A supermodel (also spelled super-model and super model) is a highly paid fashion model who usually has a worldwide reputation and often a background in haute couture and commercial modeling. The term supermodel became prominent in the popular culture of the 1980s and 90s.
Supermodels usually work for prominent fashion designers and clothing brands. They may have multimillion-dollar contracts, endorsements, and campaigns. Supermodels have branded themselves as household names and worldwide recognition is associated with their modeling careers. They have been on the covers of magazines such as French, British, American, and Italian Vogue. Claudia Schiffer stated in 2007 that "In order to become a supermodel one must be on all the covers all over the world at the same time so that people can recognise the girls."
An early use of the term supermodel appeared in 1891 in an interview with artist Henry Stacy Marks for The Strand Magazine, in which Marks told journalist Harry How, "A good many models are addicted to drink, and, after sitting a while, will suddenly go to sleep. Then I have had what I call the 'super' model. You know the sort of man; he goes in for theatrical effect ..." On 6 October 1942, a writer named Judith Cass had used the term super model for her article in the Chicago Tribune, which headlined "Super Models Are Signed for Fashion Show". Later in 1943, an agent named Clyde Matthew Dessner used the term in a "how-to" book about modeling entitled So You Want to Be a Model! in which Dessner wrote, "She will be a super-model, but the girl in her will be like the girl in you—quite ordinary, but ambitious and eager for personal development." According to Model: The Ugly Business of Beautiful Women by Michael Gross, the term supermodel was first used by Dessner. In 1947, anthropologist Harold Sterling Gladwin wrote "supermodel" in his book Men Out of Asia. In 1949, the magazine Cosmopolitan referred to Anita Colby, the highest paid model at the time, as a "super model": "She's been super model, super movie saleswoman, and top brass at Selznick and Paramount." On 18 October 1959, Vancouver's Chinatown News described Susan Chew as a "super model".
The term supermodel had been used several times in the media in the 1960s and 1970s. In 1965, the encyclopedic guide American Jurisprudence Trials used the term "super model" ("...at issue was patient's belief that her husband was having an affair with a super model"). On 21 March 1967, The New York Times referred to Twiggy as a supermodel; the February 1968 article of Glamour listed all 19 "supermodels"; the Chicago Daily Defender wrote "New York Designer Turns Super Model" in January 1970; The Washington Post and Mansfield News Journal used the term in 1971; and in 1974 both the Chicago Tribune and The Advocate also used the term "supermodel" in their articles. American Vogue used the term "super-model" to describe Jean Shrimpton in the 15 October 1965 edition and "supermodel" on the cover page to describe Margaux Hemingway in the 1 September 1975 edition. Hemingway was again described as a "supermodel" in the 25 July 1977 edition of Time. Jet also described Beverly Johnson as a "supermodel" in the 22 December 1977 edition.
Model Janice Dickinson has incorrectly stated that she coined the term supermodel in 1979, as a compound of Superman and model. During an interview with Entertainment Tonight, Dickinson stated that her agent Monique Pilar of Elite Model Management asked her, "Janice, who do you think you are, Superman?" She replied, "No ... I'm a supermodel, honey, and you will refer to me as a supermodel and you will start a supermodel division." Dickinson also claims to have been the first supermodel.
Lisa Fonssagrives is widely considered to have been the world's first supermodel, with a career that began in the 1930s. She was in most of the major fashion magazines and general interest magazines from the 1930s to the 1950s, including Town & Country, Life, Vogue, the original Vanity Fair, Harper's Bazaar, and Time. Evelyn Nesbit (with a career launched around 1900) and Dorian Leigh (career launched in 1944) have also been called the world's first supermodel, as well as Jean Shrimpton (early 1960s), and Gia Carangi (late 1970s).
Dutch-born model Wilhelmina Cooper holds the record for most covers on American Vogue, appearing 27 or 28 times throughout the 1950s and 1960s. Cooper would go on to found Wilhelmina Models modeling and talent agency in 1967.
In February 1968, an article in Glamour described 19 models as "supermodels": Cheryl Tiegs, Veruschka, Lisa Palmer, Peggy Moffitt, Sue Murray, Twiggy, Sunny Harnett, Marisa Berenson, Gretchen Harris, Heide Wiedeck, Irish Bianchi, Hiroko Matsumoto, Anne de Zogheb, Kathy Carpenter, Jean Shrimpton, Jean Patchett, Benedetta Barzini, Claudia Duxbury and Agneta Frieberg.
In the 1970s, some models became more prominent as their names became more recognizable to the general public. Sports Illustrated editor Jule Campbell abandoned then-current modeling trends for its fledgling Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue by photographing "bigger and healthier" California models and captioning the photographs with their names, turning many of them into household names and establishing the swimsuit issue as a cornerstone of supermodel status.
In 1975, Margaux Hemingway landed a then-unprecedented million-dollar contract as the face of Fabergé's Babe perfume and the same year appeared on the cover of Time magazine, labelled one of the "New Beauties", giving further name recognition to fashion models.
Lauren Hutton became the first model to receive a huge contract from a cosmetics company and appeared on the cover of Vogue 26 times. Iman is considered to have been the first supermodel of color.
Anna Bayle, a model of Filipino descent is dubbed as the first Asian supermodel. She is known for her walk, the "Anna Bayle Walk".
Donyale Luna was the first black model to appear in British Vogue. Naomi Sims, who is sometimes regarded as the first black supermodel, became the first African American to feature on the cover of Ladies' Home Journal in 1968. The first African American model to be on the cover of American Vogue was Beverly Johnson in 1974. Pat Cleveland, another prominent African-American model, has also been described as one of the first black supermodels, in particular by former editor-at-large for American Vogue André Leon Talley in an article for the June 1980 issue of Ebony magazine, and again in his 2003 memoir.
In October 1981, Life cited Shelley Hack, Lauren Hutton, and Iman for Revlon, Margaux Hemingway for Fabergé, Karen Graham for Estee Lauder, Cristina Ferrare for Max Factor, and Cheryl Tiegs for CoverGirl by proclaiming them the "million dollar faces" of the beauty industry. These models negotiated previously unheard of lucrative and exclusive deals with giant cosmetics companies, were instantly recognizable, and their names became well known to the public.
In the early 1980s, Inès de La Fressange was the first model to sign an exclusive modeling contract with an haute couture fashion house, Chanel. During the early 1980s, fashion designers began advertising on television and billboards. Catwalk regulars like Gia Carangi, Tiegs, Brinkley, Kim Alexis, Paulina Porizkova, Yasmin Le Bon, Kathy Ireland, Brooke Shields, Carol Alt and Elle Macpherson began to endorse products with their names, as well as their faces, through the marketing of brands such as Diet Pepsi and Ford trucks. In 1980, 14-year-old Shields was the youngest fashion model ever to appear on the cover of Vogue. Later that same year, Shields appeared in controversial print and TV ads for Calvin Klein jeans. The TV ad included her saying the famous tagline, "You want to know what comes between me and my Calvins? Nothing." Brooke Shields ads would help catapult Klein's career to super-designer status
As the models began to embrace old-style glamour, they were starting to replace film stars as symbols of luxury and wealth. In this regard, supermodels were viewed not so much as individuals but as images.
By the 1990s, the supermodel became increasingly prominent in the media. The title became tantamount to superstar, to signify a supermodel's fame having risen simply from "personality." Supermodels did talk shows, were cited in gossip columns, partied at the trendiest nightspots, landed movie roles, inspired franchises, dated or married film stars, and earned themselves millions. Fame empowered them to take charge of their careers, to market themselves, and to command higher fees.
The new era began in 1990, with the era-defining British Vogue cover of Cindy Crawford, Christy Turlington, Linda Evangelista, Naomi Campbell, and Tatjana Patitz, photographed by Peter Lindbergh which created such an impression on the fashion world that they came to embody the term "supermodel". Each model had gradually attained fame since the mid-1980s and was now among the industry's top stars. Selected by Lindbergh for the January cover of Vogue, the cover inspired singer George Michael to cast the same five models in the music video for his song, "Freedom! '90", directed by David Fincher. Other notable photographs capturing this new generation of models, including the famous nude taken by Herb Ritts for Rolling Stone that included Patitz, Crawford, Campbell, Turlington and Stephanie Seymour, helped each supermodel attain worldwide fame and fortune by sharing covers of all the international editions of Vogue, walking the catwalks for the world's top designers, and becoming known by their first names alone.
In 1991, Turlington signed a contract with Maybelline that paid her $800,000 for twelve days' work each year. Four years later, Claudia Schiffer reportedly earned $12 million for her various modeling assignments. Authorities ranging from Karl Lagerfeld to Time had declared the supermodels more glamorous than movie stars.
Campbell, Evangelista and Turlington became known as The Trinity, a term first used by photographer Steven Meisel and noted by journalist Michael Gross. Evangelista was known as the "Chameleon", for her ability to transform her look and reinvent herself. Turlington was known as the "insurance model", saying "clients know that if they hire me, nothing will go wrong". Campbell was the first black model to appear on the front cover of Time, French Vogue, British Vogue, and the September issue of American Vogue, traditionally the biggest and most important issue of the year.
Campbell, Crawford, Evangelista, Patitz and Turlington were the original group to be regarded as "The Big Five" supermodels of the 1990s, The term "The Big Five" was later used to describe Campbell, Crawford, Evangelista, Turlington and Claudia Schiffer (replacing Patitz), and with the addition of Kate Moss, they became known as "the Big Six."
In the 2006 book, In Vogue: The Illustrated History of the World's Most Famous Fashion Magazine (Rizzoli), the editors cite the "original supermodels" and Schiffer when quoting Vogue Magazine Editor-In-Chief, Anna Wintour, who said, "Those girls were so fabulous for fashion and totally reflected that time ... [They] were like movie stars." The editors name famous models from previous decades, but explain that, "None of them attained the fame and worldwide renown bestowed on Linda Evangelista, Christy Turlington, Cindy Crawford, Naomi Campbell, Tatjana Patitz, Stephanie Seymour, Claudia Schiffer, Yasmeen Ghauri, and Karen Mulder in the late 1980s and early 1990s. These models burst out beyond the pages of the magazines. Many became the faces of cosmetics brands and perfumes, had their own television programs and physical-fitness videos and their own lines of lingerie ... Their lives, activities, influences, and images were the subjects of all types of sociological and historical analysis." Tyra Banks had begun her career as a model, booking a record-breaking 25 shows in 1991 during her breakout year. She achieved Supermodel status, and rivaled Naomi Campbell as the top Black model in the world.
In the mid-1990s, the initial era of the supermodel ended and a new era for the supermodel began driven by heroin chic. By the late 1990s, actresses, pop singers, and other entertainment celebrities began gradually replacing models on fashion magazine covers and ad campaigns. The pendulum of limelight left many models in anonymity. A popular "conspiracy theory" explaining the supermodel's disappearance is that designers and fashion editors grew weary of the "I won't get out of bed for less than $10,000 a day" attitude and made sure no small group of models would ever again have the power of the Big Six.
Charles Gandee, associate editor at Vogue, has said that high prices and poor attitudes contributed less to the decline of the supermodel. As clothes became less flashy, designers turned to models who were less glamorous, so they wouldn't overpower the clothing. Whereas many supermodels of the previous era were American-born, their accents making for an easier transition to stardom, the majority of models began coming from non-English speaking countries and cultures, making the crossover to mainstream spokesperson and cover star difficult. However, the term continued to be applied to notable models such as Kristen McMenamy, Laetitia Casta, Eva Herzigová, Carla Bruni, Tatiana Sorokko, Yasmin Le Bon, Amber Valletta, Shalom Harlow, Nadja Auermann, Helena Christensen, Patricia Velásquez, Adriana Karembeu, Valeria Mazza and later, Milla Jovovich.
2000s and present day
Emerging in the late 1990s, Gisele Bündchen became the first in a wave of Brazilian models to gain popularity in the industry and with the public. With numerous covers of Vogue under her belt, including an issue that dubbed her the "Return of the Sexy Model," Bündchen was credited with ending the "heroin chic" era of models. Following in her footsteps by signing contracts with Victoria's Secret, fellow Brazilians Adriana Lima and Alessandra Ambrosio rose to prominence; however, they were unable to cross over into the world of TV, movies and talk shows as easily as their predecessors due to their foreign accents.
Several seasons later, they were followed by Eastern Europeans barely into their teens, pale, and "bordering on anorexic. They were too young to become movie stars or date celebrities; too skeletal to bag Victoria's Secret contracts; and a lack of English didn't bode well for a broad media career". The opportunities for superstardom were waning in the modeling world, and models like Heidi Klum and Tyra Banks took to television with reality shows like Project Runway & Germany's Next Topmodel and America's Next Top Model, respectively, to not only remain relevant but establish themselves as media moguls.
Contrary to the fashion industry's celebrity trend of the previous decade, lingerie retailer Victoria's Secret continues to groom and launch young talents into supermodel status, awarding their high-profile "Angels" multi-year, multimillion-dollar contracts.
American Vogue dubbed ten models (Doutzen Kroes, Agyness Deyn, Hilary Rhoda, Raquel Zimmermann, Coco Rocha, Lily Donaldson, Chanel Iman, Sasha Pivovarova, Caroline Trentini and Jessica Stam) as the new crop of supermodels in their May 2007 cover story, while the likes of Christie Brinkley, Christy Turlington, and Linda Evangelista returned to reclaim prominent contracts from celebrities and younger models.
In addition to the models stated previously, a top-grossing part of the industry that tends to be overlooked is the male side of modeling. Though women are predominantly known in the modeling industry, men also appear in advertisements for clothing, cologne, sports wear and other such accessories.
In 1993, Italian model Fabio Lanzoni, was the highest paid male model worldwide, getting paid several million dollars a year. He was the male identified individual in many romance novels; he did advertisements for high-end brands like Versace.
Tyson Beckford is known for posing in a number of ads for Ralph Lauren's Polo sport cologne line. Since 1990, he has been the face of Gucci and Tommy Hilfiger, won Model of the year on VH1 Fashion award, and he has also appeared in Calvin Klein's campaign.
Former professional football player David Beckham is noted as the Underwear Model of the Century. He has modeled for worldwide ads for H&M, Adidas, Calvin Klein, Burger King, Sainsbury's, and Breitling. British model David Gandy was described as achieving "icon status" by ABC News when they featured him on Nightline, stating, "As the face of Dolce & Gabbana and Lucky Jeans, Gandy is arguably one of the most successful male models ever, but he's a bit modest about that "supermodel" title."
Vogue.com ranked the 'Top 10 Male Models of All Time' in September 2014; the list included Tyson Beckford, David Gandy, Brad Kroenig, Sean O'Pry, Jon Kortajarena, Marcus Schenkenberg, Mathias Lauridsen, Mark Vanderloo, Noah Mills, and Evandro Soldati. In 2013, Forbes named O'Pry the highest-paid male model.
In an index for model updates and rankings at models.com have described what they call the next generation of supermodels. Their list has included Cara Delevingne, Karlie Kloss, Kendall Jenner, Gigi Hadid, Natalia Vodianova, Doutzen Kroes, Joan Smalls, Fei Fei Sun, Adriana Lima, Karen Elson, Lara Stone, Miranda Kerr, Liu Wen, Barbara Palvin, Jourdan Dunn, Liya Kebede and Natasha Poly.
Since 2000, there has been an emergence of models known as "plus-size" top models, including Robyn Lawley, Crystal Renn, Ashley Graham, Candice Huffine, Tara Lynn, Whitney Thompson, Katya Zharkova, Denise Bidot, Sophie Dahl, Jennie Runk and Natalie Laughlin. These models have been in Catwalks, magazines, and Billboards for brands known worldwide like Vogue, Glamour, Levi's, Forever 21, Cover Girl cosmetics, Saks Fifth Avenue, GQ Magazine, and Chanel. Graham had widespread amount of news coverage worldwide after Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue had her as one of the three covers of the 2016 edition.
Camille Kostek, a normal-size or "middle model", landed a solo cover of the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue in 2019 despite not being on the extreme end of the spectrum as runway size (0–2) or plus-size (10 up). Recalling her difficulty breaking out she has stated, "I was told that it was too bad that I wasn’t a size 10. That plus-size is a big market right now and it’s too bad I wasn’t measuring bigger. My size (4/6) is considered an "in-between size," meaning I'm not a straight model nor plus model, I'm right in the middle. Regardless, she has walked the runways of New York Fashion Week and Miami Beach Swim Week.
Perception of the supermodel as an industry has been frequent inside and outside the fashion press, from complaints that women desiring this status become unhealthily thin to charges of racism, where the "supermodel" generally has to conform to a Northern European standard of beauty in the first decade of the twenty-first century. According to fashion writer Guy Trebay of The New York Times, in 2007, the "android" look was popular, a vacant stare and thin body serving, according to some fashion industry conventions, to set off the couture. This had not always been the case. In the 1970s, black, heavier and "ethnic" models dominated the runways but social changes in the 1980s to the early 2000s persuaded the power players in the fashion industry to shun suggestions of "otherness". However, since the latter part of the first decade of the twenty-first century, an increasing level of racial diversity has been noted among supermodels catering to the growing East Asian markets, including Japanese model Tao Okamoto and Chinese models Fei Fei Sun and Liu Wen. Due to the rising importance of social media and social movements such as third wave body positivity, the range of diversity within the industry expanded to diversity in sizes, genders and social media visibility.
- The World's Highest Paid Models in 2015 Archived 28 June 2015 at the Wayback Machine/Forbes Accessed 28 April 2016.
- The 20 Richest Women In Entertainment Archived 13 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine/Forbes Accessed 28 April 2016.
- "Super-model enjoys private life". Kitchener-Waterloo Record. 2 April 1991. Archived from the original on 2 November 2012.
- "Two more companies drop super-model Kate Moss". CBC News. 21 September 2005. Archived from the original on 3 July 2007.
- Schoolman, Judith (7 September 2001). "Estee Lauder Signs Super-Model to Present Fresh Look". Encyclopedia.com. Knight Ridder/Tribune Business News.
- "Which Super-Model Was Mobbed By Male Fans at Macy's? Guess". San Jose Mercury News. 13 October 1990.
- "Courtney Love confesses to an affair with Kate Moss". FOX411 Blog. Fox News. 20 May 2010. Archived from the original on 23 May 2010.
- "Christie Brinkley biography". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 9 July 2008. Retrieved 2 July 2008.
- Supermodel by Heidi Klum Archived 29 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine randomhouse.com. Retrieved 22 July 2007.
- Model Citizens Archived 14 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved 22 July 2007.
- "The World's Top-Earning Models-Forbes Magazine". Forbes. 19 July 2007. Archived from the original on 2 March 2011. Retrieved 7 March 2011.
- "New Model Army" by Kate Patrick, The Scotsman 21 May 2005 online retrieved 7 July 2006
- Is the Supermodel Dead? And Should She Return? Archived 27 July 2011 at Wikiwix Retrieved 14 September 2007.
- "The supermodel is dead, says Claudia Schiffer". Evening Standard. London. Archived from the original on 12 August 2009. Retrieved 17 September 2007.
- How, Harry (July–December 1891). Geo. Newnes (ed.). "Illustrated Interviews. No. II. – Henry Stacy Marks, R.A". The Strand Magazine. 2: 118. Retrieved 11 August 2011.
- Chicago Tribune archives Archived 23 February 2010 at the Wayback Machine Cass, Judith. Chicago Daily Tribune. "'Super' Models Are Signed for Fashion Show" 6 October 1942. pg 21.
- So You Want to Be a Model! The Art of Feminine Living[dead link] Dessner, Clyde Matthew. Chicago, Morgan-Dillon & Co, 1943. fASIN B0007EL7RY.
- Popik, Barry (13 August 1997). "Supermodels". Americandialect.org. Archived from the original on 27 September 2011.
She will be a super-model, but the girl in her will be like the girl in you—quite ordinary, but ambitious and eager for personal development.
- Gladwin, Harold Sterling (1947). Men Out of Asia. p. 339.
- "Cinema: Cover Girl". Time. 8 January 1945. Archived from the original on 26 September 2011. Retrieved 11 August 2011.
- Hearst's International Combined with Cosmopolitan. 126. 1949. p. 33. Retrieved 11 August 2011.
She's been super model, super movie saleswoman, and top brass at Selznick and Paramount
- "Town Talk". Chinatown News (Vancouver). 7 (4). Chinese Publicity Bureau. 18 October 1959. p. 11. Archived from the original on 21 April 2012.
For this glittering program they called on super model Susan Chew to do the organizing.
- American Jurisprudence Trials. 8. West Group. 1965. p. 154.
- "Home : Oxford English Dictionary". Oed.com. Retrieved 30 January 2016.
- BarryPopik.com Supermodel Archived 30 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine 25 July 2004
- Vogue cover scan. 1 September 1975 edition Archived 28 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine. Archived from Ebay.co.uk. Subheadline says, "New York's new supermodel, Margaux Hemingway".
- "Words of the Week: Beverly Johnson" 22 December 1977. Jet. Vol. 53, No. 14, page 40.
- Dickinson, Janice. Instinct Magazine: Janice Dickinson Archived from original link. 1 June 2006. InstinctMagazine.com. Retrieved 9 June 2009.
- Ranck, Rosemary (9 February 1997). "The First Supermodel". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 12 November 2007. Retrieved 21 July 2007.
- "Christian Dior: Lisa Fonssagrives lives". China Daily. 1 July 2008. Archived from the original on 6 June 2011.
- Singh, Anita (13 November 2008). "Photographs of Angelina Jolie, Kate Moss and Britney Spears for sale at Christie's". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 18 September 2010.
- Cheesman, Chris (19 October 2007). "Pictures: Original stills from JFK assassination revealed". Amateur Photographer. Archived from the original on 24 October 2007.
- Johnson, Geoffrey (March 2010). "On the life and work of photographer Beatrice Tonnesen". Chicagomag.com. Archived from the original on 3 November 2012.
- Baker, Lindsay (4 January 2015). "Evelyn Nesbit: The World's first supermodel". BBC. Retrieved 4 January 2019.
- "Archetypal supermodel was more than a face". The Australian. 16 July 2008.
- "World's first supermodel dies". Metro.co.uk. 11 July 2008. Archived from the original on 1 October 2012.
- Bumpus, Jessica (14 July 2008). "Dorian Leigh Remembered". Vogue. Archived from the original on 27 December 2010.
- Mansour, David (2005). From Abba to Zoom: A Pop Culture Encyclopedia of the Late 20th Century. p. 430. ISBN 0-7407-5118-2.
- Busch, Charles (24 January 1995). "He's Every Woman". The Advocate: 60.
- Magee, Antonia (28 October 2009). "Model Jean Shrimpton recollects the stir she caused on Victoria Derby Day in 1965". Herald Sun. Australia. Archived from the original on 14 June 2011.
- Susan Cohen, Christine Cosgrove (2009). Normal at Any Cost: Tall Girls, Short Boys, and the Medical Industry's Quest to Manipulate Height. Penguin. p. 9. ISBN 1-58542-683-0.
- "Jean Shrimpton in Melbourne". Milesago.com. Archived from the original on 3 March 2011. Retrieved 7 March 2011.
- Vallely, Paul (10 September 2005). "Gia: The tragic tale of the world's first supermodel". The Independent. London. Archived from the original on 1 January 2008. Retrieved 28 May 2007.
- Carolin, Louise. "Gia – the tragedy of a lesbian supermodel". Diva. Archived from the original on 25 March 2007. Retrieved 17 January 2008.
- Schwarz, Mark (2008). "Dear Shareholder" (PDF). Wilhelmina International, Inc. Annual Report 2008. Wilhelmina.com: 3. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 February 2011.
- Cokal, Susann. St. James Encyclopedia of Popular Culture. 1999. Michigan: Gale Group.
- Curtis, Bryan (16 February 2005). "The Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue: An intellectual history". Slate. Washington Post. Newsweek Interactive Co. LLC. Archived from the original on 27 November 2007. Retrieved 11 November 2007.
- Fonseca, Nicholas (29 June 2001). "Entertainment Weekly: ''Papa's Little Girl''". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on 6 January 2010. Retrieved 7 March 2011.
- Barron, James (24 September 1995). "SIGNOFF; Maybe Late-Night Success Is About The Smile". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 5 April 2012. Retrieved 6 September 2009.
- "Vogue Fun Facts by the Numbers". Vogue. Archived from the original on 10 February 2018. Retrieved 9 February 2018.
- Iman: Supermodel and Beauty Innovator Archived 16 February 2010 at the Wayback Machine, Teen Vogue.
- "British Vogue – Cover Search, March 1966". Vogue.co.uk. 1 February 2011. Retrieved 7 March 2011.[permanent dead link]
- Wilson, Eric (3 August 2009). "Naomi Sims, 61, Pioneering Cover Girl, Is Dead". The New York Times. New York. Archived from the original on 15 November 2012. Retrieved 15 July 2011.
- Joy Sewing Beverly Johnson's got the right attitude Archived 26 August 2009 at the Wayback Machine Houston Chronicle. Retrieved 23 August 2009
- Black Girls Rule Online Archived 7 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine retrieved 27 March 2016.
- Vogue: Model Anna Cleveland on Beauty Advice from Her Supermodel Mother and the One Product That’s in Her Makeup Bag This Week. 8, 25 March. Retrieved 27 March 2016.
- Best–Selling Beauties, Life October 1981, page 120
- Paris Haute Couture Fashion Week: Gaultier's 51-Year-Old Runway Star: Inès de la Fressange
- Elias, Justine (25 January 1998). "A Chic Heroine, but Not a Pretty Story". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 3 April 2011. Retrieved 24 May 2010.
- "Christie Brinkley's biography in the New York Times". Movies.nytimes.com. 2 February 1954. Archived from the original on 20 May 2011. Retrieved 7 March 2011.
- Pomerantz, Dorothy (8 February 2012). "How Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Model Kathy Ireland Became a $350 Million Mogul". Forbes. Archived from the original on 24 June 2012. Retrieved 6 July 2012.
- Stated on Inside the Actors Studio, 2008
- Sischy, Ingrid. "Calvin to the Core"
- Style.com Brooke Shields
- Hall, Ann C. (1998). Delights, desires and dilemmas: essays on women and the media. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. xii. ISBN 0-275-96156-7
- 1980s: Fashion: Supermodels Archived 4 July 2007 at the Wayback Machine bookrags.com. Retrieved 23 July 2007.
- "We Three Queens" by Alex Williams, New York online Archived 28 February 2006 at the Wayback Machine retrieved 7 July 2006
- MIRANDA BRYANT, ALEX BILMES. "Cindy Crawford: It's not so super for models now ... magazines want stars on their covers". London Evening Standard. Archived from the original on 30 September 2015. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
- Milligan, Lauren (16 November 2009). "Cindy Sees: Cindy Crawford talks Recession and Size Zero". www.vogue.co.uk. Vogue UK. Archived from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 21 December 2015.
- "January 1990" Archived 16 October 2015 at the Wayback Machine. Vogue Magazine Archive. Retrieved 10 August 2015.
- "The Eye: Peter Lindbergh". Interview Magazine (interviewmagazine.com). Brant Publications. Archived from the original on 19 September 2013. Retrieved 16 September 2013.
- Brown, Laura (March 2009). "Classic Lindbergh – for this cover, the models have been photographed together yet again in another equally famous black-and-white image, this time by Herb Ritts grouping together Patitz, Crawford, Turlington, Campbell and Stephanie Seymour. Both images are responsible for ushering in the era of the supermodel". Harper's Bazaar.
- "#Flashback: George Michael's 'Freedom! '90' turns 25". Elle Australia (elle.com.au/). Bauer Media Pty Limited. Archived from the original on 30 July 2015. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
- Saner, Ermine (15 January 2009). "The Forgotten Supermodel". The Guardian. London. page 12, G2 section. Archived from the original on 26 September 2016.
- "Top 5 Fashion Moments". www.frockadvisor.com. frockadvisor Limited. Archived from the original on 26 August 2016. Retrieved 2 May 2015.
- Olivier, Dana. "Executive Fashion And Beauty Editor". Huffington Post. Archived from the original on 11 May 2016. Retrieved 10 May 2016.
- Okwodu, Janelle. "Vogue.com Fashion News Writer". www.vogue.com. Vogue. Archived from the original on 14 December 2015. Retrieved 10 December 2015.
- "A league of their own". Vanity Fair. September 2008. Archived from the original on 7 April 2014. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
- "Vogue Italia Encyclo: Linda Evangelista". Vogue Italia. Archived from the original on 9 November 2014. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
- "More to Christy than meets the eye". Vogue. 20 September 1995. Archived from the original on 22 January 2014. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
- "Naomi Campbell". Models.com. Archived from the original on 14 March 2014. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
- Hoskyns, Barney (September 1992). "Out of Bed with Naomi: The Making of a Superstar". British Vogue. 76 (9): 229.
The caption 'The big five: Naomi, Linda, Tatjana, Christy and Cindy, January 1990' accompanies the iconic cover photo of the five women
- Morris, Sandra (1996). Catwalk: Inside the World of Supermodels (Author cites Linda Evangelista, Cindy Crawford, Naomi Campbell, Christy Turlington and Tatjana Patitz as "The famous five" with a photo of the January 1990 cover of British Vogue featuring them together. First ed.). New York: Universe Publishing, a division of Rizzoli International Publications. p. 6. ISBN 0-7893-0056-7. Retrieved 5 August 2016.
- "Happy Birthday, Linda Evangelista! The Original Supermodel Turns 50 And Is Happy About Aging". The Huffington Post (huffingtonpost.com). The Huffington Post Media Group. Archived from the original on 9 April 2016. Retrieved 8 May 2016.
- Mokoena, Tshepo. "THE DEATH OF THE SUPERMODEL". www.DontPanicOnline.com. Don't Panic. Archived from the original on 27 May 2014. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
- "Naomi Campbell covers shape magazine". enstarz. 20 March 2014. Archived from the original on 10 February 2015. Retrieved 10 February 2015.
- "Christy Turlington: "Above all, I hated the catwalk"". the telegraph. Archived from the original on 10 February 2015. Retrieved 10 February 2015.
- "Supermodel's life in the spotlight". BBC News. 27 March 2002. Archived from the original on 9 May 2004. Retrieved 7 October 2007.
- Oliva, Alberto; Angeletti, Norberto (22 September 2006). "In Vogue: The Illustrated History of the World's Most Famous Fashion Magazine". ISBN 978-0-8478-2864-7. Cite journal requires
- "Tyra Banks". Biography.
- Death of the Supermodels by C. L. Johnson, Urban Models 21 October 2002 online Archived 15 July 2006 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved 13 July 2006
- "The Fall of the Supermodel" Archived 5 May 2009 at the Wayback Machine Time. Retrieved 23 July 2007.
- "Who will be the next Super Model? (NY Times)". Archived from the original on 27 June 2009.
- Industry Report: Elite Plus Archived 27 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine models.com. Retrieved 25 July 2007.
- "Laetitia Casta – SUPERMODEL". Newfaces.com. 11 May 1978. Archived from the original on 6 January 2011. Retrieved 7 March 2011.
- Laetitia Casta, égérie de Ralph Lauren Archived 3 December 2009 at the Wayback Machine, Next-Libération, 9 July 2008
- "Supermodel Eva Herzigova writes for Vogue". Vogue UK. 27 May 2009. Archived from the original on 3 June 2011. Retrieved 1 March 2016.
- Sarkozy and the Supermodel Time
- "Supermodel Tatiana Sorokko's Couture Exhibit". Harper's Bazaar. 20 September 2010. Retrieved 20 January 2016.
- Haden-Guest, Anthony (18 October 2014). "Tatiana Sorokko is the Queen of Vintage Couture". The Daily Beast. New York. Retrieved 31 January 2015.
- The supermodels return for Harper's Bazaar Archived 6 April 2013 at the Wayback Machinefashion.telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 12 August 2012.
- McCarthy, Philipp (21 February 2005). "Amber's catwalk glow turns to screen stardom". The Sun-Herald. Retrieved 25 October 2015.
- Phelan, Hayley (30 May 2012). "Watch: Shalom Harlow on Her Return to the Runway and 'One-Upping' Fellow Supermodels in the '90s – Fashionista". Fashionista. Retrieved 25 October 2015.
- Menkes, Suzy (2 December 2008). "In Milan: Avedon's work for Versace". The New York Times. New York. Retrieved 5 February 2011.
- "Helena Christensen: on supermodels and posing nude at 40". The Telegraph. 29 November 2009. Retrieved 1 March 2016.
- , United Nations Radio, 9 August 2009
- Skoda prend ses aises avec Adriana Karembeu, Stratégies, 28 February 2003
- 'Wonderbras are safe' says Adriana, BBC, 12 August 1998
- Valeria Mazza, 'supermamá', 'superesposa' y 'supermodelo' en Roma Archived 6 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine, ¡Hola!, 13 February 2011
- Gisele Bündchen. "Celebrity Central: Gisele Bundchen biography". People. Archived from the original on 10 July 2014. Retrieved 7 March 2011.
- Vogue's ten covergirls bring personality and attitude to spring's eye-popping prints. Are we witnessing the return of the model? Archived 28 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine Jonathan Van Meter reports
- Lyall, Sarah (23 September 1993). "ON LOCATION WITH: Fabio; Please, Judge the Book by Its Cover". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 5 October 2016. Retrieved 5 October 2016.
- "Tyson Beckford – Fashion Model – Profile on New York Magazine". nymag.com. Archived from the original on 7 October 2016. Retrieved 5 October 2016.
- ""We all wish we looked like David Beckham"". 19 March 2014. Archived from the original on 5 October 2016. Retrieved 5 October 2016.
- Robach, Amy (31 May 2013). "David Gandy: Life as One of the World's Most Successful Male Models". ABC News. Archived from the original on 14 November 2017. Retrieved 3 July 2017.
- Remsen, Nick (8 September 2014). "Top 10 Male Models of All Time". vogue.com. Archived from the original on 2 July 2015. Retrieved 24 June 2015.
- Le, Vanna (8 October 2013). "The World's Top-Earning Male Models Of 2013". Forbes. Retrieved 1 May 2020.
- "Kendall Jenner – Model". models.com. Archived from the original on 7 May 2018. Retrieved 8 May 2018.
- "Gigi Hadid – Model". models.com. Archived from the original on 16 March 2018. Retrieved 8 May 2018.
- "New Supers List". Models.com. Archived from the original on 5 December 2015. Retrieved 30 November 2015.
- "12 Plus-Size Models Who've Made History". Archived from the original on 6 October 2016. Retrieved 6 October 2016.
- "Who Is Ashley Graham?". 14 February 2016. Archived from the original on 17 September 2016. Retrieved 6 October 2016.
- "CAMILLE KOSTEK on Instagram: "Recently I experienced a situation that rattled me for a moment,so I wanted to take it to my page for whoever is open to reading.I made…"". Instagram. Retrieved 15 August 2019.
- "'Sports Illustrated' model Camille Kostek was told to adjust her measurements". www.yahoo.com. Retrieved 15 August 2019.
- "Miami Swim Week 2018 Diary: Day 1". SI.com. Retrieved 5 March 2019.
- "'Sports Illustrated' cover star Camille Kostek shares cheeky rehearsal video". www.yahoo.com. Retrieved 15 July 2019.
- "On runways, racial diversity is out". Guy Trebay. International Herald Tribune, 23 October 2007.
- "7 Asian Models Changing the Face of Fashion". fashiongonerogue. Archived from the original on 24 July 2014. Retrieved 20 July 2014.