia) Victoria Australia Australia November 2001 Domestic relationship (expansion)[311] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Newfoundland and Labrador Newfoundland and Labrador Canada Canada December 2001 Conjugal relationship (expansion)[312] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Balearic Islands Balearic Islands Spain Spain December 2001 Stable couple[313] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Community of Madrid Madrid Spain Spain December 2001 De facto union[285][314] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Newfoundland and Labrador Newfoundland and Labrador Canada Canada April 2002 Conjugal relationship (expansion: adoption rights)[315] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Western Australia Western Australia Australia Australia April 2002 De facto relationship[316] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Yukon Yukon Canada Canada May 2002 Unregistered cohabitation (expansion: adoption rights)[317] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Asturias Asturias Spain Spain May 2002 Stable couple[318] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Northwest Territories Northwest Territories Canada Canada June 2002 Unregistered cohabitation[289][319] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Quebec Quebec Canada Canada June 2002 Civil union[320] N/A 87 0 Signed Yes Yes
Manitoba Manitoba Canada Canada August 2002 Common-law relationship (expansion: adoption rights)[321] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Manitoba Manitoba Canada Canada August 2002 Common-law relationship (expansion)[322] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Canton of Zurich Zurich Switzerland Switzerland September 2002 Registered partnership[323] Specific cantonal referendum (62.70%) Yes Yes
New South Wales New South Wales Australia Australia October 2002 De facto relationship (expansion)[324][325] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Castile and León Castile and León Spain Spain October 2002 De facto union[326] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Alberta Alberta Canada Canada December 2002 Adult interdependent relationship[327] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Queensland Queensland Australia Australia December 2002 De facto relationship[328] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Andalusia Andalusia Spain Spain December 2002 De facto couple[285][329] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Prince Edward Island Prince Edward Island Canada Canada December 2002 Unregistered cohabitation[330] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Buenos Aires Buenos Aires Argentina Argentina January 2003 Civil union[331][332] N/A 29 10 Signed Yes Yes
Canary Islands Canary Islands Spain Spain March 2003 De facto couple[285][333] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Extremadura Extremadura Spain Spain March 2003 De facto couple[285][334] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Basque Country (autonomous community) Basque Country Spain Spain May 2003 De facto couple[285][335] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Río Negro Province Rio Negro Argentina Argentina May 2003 Civil union[336] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
South Australia South Australia Australia Australia June 2003 Unregistered cohabitation[337] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Tasmania Tasmania Australia Australia September 2003 Significant relationship and caring relationship[338] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Australian Capital Territory Australian Capital Territory Australia Australia January 2004 Domestic relationship (expansion: adoption rights)[339] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Canton of Neuchâtel Neuchâtel Switzerland Switzerland January 2004 Registered partnership[340] N/A 65 38 Signed Yes Yes
Northern Territory Northern Territory Australia Australia January 2004 De facto Relationship[341][342] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Aragon Aragon Spain Spain May 2004 Stable non-married couple (expansion: adoption rights)[343] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Canton of Fribourg Fribourg Switzerland Switzerland May 2004 Registered partnership[340][344] General cantonal referendum (58.03%) Yes Yes
Flag of Sydney.jpg City of Sydney Australia Australia July 2004 Relationship declaration program[345] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Quebec Quebec Canada Canada November 2004 Marriage (codification)[346] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Ontario Ontario Canada Canada March 2005 Marriage (codification)[347] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Northwest Territories Northwest Territories Canada Canada March 2005 Unregistered cohabitation (expansion)[348] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Catalonia Catalonia Spain Spain April 2005 Stable couple union (expansion: adoption rights)[349][350] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Cantabria Cantabria Spain Spain May 2005 De facto couple[351] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Akrotiri and Dhekelia Akrotiri and Dhekelia United Kingdom United Kingdom November 2005 Civil partnership[352] N/A Signed Yes Yes
Isle of Man Isle of Man United Kingdom United Kingdom November 2005 Recognition of civil partnership performed in the United Kingdom[353] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Norfolk Island Norfolk Island Australia Australia February 2006 Unregistered cohabitation[354] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Australian Capital Territory Australian Capital Territory Australia Australia June 2006 Civil union[355] N/A Passed Signed No No[b 1]
Mexico City Mexico City Mexico Mexico November 2006 Coexistence partnership[356] N/A 43 17 Signed Yes Yes
Balearic Islands Balearic Islands Spain Spain November 2006 Marriage (codification)[357] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
South Australia South Australia Australia Australia December 2006 Domestic partnership agreement[358] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Coahuila Coahuila Mexico Mexico January 2007 Civil pact of solidarity[359] N/A 20 13 Signed Yes Yes
Scotland Scotland United Kingdom United Kingdom January 2007 Civil partnership (expansion: adoption rights)[360][361] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Australian Capital Territory Australian Capital Territory Australia Australia February 2007 Civil partnership[362] N/A Passed Signed No No[b 1]
Community of Madrid Madrid Spain Spain February 2007 Marriage (codification)[363] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Alberta Alberta Canada Canada February 2007 Marriage (expansion: adoption rights)[364] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Region of Murcia Murcia Spain Spain March 2007 Marriage (codification)[365] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
New Brunswick New Brunswick Canada Canada March 2007 Marriage (expansion: adoption rights)[291] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Valencian Community Valencia Spain Spain March 2007 Marriage (codification)[366] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Asturias Asturias Spain Spain March 2007 Marriage (codification)[367] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
City of Melbourne Australia Australia April 2007 Relationship declaration program[368] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Victoria (Australia) City of Yarra Australia Australia May 2007 Relationship declaration program[369] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Galicia (Spain) Galicia Spain Spain June 2007 Marriage (codification)[370] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Argentina Villa Carlos Paz Argentina Argentina November 2007 Civil union[371] N/A 12 6 Signed Yes Yes
New South Wales New South Wales Australia Australia November 2007 De facto relationship (expansion)[372] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Galicia (Spain) Galicia Spain Spain December 2007 De facto couple[373] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Melilla Melilla Spain Spain January 2008 De facto couple[374] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Victoria (Australia) Victoria Australia Australia April 2008 Registered domestic relationship[375] 29 10 54 24 Signed Yes Yes
Australian Capital Territory Australian Capital Territory Australia Australia May 2008 Civil partnership[376] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Prince Edward Island Prince Edward Island Canada Canada May 2008 Marriage (codification and expansion: adoption rights)[377] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
New South Wales New South Wales Australia Australia June 2008 De facto relationship (expansion)[378] Passed 64 11 Signed Yes Yes
Manitoba Manitoba Canada Canada October 2008 Marriage (codification)[379] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Victoria (Australia) Victoria Australia Australia December 2008 Registered domestic relationship (expansion)[380] Passed 47 34 Signed Yes Yes
New Brunswick New Brunswick Canada Canada December 2008 Marriage (codification) and family relationship (expansion)[381] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Andalusia Andalusia Spain Spain February 2009 Marriage (codification)[382] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Bandera Rio Cuarto.jpg Río Cuarto Argentina Argentina May 2009 Civil union[383] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Greenland Greenland Denmark Denmark May 2009 Registered partnership (expansion: adoption rights)[384] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
New Caledonia New Caledonia France France May 2009 Civil solidarity pact and concubinage[385][386] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
France Wallis and Futuna France France May 2009 Civil solidarity pact and concubinage[385][386] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Newfoundland and Labrador Newfoundland and Labrador Canada Canada May 2009 Marriage (codification)[387] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Scotland Scotland United Kingdom United Kingdom June 2009 Civil partnership (expansion)[388] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Tasmania Tasmania Australia Australia September 2009 Significant relationship (expansion)[389] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Australian Capital Territory Australian Capital Territory Australia Australia November 2009 Civil partnership (expansion)[390] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Newfoundland and Labrador Newfoundland and Labrador Canada Canada December 2009 Marriage (codification)[391] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Mexico City Mexico City Mexico Mexico December 2009 Marriage[392] N/A 39 20 Signed Yes Yes
Queensland Queensland Australia Australia February 2010 De facto relationship (expansion)[393] N/A 45 36 Signed Yes Yes
New South Wales City of Blue Mountains Australia Australia March 2010 Relationship declaration program[394] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
New South Wales New South Wales Australia Australia May 2010 Registered relationship[395][396] 32 5 62 9 Signed Yes Yes
La Rioja (Spain) La Rioja Spain Spain May 2010 De facto couple[397] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Vienna Vienna Austria Austria June 2010 Registered partnership (expansion)[398][399] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Catalonia Catalonia Spain Spain July 2010 Marriage (codification)[400] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Castile and León Castile and León Spain Spain August 2010 Marriage (codification)[401] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
New South Wales New South Wales Australia Australia September 2010 Registered relationship (expansion: adoption rights)[402][403][404] 22 15 45 43 Signed Yes Yes
Tasmania Tasmania Australia Australia October 2010 Out-of-state unions as significant relationship[405][406] Passed 22 3 Signed Yes Yes
New South Wales New South Wales Australia Australia November 2010 Registered relationship (expansion)[407] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Netherlands Caribbean Netherlands Netherlands Netherlands December 2010 Recognition of unions performed aboard[408] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Castilla-La Mancha Castilla-La Mancha Spain Spain December 2010 Marriage (codification)[409] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Isle of Man Isle of Man United Kingdom United Kingdom March 2011 Civil partnership[410] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Aragon Aragon Spain Spain March 2011 Marriage (codification)[411] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
South Australia South Australia Australia Australia June 2011 Domestic partnership agreement (expansion)[412] 14 5 24 15 Signed Yes Yes
South Australia South Australia Australia Australia July 2011 Domestic partnership agreement (expansion)[413] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Nunavut Nunavut Canada Canada October 2011 Marriage (codification and expansion: adoption rights)[414] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
British Columbia British Columbia Canada Canada November 2011 Marriage (codification)[415] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Queensland Queensland Australia Australia December 2011 Civil partnership[416][417] N/A 47 40 Signed Yes Yes[b 2]
Guernsey Guernsey United Kingdom United Kingdom December 2011 Recognition of civil partnership performed in the United Kingdom[418] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Jersey Jersey United Kingdom United Kingdom December 2011 Civil partnership[419][420] N/A 33 0 Signed Yes Yes
Navarre Navarre Spain Spain January 2012 Marriage (codification)[421] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Cantabria Cantabria Spain Spain May 2012 Marriage (codification)[422] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Queensland Queensland Australia Australia June 2012 Registered relationship[423][424] N/A 69 8 Signed Yes Yes[b 3]
Canary Islands Canary Islands Spain Spain June 2012 Marriage (codification)[425] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Australian Capital Territory Australian Capital Territory Australia Australia September 2012 Civil union[426][427] N/A 11 6 Signed Yes Yes
Tasmania Tasmania Australia Australia September 2012 Marriage[428][429] 6 8 13 11 No No
Netherlands Caribbean Netherlands Netherlands Netherlands October 2012 Marriage[430] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Tasmania Tasmania Australia Australia October 2012 Significant relationship (expansion)[431][432] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Western Australia City of Vincent Australia Australia December 2012 Relationship declaration program[433] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
La Rioja (Spain) La Rioja Spain Spain March 2013 Marriage (codification)[434] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Macau Macau China China March 2013 Civil union[435] N/A Failed No No
South Australia South Australia Australia Australia July 2013 Marriage[436] Failed No No
Tasmania Tasmania Australia Australia July 2013 Significant relationship (expansion: adoption rights)[437][438] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Extremadura Extremadura Spain Spain August 2013 Marriage (codification)[439] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Colima Colima Mexico Mexico July 2013 Civil union[440][441][442] N/A 17 2 N/A Yes Yes[b 4]
August 2013 N/A Passed Signed
Tasmania Tasmania Australia Australia October 2013 Marriage[443] 6 8 No No
Australian Capital Territory Australian Capital Territory Australia Australia October 2013 Marriage[444] N/A 9 8 Signed No No[b 5]
Jalisco Jalisco Mexico Mexico October 2013 Civil union[445] N/A 20 15 Signed Yes Yes
New South Wales New South Wales Australia Australia November 2013 Marriage[446] 19 21 No No
Campeche Campeche Mexico Mexico December 2013 Civil union[447] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Coahuila Coahuila Mexico Mexico February 2014 Civil pact of solidarity (expansion: adoption rights)[448] N/A 23 2 Signed Yes Yes
Scotland Scotland United Kingdom United Kingdom March 2014 Marriage[449][450] N/A 105 18 Signed Yes Yes
Faroe Islands Faroe Islands Denmark Denmark March 2014 Marriage[451] N/A 11 20 No No
Gibraltar Gibraltar United Kingdom United Kingdom March 2014 Civil partnership[452][453] N/A 16 0 Signed Yes Yes
Durango Durango Mexico Mexico April 2014 Marriage[454] N/A Failed No No
Akrotiri and Dhekelia Akrotiri and Dhekelia United Kingdom United Kingdom April 2014 Marriage[455] N/A Signed Yes Yes
Alberta Alberta Canada Canada May 2014 Marriage (codification)[456] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Coahuila Coahuila Mexico Mexico September 2014 Marriage[457][458][459] N/A 19 1 Signed Yes Yes
New South Wales New South Wales Australia Australia November 2014 Out-of-state unions as registered relationship[460] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Yukon Yukon Canada Canada December 2014 Marriage (codification)[461] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Shibuya, Tokyo.svg Shibuya Japan Japan March 2015 Partnership certificate[462] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Kaohsiung City.svg Kaohsiung Taiwan Taiwan May 2015 Registered partnership[463] N/A Signed Yes Yes
Pitcairn Islands Pitcairn Islands United Kingdom United Kingdom May 2015 Marriage[464] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Taipei City.svg Taipei Taiwan Taiwan June 2015 Registered partnership[465] N/A Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Taichung City.svg Taichung Taiwan Taiwan July 2015 Registered partnership[466][467] N/A Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Setagaya, Tokyo.svg Setagaya Japan Japan July 2015 Partnership certificate[468] N/A Signed Yes Yes
Western Australia Town of Port Hedland Australia Australia August 2015 Relationship declaration program[469][470][471] N/A 6 2 Signed Yes Yes
Michoacán Michoacán Mexico Mexico September 2015 Domestic partnership[472][473] N/A 34 0 Signed Yes Yes
Alderney Alderney United Kingdom United Kingdom November 2015 Recognition of marriage and civil partnership performed abroad[474][475][476] N/A 10 0 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Takarazuka, Hyogo.png Takarazuka Japan Japan November 2015 Partnership certificate[477] N/A Signed Yes Yes
Guernsey Guernsey United Kingdom United Kingdom December 2015 Recognition of marriage performed abroad[478][479][480] N/A Passed N/A[b 6] Yes Yes
Victoria (Australia) Victoria Australia Australia December 2015 Registered domestic relationship and domestic relationship (expansion: adoption rights)[481][482] 31 8 Passed Signed Yes Yes
Queensland Queensland Australia Australia December 2015 Civil partnership[483][484] N/A 64 22 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Iga Mie.JPG Iga Japan Japan December 2015 Partnership certificate[485] N/A Signed Yes Yes
Nayarit Nayarit Mexico Mexico December 2015 Marriage and concubinage[486] N/A 26 1 Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Tainan City.svg Tainan Taiwan Taiwan January 2016 Registered partnership[487][488] N/A Signed Yes Yes
Flag of New Taipei City.svg New Taipei Taiwan Taiwan January 2016 Registered partnership[489] N/A Signed Yes Yes
Greenland Greenland Denmark Denmark May 2015 Inatsisartut: Marriage (resolution)[490][491] N/A 27 0 N/A Yes Yes
February 2016 Folketing: Marriage (statutory law)[492] N/A 108 0 Signed
Victoria (Australia) Victoria Australia Australia February 2016 Out-of-state union as registered domestic relationship[493][494] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Naha, Okinawa.svg Naha Japan Japan February 2016 Partnership certificate[495][496] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Chiayi City.svg Chiayi Taiwan Taiwan February 2016 Registered partnership[497] N/A Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Cuenca, Ecuador.svg Azuay Ecuador Ecuador March 2016 Registered symbolic marriage[498] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Taoyuan City.svg Taoyuan Taiwan Taiwan March 2016 Registered partnership[499][500] N/A Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Changhua County.svg Changhua County Taiwan Taiwan March 2016 Registered partnership[501][502] N/A Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Hsinchu County.svg Hsinchu County Taiwan Taiwan April 2016 Registered partnership[502][503] N/A Signed Yes Yes
Campeche Campeche Mexico Mexico May 2016 Marriage[504][505][506][507] N/A 34 1 Signed Yes Yes
Guernsey Guernsey United Kingdom United Kingdom May 2016 Recognition of marriage and civil partnership performed abroad (expansion)[508][509][510] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Jalisco Jalisco Mexico Mexico May 2016 Marriage (codification)[511] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Yilan County.svg Yilan County Taiwan Taiwan May 2016 Registered partnership[502][512] N/A Signed Yes Yes
Colima Colima Mexico Mexico June 2016 Marriage[513][514] N/A 24 0 Signed Yes Yes
Michoacán Michoacán Mexico Mexico June 2016 Marriage and concubinage[515][516] N/A 27 0 Signed Yes Yes
Ascension Island Ascension Island United Kingdom United Kingdom June 2016 Marriage[517][518] N/A 5 0 Signed Yes Yes
South Australia South Australia Australia Australia July 2016 Domestic partnership agreement (expansion)[519][520][521] Passed 29 12 Signed Yes Yes
Morelos Morelos Mexico Mexico July 2016 Marriage[522] N/A 20 6 Signed Yes Yes
Isle of Man Isle of Man United Kingdom United Kingdom July 2016 Marriage[523][524][525] 6 3 17 3 Signed Yes Yes
British Antarctic Territory British Antarctic Territory United Kingdom United Kingdom October 2016 Marriage[526][527] N/A Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Chiayi County.svg Chiayi County Taiwan Taiwan October 2016 Registered partnership[528] N/A Signed Yes Yes
Queensland Queensland Australia Australia November 2016 Civil partnership and de facto relationship (expansion: adoption rights)[529][530] N/A 44 43 Signed Yes Yes
San Luis Potosí San Luis Potosí Mexico Mexico November 2016 Marriage[531][532] N/A Failed No No
Ontario Ontario Canada Canada December 2016 Marriage and conjugal relationship (expansion: automatic parenthood)[533][534] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Gibraltar Gibraltar United Kingdom United Kingdom December 2016 Marriage[535][536] N/A 15 0 Pending
Aruba Aruba Netherlands Netherlands December 2016 Registered partnership[537] N/A 11 5 Pending
Guernsey Guernsey United Kingdom United Kingdom December 2015 Marriage (agreement in principle)[538][539] N/A 37 7 N/A
December 2016 Marriage (statutory legislation)[540][541] N/A 33 5 Pending
South Australia South Australia Australia Australia December 2016 Registered relationship[542] Passed Passed Pending
South Australia South Australia Australia Australia December 2016 Registered relationship and domestic partnership (expansion: adoption rights)[543][544][545] 13 4 27 16 Pending
Saint Helena Saint Helena United Kingdom United Kingdom December 2016 Marriage[546] N/A Proposed
South Australia South Australia Australia Australia February 2017 Registered relationship and domestic partnership (expansion: surrogacy)[547] Passed Pending
Faroe Islands Faroe Islands Denmark Denmark April 2016 Løgting: Marriage (resolution)[548][549][550] N/A 19 14 N/A
2016 Folketing: Marriage (statutory law) N/A Pending
Jersey Jersey United Kingdom United Kingdom September 2015 Marriage (agreement in principle)[551][552] N/A 37 4 N/A
2016 Marriage (statutory legislation) N/A Proposed
Aguascalientes Aguascalientes Mexico Mexico 2016 Marriage and civil union[553] N/A Pending
Baja California Baja California Mexico Mexico 2016 Marriage[554] N/A Pending
Baja California Sur Baja California Sur Mexico Mexico 2016 Marriage[555] N/A Proposed
Chiapas Chiapas Mexico Mexico 2016 Marriage[556][557] N/A Pending
Chihuahua (state) Chihuahua Mexico Mexico 2016 Marriage (codification)[558] N/A Pending
Durango Durango Mexico Mexico 2016 Marriage[559] N/A Pending
Falkland Islands Falkland Islands United Kingdom United Kingdom 2016 Marriage[560] N/A Proposed
Guanajuato Guanajuato Mexico Mexico 2016 Marriage[561] N/A Pending
Guerrero Guerrero Mexico Mexico 2016 Marriage (codification)[562] N/A Pending
State of Mexico México Mexico Mexico 2016 Marriage[563] N/A Pending
Nuevo León Nuevo León Mexico Mexico 2016 Marriage and civil union[564] N/A Pending
Oaxaca Oaxaca Mexico Mexico 2016 Marriage[565] N/A Proposed
Puebla Puebla Mexico Mexico 2016 Marriage[566] N/A Pending
Querétaro Querétaro Mexico Mexico 2016 Marriage[567] N/A Pending
Quintana Roo Quintana Roo Mexico Mexico 2016 Marriage (codification)[568] N/A Pending
Sinaloa Sinaloa Mexico Mexico 2016 Marriage and concubinage[569][570] N/A Pending
Tabasco Tabasco Mexico Mexico 2016 Marriage[571] N/A Pending
Tamaulipas Tamaulipas Mexico Mexico 2016 Marriage[572] N/A Pending
Baja California Tijuana Mexico Mexico 2016 Marriage[573] N/A Pending
Tlaxcala Tlaxcala Mexico Mexico 2016 Marriage[574] N/A Pending
Veracruz Veracruz Mexico Mexico 2016 Marriage and concubinage[575] N/A Pending
Yucatán Yucatán Mexico Mexico 2016 Marriage[576] N/A Pending
Zacatecas Zacatecas Mexico Mexico 2016 Marriage[577] N/A Proposed
Hong Kong Hong Kong China China Unknown Inclusion of couples married abroad in the definition of family for retrieving ashes[578] N/A Proposed

Note:

  1. ^ a b Legislation overturned by the federal government.
  2. ^ Replaced with registered relationship on 27 June 2012.
  3. ^ Replaced with civil partnership in December 2015.
  4. ^ Repealed in May 2016.
  5. ^ Legislation overturned by the High Court on 12 December 2013.
  6. ^ Ordinances and regulations do not require royal assent.

Constitutional efforts to prohibit same-sex unions[edit]

Sometimes unintentionally but usually in response to legislation providing for marriage or other rights to same-sex couples, thirty countries, two Mexican states and three British Overseas Territories have passed constitutional amendments banning a variety of same-sex unions. These amendments have taken several forms. Some are limited to banning only marriage. Others ban marriage and prohibit legislation providing "similar rights". Some prohibit government from authorizing any form of same-sex union, while others invalidate existing and future private contracts, including wills, for same-sex couples. Fourteen of the countries with constitutional amendments prohibiting same-sex marriage passed them via constitutional referendum, with the amendment being, most of the times, one of many within a proposed constitution submitted to the people by the government.

National level[edit]

Jamaica was the first country to prohibit same-sex marriage in July 1962. Paraguay, Honduras and Bolivia are the only cases that not only marriage is prohibited but also de facto unions. Venezuela has a ban on de facto unions but not marriage. In February 2008, Venezuela became the first country to repeal a same-sex marriage ban, followed by Cambodia and Vietnam in 2011 and November 2013, respectively. Legislative attempts to ban same-sex marriage in El Salvador and the United States have failed twice.

Currently, twenty-eight countries prohibit same-sex marriage on a national level. Those are Armenia, Bolivia, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burundi, the Central African Republic, Croatia, Cuba, the DR Congo, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Honduras, Hungary, Jamaica, Kenya, Latvia, Moldova, Montenegro, Palau, Paraguay, Poland, Rwanda, Serbia, Slovakia, South Sudan, Uganda, Ukraine and Zimbabwe.

As of November 2016, legislation to ban same-sex marriage has been proposed, is pending, or has passed at least one legislative house on a national level in Chile, El Salvador, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, and Romania

Country Date Ban on Upper house Lower house Head of state Final
outcome
Yes No Yes No
Jamaica Jamaica July 1962 Marriage[579] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Cuba Cuba February 1976 Marriage[580] General constitutional referendum (97.7%) Yes Yes
Burkina Faso Burkina Faso June 1991 Marriage[581] General constitutional referendum (92.83%) Yes Yes
Bulgaria Bulgaria July 1991 Marriage[582] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Vietnam Vietnam April 1992 Marriage[583] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes[c 1]
Paraguay Paraguay June 1992 Marriage and de facto union[586] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Cambodia Cambodia September 1993 Marriage[587] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes[c 2]
Moldova Moldova July 1994 Marriage[590] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Ukraine Ukraine June 1996 Marriage[591] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Poland Poland April 1997 Marriage[592] General constitutional referendum (52.71%) Yes Yes
Venezuela Venezuela December 1999 Marriage and de facto union[593][594][595] General constitutional referendum (71.78%) Yes Yes[c 3]
Rwanda Rwanda May 2003 Marriage[597] General constitutional referendum (93.42%) Yes Yes
United States United States July 2004 Marriage[598] 48 50 227 186 No No
Burundi Burundi February 2005 Marriage[599] General constitutional referendum (92.02%) Yes Yes
Honduras Honduras March 2005 Marriage and de facto union[600][601] N/A 128 0 Signed Yes Yes
Uganda Uganda September 2005 Marriage[602] N/A 111 17 Signed Yes Yes
Latvia Latvia December 2005 Marriage[603] N/A 65 5 Signed Yes Yes
Democratic Republic of the Congo DR Congo December 2005 Marriage[604][605] General constitutional referendum (84.31%) Yes Yes
United States United States July 2006 Marriage[606] 49 48 236 187 No No
Serbia Serbia October 2006 Marriage[607] General constitutional referendum (53.04%) Yes Yes
Montenegro Montenegro October 2007 Marriage[608][609] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Ecuador Ecuador September 2008 Marriage[610] General constitutional referendum (69.46%) Yes Yes
Palau Palau November 2008 Marriage[611][612] Specific constitutional referendum (83.56%) Yes Yes
Bolivia Bolivia January 2009 Marriage and free union[613] General constitutional referendum (61.43%) Yes Yes
El Salvador El Salvador October 2009 Marriage[614] N/A 46 38 No No[c 4]
Dominican Republic Dominican Republic January 2010 Marriage[616] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Kenya Kenya August 2010 Marriage[617] General constitutional referendum (68.55%) Yes Yes
Zambia Zambia March 2011 Marriage[618][619] N/A Failed No No
Hungary Hungary April 2011 Marriage[620][621][622] N/A 262 44 Signed Yes Yes
South Sudan South Sudan July 2011 Marriage[623][624] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Liberia Liberia June 2012 Marriage[625] Passed Failed No No
Zimbabwe Zimbabwe March 2013 Marriage[626] General constitutional referendum (94.49%) Yes Yes
Republic of Macedonia Macedonia September 2013 Marriage[627] N/A Failed No No
Croatia Croatia December 2013 Marriage[628] Specific constitutional referendum (65.87%) Yes Yes
El Salvador El Salvador February 2014 Marriage[629] N/A Failed No No
Slovakia Slovakia June 2014 Marriage[630] N/A 102 18 N/A Yes Yes
Republic of Macedonia Macedonia January 2015 Marriage[631][632] N/A Failed No No
Slovakia Slovakia February 2015 Marriage[633] Specific constitutional referendum (94.50%) No No[c 5]
Armenia Armenia December 2015 Marriage[634][635] General constitutional referendum (63.37%) Yes Yes
Central African Republic Central African Republic December 2015 Marriage[636][637] General constitutional referendum (93.00%) Yes Yes
Switzerland Switzerland February 2016 Marriage[638] Specific constitutional referendum (49.16%) No No
Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan December 2016 Marriage[639] Pending general referendum
Chile Chile 2016 Marriage[640] Proposed
El Salvador El Salvador 2016 Marriage[641][642] N/A Pending[c 6]
Georgia (country) Georgia 2016 Marriage[643][644][645][646] N/A Proposed
Romania Romania 2016 Marriage[647] Proposed

Notes:

  1. ^ Repealed on 1 January 2014, as the 1992 constitution was replaced by the new one, which does not contain a definition of marriage.[584][585]
  2. ^ Repealed in 2011.[588][589]
  3. ^ Struck down by the Supreme Tribunal of Justice in February 2008 and replaced with a gender-neutral wording.[596] Constitutional ban on same-sex de facto unions remains in place.[595]
  4. ^ The amendment was initially passed in April 2009 but was rejected in a second vote in October 2009.[615]
  5. ^ Although the amendment received 94.5% of the vote, turnout was only at 21.4%. For referendums in Slovakia to pass, turnout has to surpass 50% of registered voters.[633]
  6. ^ Passed first reading, awaits second vote.

Sub-national level[edit]

The first jurisdiction to explicitly ban same-sex marriage in its constitution was the U.S. state of Alaska in November 1998, however same-sex marriage was legalised in the state in October 2014. The first jurisdiction to enact such a ban and still has it enforced are the Cayman Islands, which is a British Overseas Territory, in June 2009. The first jurisdiction to repeal a ban on same sex marriage was the US state of California in August 2010, but the ruling went into effect in June 2013.

Currently, five jurisdictions worldwide have constitutional bans on same-sex marriage. Those are three British Overseas Territories, the Cayman Islands, Montserrat and the Turks and Caicos Islands, and the Mexican states of Baja California and Yucatán.

State/Territory Country Date Ban on Upper House Lower house Head of
state
Final
outcome
Yes No Yes No
Cayman Islands Cayman Islands United Kingdom United Kingdom June 2009 Marriage[648] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Yucatán Yucatán Mexico Mexico July 2009 Marriage[649] N/A Passed N/A Yes Yes
Montserrat Montserrat United Kingdom United Kingdom October 2010 Marriage[650][651] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Baja California Baja California Mexico Mexico May 2011 Marriage[652][653] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Turks and Caicos Islands Turks and Caicos Islands United Kingdom United Kingdom July 2011 Marriage[654] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Colima Colima Mexico Mexico July 2013 Marriage[440][441][655] N/A 17 2 N/A Yes Yes[d 1]
Canton of Zurich Zurich Switzerland Switzerland November 2016 Marriage[657][658] N/A 52 110 N/A No No
Specific constitutional referendum (19.09%)

Notes:

  1. ^ Repealed in May 2016.[656]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Including Denmark proper and Greenland. Same-sex marriage is currently not lawful in the Faroe Islands.
  2. ^ Campeche, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Colima, Jalisco, Michoacán, Morelos, Nayarit, Quintana Roo and Mexico City as well as in some municipalities in Guerrero, Querétaro and Puebla. Same-sex marriages performed in these jurisdictions are recognized throughout Mexico.
  3. ^ a b The Netherlands proper. Same-sex marriages performed there are recognized in Aruba, Curaçao and Sint Maarten
  4. ^ a b New Zealand proper.
  5. ^ a b Legal in England and Wales and Scotland, notably not recognized in Northern Ireland. Legal in one of the three Crown dependencies; the Isle of Man. Legal in the overseas territories of Akrotiri and Dhekelia, the British Antarctic Territory, the Pitcairn Islands and Ascension Island
  6. ^ a b 50 states, the District of Columbia, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, the United States Virgin Islands and some tribal jurisdictions. Some tribal jurisdictions do not recognize same-sex marriage. In the United States, Congress (not the federal courts) has legal authority over Indian country. Thus, unless Congress passes a law regarding same-sex marriage for Indian tribes, federally recognized American Indian tribes have the legal right to form their own marriage laws.

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