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Attack on Titan

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Attack on Titan
Shingeki no Kyojin manga volume 1.jpg
Cover of Attack on Titan volume 1
進撃の巨人
(Shingeki no Kyojin)
Genre Dark fantasy,[1] post-apocalyptic[2][3]
Manga
Written by Hajime Isayama
Published by Kodansha
English publisher
Demographic Shōnen
Magazine Bessatsu Shōnen Magazine
Original run September 9, 2009 – present
Volumes 25 (List of volumes)
Novels
Manga
Anime television series
Directed by Tetsurō Araki
Masashi Koizuka (Seasons 2–3)
Produced by Tetsuya Kinoshita
Kensuke Tateishi
George Wada
Shin Furukawa
Tomohito Nagase
Toshihiro Maeda
Written by Yasuko Kobayashi
Music by Hiroyuki Sawano
Studio Wit Studio
Production I.G (Production cooperation)
Licensed by
Original network MBS, Tokyo MX, BS11, FBS, TOS, HTB, TVA, GTV, GYT, TVS, tvk, CTC, RSK, BSN, RCC, SBC, TBC, SBS, IBC, RKK, ITC (Seasons 1–2)
NHK G (Season 3)
English network
Original run April 7, 2013 – present
Episodes 37 + 8 OVA (List of episodes)
Anime film
Attack on Titan – Part 1: Crimson Bow and Arrow
Attack on Titan – Part 2: Wings of Freedom
Directed by Tetsurō Araki
Written by Yasuko Kobayashi
Music by Hiroyuki Sawano
Studio Wit Studio
Production I.G (Production cooperation)
Licensed by
Released November 22, 2014 (Part 1)
July 27, 2015 (Part 2)
Runtime 120 minutes each
Anime film
Attack on Titan: The Roar of Awakening
Directed by Tetsurō Araki
Masashi Koizuka
Written by Yasuko Kobayashi
Music by Hiroyuki Sawano
Studio Wit Studio
Licensed by
Released January 13, 2018
Live-action
Video games
Wikipe-tan face.svg Anime and Manga portal

Attack on Titan (Japanese: 進撃の巨人, Hepburn: Shingeki no Kyojin, lit. "Advancing Giant") is a Japanese manga series written and illustrated by Hajime Isayama. The series began in Kodansha's Bessatsu Shōnen Magazine on September 9, 2009, and has been collected into 25 tankōbon volumes as of May 2018. It is set in a world where humanity lives in cities surrounded by enormous walls protecting the humans from gigantic humanoids that are referred to as titans. The titans vary in height and endlessly eat humans seemingly without reason. The story initially centers on Eren Yeager and his childhood friends Mikasa Ackerman and Armin Arlert, who join the military to fight the titans after their hometown is invaded and a titan eats Eren's mother, whom he swears to avenge on top of his determination to see them all killed. However, as the story progresses and the truths about the titans are slowly revealed to the reader, the narrative shifts to encompass Historia Reiss, squad leader Levi, Eren's father Grisha, and other supporting characters.

The spin-off light novel series Before the Fall began in December 2011 and has received a manga adaptation. Two additional light novel series and four additional spin-off manga series have also been created. An anime television adaptation is being produced by Wit Studio and Production I.G, airing in Japan on MBS. The first season aired between April and September 2013, the second season aired between April and June 2017,[4] and a third season is scheduled to be released in July 2018.[5][6] Four video game adaptations developed by Nitroplus staffers in collaboration with Production I.G were announced to be released as bonus content for the third and sixth volumes of the Blu-ray Disc release of the anime, with another game developed by Spike Chunsoft for the Nintendo 3DS. A two-part live-action film adaptation, Attack on Titan and Attack on Titan: End of the World, and a live-action web-series were released in 2015. An anime adaptation of the Junior High spin-off manga, produced by Production I.G, began airing in October 2015. Attack on Titan and all five spin-off manga are published in North America by Kodansha USA, while the three novel series are published by Vertical. The anime has been licensed by Funimation for North America, by Manga Entertainment for the UK, and by Madman Entertainment for Australasia.

Attack on Titan has became a commercial success. As of December 2017, the manga has 71 million copies in print, making it one of the best-selling manga series.[7] The release of the anime also saw a boost in the series' popularity, with it having received widespread critical acclaim for its atmosphere and story.

Synopsis[edit]

Setting[edit]

Over 100 years before the beginning of the story on an alternate world, giant humanoid creatures called Titans (巨人, Kyojin) suddenly appeared and nearly wiped out humanity, devouring them without remorse or reason and only targeting them; they completely ignore other wildlife. What remains of humanity now resides within three enormous curtain walls: the outermost is Wall Maria (ウォール・マリア, Wōru Maria); the middle wall is Wall Rose (ウォール・ローゼ, Wōru Rōze, sometimes pronounced like rosé) and the innermost is Wall Sheena (ウォール・シーナ, Wōru Shīna, alt. "Wall Sina"). Inside these walls, humanity has lived in uneasy peace for one hundred years, many people growing up without ever having seen a Titan. This all changes when one day, a giant 60-meter (200 ft)-tall Colossus Titan mysteriously appears after a strike of lightning and breaches the outer wall (which is 50 meters tall) of the Shiganshina district, a town at Wall Maria, allowing the smaller Titans to invade the district. An Armored Titan smashes clean through the gate in Wall Maria, forcing humankind to abandon the land between Wall Maria and Wall Rose, evacuating the remaining population into the inner districts. The sudden influx of population causes turmoil and famine.

The Titans are giant humanoid figures ranging between 3–15 meters (10–50 ft) tall and are usually masculine in body structure but lack reproductive organs. Although they do not appear to need food, they instinctively attack and eat humans on sight; it is mentioned that they derive their energy from sunlight. Furthermore, the Titans also do not have a proper digestive tract; once they have eaten their fill of human prey, Titans will vomit large, slimy balls, derisively referred to as "hairballs", as shown in the episode where the squad retakes Trost, half of a soldier named Marco is found engulfed in slime with several humans in one of these. Finally, their skin is tough and difficult to penetrate, and they regenerate quickly from injuries, except for a weak spot at the nape of their neck.

Combating the Titans is the military, which is divided into three branches. Foremost in the story is the Survey Corps (調査兵団, Chōsa Heidan), which goes out into Titan territory to try to reclaim the land. The Survey Corps are heavily derided in society because of their apparently senseless high casualty rate and little sense of progress. The second and largest branch is the Garrison Regiment (駐屯兵団, Chūton Heidan), which guards the walls and the civilian populace. The third branch is the Military Police Brigade (憲兵団, Kenpeidan), who guards the royal family and live relatively relaxed lives in the innermost wall, although this eventually results in fraud, corruption, and political subterfuge. The soldiers use a grappling, tethering system called Vertical Maneuvering Equipment (立体機動装置, Rittai Kidō Sōchi) that allows them to jump onto (and swing from) walls, trees, or nearby buildings to attack Titans with dual swords and gas canisters which they use to propel themselves. However, despite it being the soldiers' primary line of both offense and defense against the Titans, it is useless in open and flat terrain like fields.

It is later revealed that the Titans were created when Ymir Fritz found the "source of all organic life" and became the Founding Titan where she had the ability to create and control the Titans. When Ymir Fritz died as a side effect of having the Titan ability for 13 years, she was split into the 9 Titans where their abilities can be inherited by anyone once the previous wielder is dead. These Titans consist of the Founding Titan, the Attack Titan, the Colossus Titan, the Armored Titan, the Female Titan, the Beast Titan, the Jaw Titan, the Cart Titan, and the War Hammer Titan. The 145th King that wielded the Founding Titan's power fled to the island of Paradis where he used the countless Colossus Titans to make the walls and erased the memories of the Subjects of Ymir he brought with him so that they didn't know anything about the outside world.

Plot[edit]

The story of Attack on Titan revolves around the adventures of Eren Yeager, Mikasa Ackerman, and their childhood friend Armin Arlert who once lived in the town of Shinganshina. But when Wall Maria is breached by the Colossal Titan with the Armored Titan further compromising the town, chaos ensued as the Titans enter Shinganshina with a mass evacuation. Having watched in horror as a smiling Titan eats his mother, his father having mysteriously disappeared after giving him a key to their basement, Eren vowed to kill all the Titans and enlisted in the military with his friends following suit.

Five years later, the three cadet graduates are positioned in Trost District, one of the border towns jutting out of Wall Rose when the Colossal Titan appeared and history repeats itself. In the ensuing battle, Eren appeared to have been killed when he sacrificed himself while saving Armin from being eaten by a bearded Titan. Things appeared bleak until Mikasa and Armin encounter a Titan that uncharacteristically attacks the other Titans with raging fury, the creature ultimately revealed to be Eren. Though considered a threat by some despite helping take back Trost District, the following military trial ruled that Eren will be taken in by the Survey Corps' Special Operations Squad under Captain Levi.

In an expedition to Shinganshina to make use of Eren's abilities, the Scouts are attacked by a Female Titan who attempts to capture Eren while wiping out Levi's subordinates. Though Eren was saved, the expedition ended in failure while Armin determined that the Female Titan is fellow cadet from their class named Annie Leonheart. While Annie encased herself in crystal when her capture at Stohess is assured, the collateral damage reveals the walls are formed from Titans. Eventually, Eren learns that their fellow cadets Reiner Braun and Bertolt Hoover are the Titans who compromised Wall Maria as they and Annie are revealed to have been sent by an unknown party to capture Eren as he possesses "The Coordinate" which allows him to control Titans. The event also revealed another cadet named Krista Lenz to be actually Historia Reiss, the illegitimate daughter of the city's true ruler Rod Reiss. Reiss has the Military Police track Eren and Historia and brought to him, revealing that the former's Titan abilities were result of his father Grisha having stolen the power of the Reiss family during the chaos at Shinganshina and allowed himself to be devoured by his son.

While Historia learns her father intends for her to become a Titan and kill Eren to claim her birthright and restore the old system, she refused and aids the Survey Corps in overthrowing the monarchy while personally ending Reiss's life after he turned himself into a Titan. The ordeal allowed Eren to gain a new power that allows him to create massive and permanent structures, which the Survey Corps used in their next expedition to seal the breach in Wall Maria. But the group are ambushed by Zeke, the man who Reiner and Bertolt serve under. The Battle of Shinganshina which ensued resulted in the deaths of commander Erwin Smith and most of the expedition members, Armin only able to survive when he is turned into a Titan and devours Bertolt to become the new Colossus Titan.

Before returning home, the survivors reach the basement of the Yeager residence where they find the truth Grisha wanted them to learn: That human civilization is thriving despite what they had believed and that they are descendants of some of the Eldian people who fled to Paradis to escape oppression by Marley, a world power that seeks to acquire Paradis's natural resources by force. The Titans are revealed to be exiled Eldian prisoners. The Marleyans used to keep the Eldians within the walls from expanding their territory prior to sending Zeke, who Eren learns is his older half-brother who had their father exiled to Paradis. But events led Grisha to acquire the power of the Attack Titan which he later passed to Eren along with the Founding Titan, nicknamed the "Coordinate" by the Marleyans.

Four years passed since the Battle of Shinganshina and the reclaim of Wall Maria. As the Marley's military hegemony declines and all attempts to scout Paradis end in failure, Willy Tybur, patriarch of Marley's most influential and highly respected political clan, openly admits his family have secretly controlled the Marley government and had an alliance with King Karl Fritz, a descendant of the first Progenitor Titan Ymir Fritz who orchestrated Eldia's downfall. Claiming that Eren's possession of the Founding Titan is a threat to the entire world, Willy holds a ceremony to rally the other countries for an alliance to invade Paradis. However, Eren and the Survey Corps launch a surprise attack in the middle of the ceremony, with Eren successfully killing Willy and obtaining the power of the Warhammer Titan by consuming its owner.

After retrieving the Warhammer Titan, the Survey Corps retreat on an airship piloted by a foreign dignitary. However, Eren is immediately arrested for insubordination by Levi. As the Survey Corps celebrate what it seems as a victory on their invasion to Liberio, an enraged Gabi manages to kill one of the Corps and uses the maneuvering gear along with Falco to gain access to the airship. Gabi shoots the celebrating Corps and unfortunately, the bullet hits Sasha Blouse on the chest. The infuriated Corps sends Gabi and Falco to the holding area where Zeke is being held captive, revealing that things are working according to as planned except with some minor miscalculations, pertaining to Gabi and Falco. As Sasha succumbs to her wounds, Hange castigates Eren for his recklessness and abuse of the Corps' trust, while Jean lets Eren know that blame for dragging the Survey Corps into the conflict, and Sasha's death, lies solely with him, to which a regretful, grief-stricken Eren breaks down weeping.

Production[edit]

Hajime Isayama created a 65-page one-shot version of Attack on Titan in 2006.[8] In a 2018 interview with NHK, Isayama revealed that his inspiration for the series came from his hometown of Hita, Ōita, while wondering if there were monsters beyond the walls bordering the town.[9] Originally, he also offered his work to the Weekly Shōnen Jump department at Shueisha, where he was advised to modify his style and story to be more suitable for Jump. He declined and instead decided to take it to the Weekly Shōnen Magazine department at Kodansha.[10] Before serialization began in 2009, he had already thought of ideas for twists, although they are fleshed out as the series progresses. The author initially based the scenery in the manga on that of his hometown, which is surrounded by mountains.[11] While working at an internet cafe, Isayama encountered a customer who grabbed him by the collar. It was this incident that showed him "the fear of meeting a person I can't communicate with," which is the feeling that he conveys through the Titans.[12] When designing the appearances of the Titans, he uses several models such as martial artist Yushin Okami for Eren Yeager's Titan form[13] as well as Brock Lesnar for the Armored Titan.[14] George Wada, the anime's producer, stated that the "Wall of Fear" was influenced by the isolated and enclosed nature of Japanese culture.[15] He also said that the inner feelings of every individual is one of the series' main influences.[15] Isayama later would confirm that Attack on Titan was inspired in part by Muv-Luv Alternative, the second visual novel in the Muv-Luv visual novel series.[16]

Isayama estimated his basic monthly timeline as one week to storyboard and three weeks to actually draw the chapter. The story is planned out in advance, even marking down in which collected volumes a specific "truth" will be revealed.[13] In September 2013, he stated that he was aiming to end the series in 20 collected volumes.[17] Originally, Isayama planned to give the series a tragic conclusion similar to that of the film adaptation of Stephen King's The Mist, where every character dies. However, positive response to the manga and anime has caused the author to contemplate changing the ending due to the impact it could have on fans.[18][19]

Media[edit]

Manga[edit]

Hajime Isayama's original manga serial, Attack on Titan commenced publication in Kodansha's monthly publication Bessatsu Shōnen Magazine starting with the September 2009 issue. The first tankōbon collected volume was released on March 17, 2010. The most recent, volume 22, was released on April 7, 2017.[20] In November 2014, the manga had 45 million copies in print.[21] By September 2016, the number had increased to 60 million.[22] The series' twelfth collected volume was given a first printing of 2.2 million copies, making Attack on Titan one of only two manga series ever to get an initial print surpassing 2 million, the other being One Piece.[23] Volume 13 has the highest initial first print of the series so far, with 2,750,000 copies. It is also the first print run record for its publisher, Kodansha.[24]

A comedic spin-off of the series, titled Attack on Titan: Junior High (進撃!巨人中学校, Shingeki! Kyojin Chūgakkō) and written by Saki Nakagawa, began serialization in Bessatsu Shōnen Magazine's May 2012 issue. It follows the main characters as they battle the Titans while in junior high school.[25] Another manga series based on the prequel light novels Attack on Titan: Before the Fall started running in Kodansha's Monthly Shōnen Sirius from August 2013, drawn by Satoshi Shiki.[26] An additional spin-off based on the No Regrets visual novel was serialized in the shōjo manga magazine Aria, titled Attack on Titan: No Regrets (進撃の巨人 悔いなき選択, Shingeki no Kyojin: Kuinaki Sentaku). It is written by Gun Snark and illustrated by Hikaru Suruga. It focuses on the origins of Captain Levi, one of the most prominent characters in the main series.[27] A yonkoma spin-off, called Spoof on Titan (寸劇の巨人, Sungeki no Kyojin, "Titan Short Skits") and drawn by hounori, was released on Kodansha's Manga Box smartphone and tablet application from December 2013 to December 30, 2014 in both Japanese and English.[28][29] A manga adaptation of Hiroshi Seko's Attack on Titan: Lost Girls novel, written and illustrated by Ryōsuke Fuji, began publication in Bessatsu Shōnen Magazine on August 9, 2015.[30]

In North America, the series is published in English by Kodansha USA. They published the first volume on June 19, 2012,.[31] The fifteenth was released on April 7, 2015.[32] By July 2015, the manga had 2.5 million copies in circulation in North America.[33] The first three spin-off manga have also been licensed by Kodansha USA, who published the first volume of each between March and June 2014.[34][35] It announced its license to Spoof on Titan at the New York Comic Con in October 2015,[36] and its acquisition of Lost Girls in March 2016.[37]

Novels[edit]

A light novel series titled Attack on Titan: Before the Fall (進撃の巨人 Before the fall), written by Ryō Suzukaze and illustrated by Thores Shibamoto, began on April 1, 2011. Its story is set before the events of the manga and it was published by Kodansha in three volumes. While the first tells the story of Angel, the blacksmith who develops the first prototypes of the Vertical Maneuvering Equipment, the following two follow a young man who was found as a baby in the stomach of a Titan. A second light novel series called Attack on Titan: Harsh Mistress of the City (進撃の巨人 隔絶都市の女王, Shingeki no Kyojin Kakuzetsu Toshi no Joō), written by Ryō Kawakami and illustrated by Range Murata, began on August 1, 2014. Vertical began releasing the novels in North America in the summer of 2014.[38][39][40] A novel titled Attack on Titan: Lost Girls (進撃の巨人 Lost Girls),[41] written by Hiroshi Seko, was published on December 9, 2014.[42] It comprises three short stories featuring Mikasa and Annie Leonhart, titled "Lost in the cruel world", "Wall Sina, Goodbye", and "Lost Girls".[43] It was also released in English by Vertical.[44]

Anime[edit]

An anime television series adaptation produced by Wit Studio (a subsidiary of IG Port) aired on MBS between April 7, 2013 and September 29, 2013,[45] directed by Tetsurō Araki with Yūki Kaji starring as Eren, Yui Ishikawa voicing Mikasa and Marina Inoue as Armin.[46][47][48][49] Both Funimation and Crunchyroll simulcast the series on their respective websites, and Funimation began releasing the series on North American home video in 2014.[50][51] The anime has been licensed in the UK by Manga Entertainment.[52] Madman Entertainment acquired the show for distribution in Australia and New Zealand.[53] The final episode was also aired in Japanese theaters.[54] The anime had some production issues with needing more animators with Wit Studios' character designer, Kyoji Asano tweeting and looking for active animators to work on the anime.[55] An OVA version of the "Ilse's Notebook" special chapter from tankōbon volume 5 was originally scheduled to be released on August 9, 2013, bundled with the volume 11 limited edition, but was postponed and included with a limited edition of volume 12, released on December 9, 2013, instead.[56] The OVA was bundled on subtitled DVD with the English limited edition release of the 17th manga volume, released on December 1, 2015.[57] A second OVA was released on April 9, 2014, bundled with the 13th volume of the series, this one focused on the members of the 104th Training Corps.[58] Two additional OVA episodes, based on the Attack on Titan: No Regrets prequel manga, were bundled with the 15th and 16th volumes of the main series, released on December 9, 2014 and April 9, 2015, respectively.[59] The anime previously aired on Adult Swim's Toonami block.[60] In Australia, the anime currently airs on SBS 2 on Tuesdays, in Japanese with English subtitles, with the first episode having aired on September 30.[61]

The anime was compiled into two animated theatrical films with new voice acting from the same cast. The first film Attack on Titan – Part 1: Crimson Bow and Arrow (「進撃の巨人」前編~紅蓮の弓矢~, Shingeki no Kyojin Zenpen ~Guren no Yumiya~) covers the first 13 episodes and was released on November 22, 2014, while the second film Attack on Titan – Part 2: Wings of Freedom (「進撃の巨人」後編~自由の翼~, Shingeki no Kyojin Kōhen ~Jiyū no Tsubasa~) adapts the remaining episodes and adds new opening and ending footage.[62] It was released on June 27, 2015.[63][64] A rebroadcast of the first season was aired from January 9, 2016 on NHK's BS Premium channel.[65] The compilation films were also broadcast in January 2017 on MBS.[66]

A second season of the anime series was announced on the opening day of the first theatrical film, which was originally set to be released in 2016.[67] It was then confirmed in the January 2017 issue of the Bessatsu Shōnen Magazine that the second season would premiere in April 2017.[68] Masashi Koizuka directed the second season, with Araki acting as chief director.[4] It has also been licensed by Funimation.[69] It ran for 12 episodes.[70]

An anime television adaptation of the Attack on Titan: Junior High manga spin-off began airing in October 2015. The series was directed by Yoshihide Ibata at Production I.G, with series composition by Midori Gotou, character design by Yuuko Yahiro, and music by Asami Tachibana.[71] Linked Horizon performed the opening theme "Youth Like Fireworks".[72] The ending theme, "Ground's Counterattack" ("Hangeki no Daichi"), is performed by the voice actors for Eren, Mikasa, and Jean.[73] A rebroadcast of the series was aired during January 2016.[74]

The second season of the anime series debuted on April 1, 2017. The season premiere was simulcast on Funimation, Crunchyroll, and the former's VRV channel at 10:30 AM EST.[75] That same day, it was also announced that the second season of Attack on Titan would premiere on Toonami on April 29.[76] It was subsequently announced on April 3 that the second season would premiere one week earlier, on April 22 instead.[77]

Following the broadcast of the second season's last episode, a third season was announced.[78] It is scheduled to premiere in July 2018.[6][79] However, it will not be broadcast on MBS and other UHF channels. The third season will start broadcasting on NHK General TV.

A three part OVA of Attack on Titan: Lost Girls was set to be released in 2017 and 2018 with the limited editions of volumes 24, 25, and 26.[80]

A third compilation film was announced alongside the release date of the anime series' third season at the "Shingeki no Kyojin" Reading & Live Event Orchestra "Attack Oto Taikan 2" event, titled Attack on Titan: The Roar of Awakening (「進撃の巨人」 ~覚醒の咆哮~, Shingeki no Kyojin ~Kakusei no Hōkō~). The film recapped the events of the anime series' second season and was released on January 13, 2018.[81]

A trailer for the third season was released on April 27, 2018.[82]

Music[edit]

First season[edit]

"Attack on Titan" Original Soundtrack
Soundtrack album by Hiroyuki Sawano
Released June 28, 2013 (Disc 1)
October 16, 2013 (Disc 2)
Studio
Genre Soundtrack
Length 1:17:27 (Disc 1)
47:51 (Disc 2)
Label Pony Canyon
Producer

In the first season, for the first thirteen episodes, the opening theme is "Guren no Yumiya" (紅蓮の弓矢, lit. "Crimson Bow and Arrow", styled in German as "Feuerroter Pfeil und Bogen") by Linked Horizon, and the ending theme is "Utsukushiki Zankoku na Sekai" (美しき残酷な世界, lit. "This Beautiful Cruel World") by Yōko Hikasa. For episodes 14–25, the opening theme is "Jiyū no Tsubasa" (自由の翼, lit. "Wings of Freedom", styled in German as "Die Flügel der Freiheit") by Linked Horizon, and the ending theme is "great escape" by Cinema Staff. Both "Guren no Yumiya" and "Jiyū no Tsubasa" were released as part of the single "Jiyū e no Shingeki" on July 10, 2013.[83][84]

The series' soundtrack was composed by Hiroyuki Sawano, and the first CD was released on June 28, 2013 by Pony Canyon.[85] The first CD contains 16 tracks, with 6 vocal tracks featuring performances by Mika Kobayashi, mpi, Cyua, Aimee Blackschleger and CASG. The second CD containing the other half of the soundtrack was released on October 16, 2013 as a bonus offered with the fourth Blu-ray and DVD limited edition volumes of the anime.[86]

Track listing[edit]

All music composed by Hiroyuki Sawano.

Second season[edit]

"Attack on Titan" Season 2 Original Soundtrack
Soundtrack album by Hiroyuki Sawano
Released June 7, 2017
Genre Soundtrack
Label Pony Canyon
Producer
Hiroyuki Sawano soundtrack albums chronology
Crisis Original Soundtrack
(2017)
"Attack on Titan" Season 2 Original Soundtrack
(2017)
Re:CREATORS Original Soundtrack
(2017)
Singles from "Attack on Titan" Season 2 Original Soundtrack
  1. "YAMANAIAME"
    Released: November 19, 2014
  2. "theDOGS"
    Released: July 1, 2015

The opening theme is "Shinzou wo Sasageyo!" (心臓を捧げよう!, lit. "Dedicate your Heart!", styled in German as "Opfert eure Herzen!") by Linked Horizon,[87] and the ending theme is "Yuugure no Tori" (夕暮れの鳥, lit. "Bird at Dusk") by Shinsei Kamattechan.[88]

Sawano returned to compose the soundtrack for the second season, with the 2CD soundtrack scheduled for release on June 7, 2017 by Pony Canyon.[89]

Track listing[edit]

All music composed by Hiroyuki Sawano.

Anime films[edit]

For the first compilation film, Attack on Titan – Part 1: Crimson Bow and Arrow, the ending themes were "YAMANAIAME" (lit. "Unstoppable Rain") by Hiroyuki Sawano feat. Mika Kobayashi, Mica Caldito & mpi and "Guren no Zahyou" (紅蓮の座標, lit. "Crimson Coordinate") by Linked Horizon.[90] For the second compilation film, Attack on Titan – Part 2: Wings of Freedom, the ending themes was "theDOGS" by Hiroyuki Sawano feat. mpi.[91] The film's theme song was "Jiyuu no Daishou" (自由の代償) by Linked Horizon.[92]

Video games[edit]

  • There have been four video game adaptations of Attack on Titan developed by Nitroplus staffers in collaboration with Production I.G.[93] Nitroplus clarified that the studio as a company is not involved in the Attack on Titan Blu-ray Disc games, while individual staffers are. The games are visual novels and were included in the first copies of the third and sixth Blu-ray Disc volumes of the anime. The games cover spin-off stories about the characters of Attack on Titan. Isayama supervised the development of the games.[94]
  • The third Blu-ray volume was released on September 18 with Seko's Lost in the Cruel World visual novel about Mikasa, and a preview of Gun Snark's No Regrets (悔いなき選択, Kuinaki Sentaku, lit. "A Choice with No Regrets").[95] The sixth Blu-ray volume was released on December 18 with the full version of No Regrets about Levi and Erwin's past, Jin Haganeya's visual novel In the Forest of the Night, Burning Bright about Eren and Levi, and Seko's Wall Sina, Goodbye visual novel about Annie.[95]
  • An action game, titled Attack on Titan: Humanity in Chains (進撃の巨人 ~反撃の翼~, Shingeki no Kyojin ~Hangeki no Tsubasa~, subtitle lit. "Wings of Counterattack"), was developed by Spike Chunsoft for the Nintendo 3DS and released in Japan on December 5, 2013, North America on May 12, 2015 and Europe on July 2, 2015.[96][97][98]
  • A smartphone social game, titled Attack on Titan: Howl Toward Freedom (Shingeki no Kyojin ~Jiyū e no Hōkō~) is in development by Mobage for iOS and Android platforms. In the game, players play as a character who has been exiled from Wall Rose. Players must build and fortify a town outside the wall and expand it by manufacturing items as well as using Titans and exploiting resources from other players.[99]
  • A set of Attack on Titan costumes was added to Dead or Alive 5 Last Round in July 2016, alongside a playable arena based on Wall Rose during an attack by the Colossal Titan.[100]
  • Additionally, Attack on Titan gameplay and merchandise has been featured in a crossover event with Nexon MMORPG MapleStory in its Japanese and GMS versions.[101]
  • Another game, Attack on Titan, for PlayStation 4, PlayStation 3, and PlayStation Vita, published by Koei Tecmo and developed by Omega Force, was announced at Gamescom 2015.[102][103] It was released on February 18, 2016 in Japan.[104] Later was confirmed to be released worldwide along with PC and Xbox One versions.[105]
  • Capcom are developing an Attack on Titan arcade game named Shingeki no Kyojin: Team Battle.[106]
  • Attack on Titan: Escape from Certain Death was announced to be in development for the Nintendo 3DS in Famitsu magazine in October 2016. The game was initially supposed to be launched on March 30, 2017 but was later postponed to May 11, 2017.[107]
  • Attack on Titan 2: Future Coordinates was released on November 30, 2017 in Japan.[108][109]
  • A sequel game to Koei Tecmo's Attack on Titan, Attack on Titan 2, was announced in August 2017 and released in March 2018[110]

Live-action[edit]

A live-action film was announced to be in production in October 2011.[111] In December 2012, it was reported that Tetsuya Nakashima left his position as director. According to film distributor Toho, Nakashima had considerable creative differences on the scriptwriting and other matters.[112][113][114] In December 2013, Shinji Higuchi was revealed to be directing, and would also be responsible with the special effects. Writer Yūsuke Watanabe and critic/subculture expert Tomohiro Machiyama was announced to be scripting the movie with series creator Isayama.[115][116] In July 2014, it was revealed that two films will be released in the summer of 2015. A teaser trailer for the first live-action film was released in March 2015.[117] The following month, Toho released the second trailer for the first film, and announced the second installment will be called Attack on Titan: End of the World.[118] In June 2015, a third trailer for the first film was released, revealing the Three-Dimensional Maneuvering Gear, as well as confirming the film will be released in IMAX theaters in Japan.[119]

A live-action miniseries, titled Shingeki no Kyojin: Hangeki no Noroshi (進撃の巨人 反撃の狼煙, "Attack on Titan: Counter Rockets") and utilizing the same actors as the films, started streaming on NTT DoCoMo's online-video service dTV on August 15, 2015. The three episode series focuses on Zoë Hange and her research of the Titans, as well as how the Vertical Maneuvering Equipment was created.[120]

Deadline.com reported that Warner Bros. is in negotiations to secure the film rights to the Attack on Titan franchise. Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them producer David Heyman would be on board to produce a proposed two-film project that would remake the 2015 Japanese live-action film adaptations.[121] A day later, however, Kodansha representatives said there were no negotiations with Warner Bros.[122]

A Stage Play titled LIVE IMPACT was announced on the wraparound jacket band on Volume 21.[123] It was scheduled to run from July 28 to September 3, 2017.[124] The Stage Play was cancelled after one of the staff members being involved in an accident.[125][126]

Other media[edit]

Two guidebooks to the manga titled Inside and Outside were released on April 9 and September 9, 2013, featuring concept art, character profiles and interviews.[127][128] They were combined into one and released in North America on September 16, 2014, by Kodansha USA.[129]

A 16-minute drama CD was created with the anime's staff and included in the January 2014 issue of Bessatsu Shōnen Magazine.[130]

On November 3, 2014, American writer C. B. Cebulski revealed that a crossover between Attack on Titan and Marvel Comics was in the works.[131] Cebulski scripts the scenario written by the original author Hajime Isayama. The one-shot crossover featured Spider-Man, the Avengers and the Guardians of the Galaxy facing off against several Titans, including the Colossal Titan, the Armored Titan, and the Female Titan on the streets of New York City.[132] During Free Comic Book Day 2015, Marvel's Secret Wars preview included an 8-page presentation "Attack on Avengers" by creator Hajime Isayama with art by Gerardo Sandoval.[133] It was announced at the 2015 New York Comic-Con that an American comic book titled Attack on Titan Anthology will be published.[134]

From January 23 to May 10, 2015, Universal Studios Japan hosted attractions based on Attack on Titan. "The Real" Attack on Titan Experience features a life-size 15 meter tall Eren titan engaging a 14 meter tall female titan in combat. Other attractions include a ground level titan, which visitors can pose with.[135]

Reception[edit]

Manga[edit]

Attack on Titan won the Kodansha Manga Award in the shōnen category in 2011,[136][137] was nominated for the 4th Manga Taishō Award and both the 16th and 18th annual Tezuka Osamu Cultural Prize.[138][139][140] The 2012 edition of Kono Manga ga Sugoi!, which surveys people in the manga and publishing industry, named Attack on Titan the eighth best manga series for male readers,[141] while the 2014 edition named it the sixth best.[142] Attack on Titan was the top favorite manga for Yomiuri Shimbun's Sugoi Japan Awards in 2015.[143] Attack on Titan was the second highest selling manga series of 2013, with 15,933,801 copies sold in a single year.[144] In April 2014, Oricon reported that 30 million volumes of the series have been sold.[145] In the first half of 2014 it topped the chart, ending One Piece's five-year reign as the highest selling series in that period, with Isayama surprised about it and thanking the readers.[146] By the end of the year, it was the second best selling manga with 11,728,368 copies sold.[147] In 2015, the series sold 8,778,048 copies ranking third for the year,[148] and 6,544,081 in 2016 for the fourth rank.[149] Attack on Titan was the second best-selling manga of 2017 with sales of 6,622,781 copies, behind One Piece with 11,495,532.[150] The manga's publisher, Kodansha, credits Attack on Titan for the company's first revenue increase in eighteen years.[151] The anime is noted to have helped in boosting the series' sales while Mainichi Shimbun called it a "once-in-a-decade hit."[152]

Six of the seven English volumes published in North America at the time charted on The New York Times Manga Best Seller list for the week of October 13, 2013,[153] and volume one was on the list for 81 weeks straight.[154] In June 2015, the first volume clocked in at its 100th week on the top 10 chart.[155] It also currently holds the title of appearing on the list for a volume with 121 weeks.[156] Volume one was also number one on Nielsen BookScan's list of top 20 graphic novels in American bookstores for October 2013,[157] and for the month of September, the series had more volumes on the list than any other series.[158] The Young Adult Library Services Association in the United States named the series one of its "Great Graphic Novels for Teens" in 2013.[159] Kodansha USA's English release won the 2014 Harvey Award for Best American Edition of Foreign Material.[160] Attack on Titan was the only manga to be nominated for the 2015 Goodreads Choice Award for Best Graphic Novel/Comic.[161]

Many have analyzed Attack on Titan as representing "the hopelessness felt by young people in today's society."[1] while writer Mao Yamawaki called it a "coming-of-age story of the boys and girls at its core," with a new mystery every episode. It is these mysteries that critic Tomofusa Kure says amplifies readers' expectations. The artwork of the manga has been criticized as crude by some reviewers, with Isayama himself admitting his drawings are "amateurish." However, those same critics stated that after years of serialization, the art has been improving, and Kure believes that had the illustrations been "refined", it would not have conveyed the "eeriness" that is a key characteristic of the work.[1] In a short review, Jason Thompson noted how the characters conveniently receive "power-ups" to create plot twists, but concluded that these said plot twists and the manga's post-apocalyptic world are "too good to miss."[162]

Anime[edit]

The anime has been very successful in Japan, with average sales of 52,067 across 9 volumes, with a total of 468,603 as of August 2016.[163] It was the number one selling TV anime of 2013 in Japan[164] and is currently the eighth best selling anime of 2010's.[165] It has also been very successful in the U.S. with sales of at least 200,000.[166] It was also the number one streaming anime from Funimation in 2014[167] and the number one fan favorite Funimation home video released of 2014.[168] The anime adaptation won multiple prizes during the 3rd Newtype Anime Awards, including Best Director, Best Script, Best Soundtrack, Best Theme Song, Top Female Character and Title of the Year.[169] It received the award for Best TV Animation at the 2013 Animation Kobe Awards.[170] It received the award for Animation of the Year at the 2014 Tokyo Anime Award, along with, Best Director, Best Screenplay and Best Music.[171] It won the 2013 Digital Contents of the Year Award at Japan's 19th annual Association of Media in Digital (AMD) Awards.[172]

Carl Kimlinger from Anime News Network was sharply critical of the first two episodes of the anime adaptation. He did praise the show for "[bringing] back the terror of the fee-fi-fo-fum set", but then said that it "does not a good show make". Kimlinger criticized Araki's direction, saying he "clearly intends it to be powerful and unsettling, but it's just crude and unpleasant."[173] On the other hand, other critics from Anime News Network praised much of the series. Rebecca Silverman said it "is both gorgeous and appalling in its visuals", and "an excellent mix of what 18th century Gothic novelist Ann Radcliffe defined as horror versus terror: the one is physical, making you want to look away, and the other is intellectual, making you want to know what's going to happen next."[174] Though there are several apocalyptic action shows, Carlo Santos noted that "few get as close to perfection as Attack on Titan does". Santos described it as "a masterpiece of death and destruction" even if he only watched the first episode.[175] Theron Martin of Anime News Network praised the musical score and the "intense, impactful first episode" despite his feeling that it has "limited animation". Martin also compared Attack on Titan's vibe and visual aesthetic to Claymore.[176] John Sinnott of DVD Talk called the series one of the best ones he has ever watched and one "that anime fans should not miss."[177]

Political interpretations[edit]

The series has gained a strong popularity in not only Japan but also throughout the world. For instance, coverage of the anime appeared on the front page of the Hong Kong free newspaper am730 on May 27, 2013, concerning its popularity within Hong Kong as well as in Mainland China and Taiwan.[178] However, the series also attracted criticism: the South Korean Electronic Times magazine accused Attack on Titan of having a militaristic message that serves Japanese Prime Minister Shinzō Abe's political leanings;[179] while the series also resonated with Hong Kong youths who saw the invading Titans as a metaphor for mainland China.[178] Hong Kong media commentator Wong Yeung-tat praised Isayama's style and the versatility of Attack on Titan's setting, which opens itself to readers' various interpretations.[180] In 2013, after media linked to a 2010 blog post by Isayama indicating that the design of the character Dot Pixis was based on the Imperial Japanese General Akiyama Yoshifuru, an Internet flame war about the general's war record (e.g. allowing the Port Arthur massacre to occur) ensued on his blog and included death threats to the author. Because many of the threats written in Japanese had grammatical errors, it is believed that they were written by people outside of Japan.[181]

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External links[edit]