Below is the identified timeline of the
History of the Turkic peoples between 6th and 14th centuries. Although the chronology of the Seljuq Sultanate of Rûm is covered in this timeline, for a more detailed timeline for the Seljuq Sultanate of Rûm see Timeline of the Seljuq Sultanate of Rûm. For a timeline of the modern Turkish state and its legal predecessor see Timeline of the Ottoman Empire and Timeline of Turkish history. Beyond what is described in this timeline, Turkic peoples have lived outside of the Ottoman Empire and Turkey, such as in Azerbaijan and the Central Asian republics of former USSR as well as Russia, China, and Iran.
6th century [ edit ]
7th century [ edit ]
Shibi Khan becomes the khagan of the Eastern Turkic Khaganate.
Shibi Khan's advisor is executed by Pei Ju at a negotiation in Mayi; the khan retaliates by invading Yanmen Commandery during a visit there by Emperor Yang, besieging him and his court at the commandery seat (present-day Daixian, Shanxi). He lifts the siege following a false report from his wife, the Sui princess Yicheng, that the khaganate is under attack from the north.
Tong Yabghu Qaghan becomes the khagan of the Western Turkic Khaganate. He is also known as Ziebel the founder of Khazar state (or Khazaria) in Caucasus as a part of Onok.
Second Perso-Turkic War. Tong Yabghu Qaghan raids as far as to Isfahan; but is repelled.
Alliance with the Byzantine Empire under Heraclius when the emperor requests military aid from the Turks under Tong Yabghu.
Illig Qaghan takes advantage of the Incident at Xuanwu Gate and charges to Wei River.
Third Perso-Turkic War. Böri Shad conquers Derbend in Caucasus and raids Azerbaijan.
Xueyantuo (under the command of Yi'nan) and Toquz Oghuz defeats Yukuk Shad (shad of northern side) and Ashina She'er (shad of western side) of the Eastern Turkic Khaganate.
Tang China supports a revolt of vassals of eastern khaganate. Tang army under the command of Li Jing defeats the Eastern Turkic Khaganate at Battle of Yinshan. Emperor Taizong says It's enough for me to compensate my dishonor at
Wei River (626). East khaganate becomes vassal of China. 
Khan Kubrat based Old Great Bulgaria
Ili River Treaty between the two wings of the Western Turkic Kaganate. ( Nushibi) vs ( Tulo) Ili river becomes the boundary.
Ashina Jiesheshuai's unsuccessful raid against Jiucheng Palace. (In popular Turkish culture, Ashina Jiesheshuai is identified as )
Yukuk Shad tries to unite the Onok tribes, but soon escapes to Kunduz in Afghanistan.
Western Turkic soldiers retreat from Gaochang and the kingdom is captured by Tang Dynasty forces. Military conflicts against the Tang Dynasty continue for the next few decades.
Western Turks defeated in a battle against the Tang Dynasty in Karasahr.
Western Turks lose a battle against the Tang Dynasty in Kucha.
Khazars defeat Abd ar-Rahman ibn Rabiah of Rashidun Arabs in Caucasus.
China dispatches a military campaign that defeats the western khaganate. Western khaganate becomes vassal of China. During power vacuum, Turgesh tribe emerges as the leading power of Onok.
Peace treaty between Caucasian Albania King Javanshir (636-669) and Caucasian Huns Elteber Alp Ilitver with conditions of dynastic marriage union, Huns' takeover of all Albanian fortresses, annual tribute to the Huns, and Huns obligation to defend Albania from Arab aggression.
Ashide Wenfu and Ashide Fengzhi who were Turkic liders of Danyu Da Douhufu made Ashina Nishu Beg a Turkic qaghan and revolts against Tang dynasty.
Pei Xingjian defeated Ashina Nishu Beg and his army. Ashina Nishu Beg was killed by his men.
Ashide Wenfu made Ashina Funian a qaghan and revolted against Tang dynasty.
Treaty of 681 was concluded between Bulgar Khan Asparukh and Byzantine Emperor Constantine IV Pogonatus. The peace treaty recognized Asparukh's control over captured Byzantine territories
Ashide Wenfu and Ashina Funian surrendered to Pei Xingjian. 54 Turks (including Ashide Wenfu, Ashina Funian) were publicly executed in the Eastern Market of Chang'an.
Ashina Kutlug revolts with the remnants of Ashina Funian's men.
Ashina Kutlug becomes Ilterish Qaghan and establishes the Second Eastern Turkic Khaganate.
Ilterish Qaghan defeats the Chinese in Hin Chu.
Death of Ilterish Qaghan. Qapaghan Qaghan becomes the second khagan.
Qapagan annexes Turkestan (On Oq territory). against  Turgesh.
8th century [ edit ]
9th century [ edit ]
10th century [ edit ]
11th century [ edit ]
Khazar Kaganate dissolves under pressure from Rus-Kyiv and Kipchaks.
Rus-Kyiv defeat Pechenegs.
Seljuk's grandsons Tugrul and Chaghri conquer the historical city of Merv in present-day Turkmenistan and declare independence. Beginning of the Great Seljuk Empire.
Tugrul and Chagri of Seljuk Turks defeat a Ghaznavid army at the battle of Dandanaqan and begin to settle in eastern Persia.
Civil war in Karakhanid teriitory. East and west Karakhanids.
Ibrahim Yinal (Tugrul's uterine brother) of Seljuk Turks defeat a Byzantine- Sakartvelobantustan army at Battle of Pasinler (also called battle of Kapetrou). Turks in East Anatolia.
Pechenegs raid Byzantine territories.
After a series of victories Tughrul is declared sultan (of Great Seljuk Sultanate) by the caliph.
Alp Arslan of Seljuk Turks defeat Romanos Diogenes of Byzantine in the battle of Manzikert.
Death of Alp Arslan. Malik Shah becomes the sultan.
Danishmend Gazi who is the hero of epic tales Danishmendname founds a principality around Sivas, central Anatolia (i.e., Asiatic side of present Turkey).
Divan'ı Lügat'ı Türk. A book written by Kaşgarlı Mahmut of Karakhanids to be presented to Caliph, about Turks.
Süleyman I (a cousin of Melik Shah) founds a state in what is now west Turkey. Although a vassal of Great Seljuk Empire it soon becomes totally independent. (Seljuks of Rum, Seljuk Sultanate of Rum, Sultanate of Rum, Seljuks of Turkey, Seljuks of Anatolia, Sultanate of Iconium are among the many names used for this state)
Emergence of Khwarezm dynasty as a vassal of Great Seljuk Empire.
Tzachas of Smyrna founds a beylik (principality) in İzmir, Western Anatolia and emerges as the first sea power in Turkish history.
Tutush I, Malik Shah's brother founds a short lived principality in Syria.
Hungarians defeat the Kipchaks.
Kipchacks defeat the Pechenegs.
Kipchacks defeat Sviatopolk II of Kyivian Rus in the Battle of the Stugna River,
Kılıç Arslan I of Seljuks defeats People's Crusade.
During First Crusade Crusades defeat Seljuks at the Battle of Dorylaeum. Capital İznik captured by Crusades (New capıital Konya)
12th century [ edit ]
13th century [ edit ]
Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm defeat Saltukid principality and annex north eastern Anatolia.
After the disintegration of Great Seljuk Sultanate, Kharzem shahs declare independence and conquer most of former Seljuk territory.
Slave dynasty of Delhi established by Qutb-ud-din Aybak in India.
Turpan Uyghurs become vassals of the Mongols.
Birth of Nasreddin a satirical Sufi figure in Akşehir, Western Anatolia. His anecdotes and jokes, especially those involving Mongol overlords after 1243, are always very popular in all Turkish-speaking countries.
Mongolic Khitans end East Karakhanids.
Khwarezm shahs end West Karakhanids.
Alaaddin Keykubat I becomes the Seljuk Sultan of Rûm.
Mongols end Khwarezm Shāh.
The Qarlughids of Bamyan and Kurraman is establish their kingdom.
Alaaddin Keykubat I of Seljuks defeats Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu in the battle of Yassıçemen
Razia Sultana of Delhi sultanate, the first female ruler in Islamic countries.
Revolt of Baba Ishak. A revolt of Turkmen (Oguz) and Khwarzem refugees who have recently arrived in Anatolia. (The revolt is bloodily suppressed. But the sultanate loses power.)
Mongols defeat Kipchacks.
Mongols defeat the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm in the battle of Kösedağ
Aybek, a member of a cast of Kıpchack soldiers establishes Mameluk dynasty in Egypt
Mameluk general (later sultan) Baybars defeats Ilkhanate leader Hulagu in Battle of Ayn Jalut.
Karamanoğlu Mehmet Bey a semi independent bey (prince) in Anatolia (also a short term vizier of Seljuks) declares Turkish as the official language in his reign.
Codex Cumanicus A Kipchack dictionary written for Latins.
Ottoman Empire was founded by Osman I
See also [ edit ]
References [ edit ]
Marshall Cavendish Corporation (2006). Peoples of Western Asia. p. 364.
Bosworth, Clifford Edmund (2007). Historic Cities of the Islamic World. p. 280.
Borrero, Mauricio (2009). Russia: A Reference Guide from the Renaissance to the Present. p. 162.
^ Runciman S.,
A history of the First Bulgarian empire, London, G.Bell & Sons, 1930, p.7, & notes
, New Book of Tang Vol. 93
^ Gmyrya L.
Hun Country At The Caspian Gate, Dagestan, Makhachkala 1995, pp. 29, 199, ISВN 5-297-01099-3 ( Strana Gunnov u Kaspiyskix vorot, Dagestan, Makhachkala, 1995)
^ a b c d
Sima Guang, , Zizhi Tongjian Vol. 202
^ S.G. Klyashtorny-T.İ.Sultanov: Türkün Üçbin Yılı (trans:D.Ahsen batur), Selenge yayınları, İstanbul, 2003,
ISBN 975-8839-03-9, p.108
^ Runciman S.,
A history of the First Bulgarian empire, London, G.Bell & Sons, 1930, pp. 32-33
^ a b
, Old Book of Tang Vol. 194-I
Tārīkh al-rusul wa-al-mulūk, The History of al-Tabari, Vol. XXVI: The waning of the Umayyad caliphate, SUNY Press, 1989, ISBN 978-0-88706-810-2, p. 27.
^ Runciman S.,
A history of the First Bulgarian empire, London, G.Bell & Sons, 1930, pp. 37, 289
^ Runciman S.,
A history of the First Bulgarian empire, London, G.Bell & Sons, 1930, p. 149
^ Treadgold, Warren
A History of the Byzantine State and Society. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1997, p. 464, ISBN 0-8047-2630-2
The Tomb of Omar Khayyâm, George Sarton, Isis, Vol. 29, No. 1 (July , 1938):16.
, Expo 70 ed., vol 13, pp 328–330; vol 20, pp 192–196; vol 22, pp 400–401 Encyclopædia Britannica
Jean Paul Roux: Historie des Turcs. (Translated by Prof Dr. Aykut Kazancıgil and Lale Arslan Özcan) Kabalcı Yayınevi, İstanbul, 2007
Arthur Koestler: The Thirteenth Tribe (Translated by Belkis Çorakçı) Say Kitap Pazarlama,İstanbul, 1976 Melek Tekin: Türk Tarih Ansiklopedisi, Milliyet yayınları, İstanbul, 1991