Turkish diaspora

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This article is about the Turkish diaspora. For the list of figures which includes all those of Turkish descent by country, see Turkish population.

The Turkish diaspora (Turkish: Gurbetçi) refers to "Turks" who have emigrated from their homeland. Thus, the term may refer to citizens of Turkey living abroad (which includes ethnic Turks and other ethnic minorities) or ethnic Turks from traditional areas of Turkish settlement (such as Bulgaria, Cyprus, Georgia, Kosovo, Hungary the Republic of Macedonia and Romania) who are living abroad.

Due to the large numbers of Turkish citizens and Turkish minorities who have emigrated from their traditional homeland, the figures below do not necessarily show a true indication of the total Turkish population. For example, although official data shows that there are 52,893 Turkish citizens in the United Kingdom, the Home Affairs Committee states that there are now 500,000 British Turks made up of 300,000 Turkish Cypriots, 150,000 Turkish nationals, and smaller groups of Bulgarian Turks and Romanian Turks.[1]

Turkish citizens living abroad[edit]

These figures only include citizens of Turkey. Thus, official numbers do not include individuals who have become naturalised citizens of their host country nor does it include their children who are born in the host country and obtain the host citizenship. For example, although there are 1,658,083 Turkish citizens in Germany, academic estimates suggest that there are now about 3 million people of Turkish origin living in Germany.

Country Turkish citizens (2009)[2][unreliable source?] Further information
 Germany 1,658,083 Turks in Germany
 France 459,611 Turks in France
 Netherlands 372,728 Turks in the Netherlands
 United States 250,000 Turks in the United States
 Austria 159,958 Turks in Austria
 Saudi Arabia 115,000 Turks in Saudi Arabia
  Switzerland 71,692 Turks in Switzerland
 Australia 70,000 Turks in Australia
 Sweden 67,731 Turks in Sweden
 Russia 59,177 Turks in Russia
 Denmark 57,129 Turks in Denmark
 United Kingdom 52,893 Turks in the United Kingdom
 Greece 48,880 Turks in Greece
 Canada 41,000 Turks in Canada
 Belgium 39,419 Turks in Belgium
 Bulgaria 28,296 Turks in Bulgaria
 Italy 20,882 Turks in Italy
 Romania 20,447 Turks in Romania
 Azerbaijan 17,577 Turks in Azerbaijan
 Libya 15,000 Turks in Libya
 Norway 15,000 Turks in Norway
 Israel 10,901 Turks in Israel
 Iran 10,000 Turks in Iran
 Turkmenistan 9,500 Turks in Turkmenistan
 Lebanon 8,976 Turks in Lebanon
 Jordan 8,262 Turks in Jordan
 Kazakhstan 7,000 Turks in Kazakhstan
 Finland 5,825 Turks in Finland
 Hungary 5,814 Turks in Hungary
 United Arab Emirates 5,484 Turks in the United Arab Emirates
 Ukraine 5,394 Turks in Ukraine
 Qatar 5,000[3] Turks in Qatar
 Afghanistan 4,500 Turks in Afghanistan
 Kuwait 4,000 Turks in Kuwait
 Japan 3,653 Turks in Japan
 Spain 3,395 Turks in Spain
 Kyrgyzstan 3,380 Turks in Kyrgyzstan
 Poland 3,253 Turks in Poland
 Morocco 2,996 Turks in Morocco
 Egypt 2,783 Turks in Egypt
 Syria 2,350 Turks in Syria
 Serbia 2,194 Turks in Serbia
 Georgia 2,145 Turks in Georgia
 Sudan 1,800 Turks in Sudan
 Ireland 1,472 Turks in Ireland
 Czech Republic 1,487 Turks in Czech Republic
 Moldova 1,482 Turks in Moldova
 Algeria 1,480 Turks in Algeria
 Macedonia 1,412 Turks in Macedonia
 Iraq 1,200 Turks in Iraq
 South Korea 1,026 Turks in South Korea
 Tunisia 1,009 Turks in Tunisia
 New Zealand 1,000 Turks in New Zealand
 Singapore 918 Turks in Singapore
 Liechtenstein 808 Turks in Liechtenstein
 Argentina 750 Turks in Argentina
 Bahrain 724 Turks in Bahrain
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 700 Turks in Bosnia and Herzegovina
 Uzbekistan 700 Turks in Uzbekistan
 Portugal 637 Turks in Portugal
 Kosovo 622 Turks in Kosovo
 Tajikistan 600 Turks in Tajikistan
 China 578 Turks in China
 Oman 500 Turks in Oman
 Luxembourg 472 Turks in Luxembourg
 Malta 400 Turks in Malta
 Pakistan 310 Turks in Pakistan
  Vatican City 300 Turks in the Vatican City
 Peru 270 Turks in Peru
 Yemen 249 Turks in Yemen
 Malaysia 212 Turks in Malaysia
 Mexico 200 Turks in Mexico
 Mongolia 200 Turks in Mongolia
 Nigeria 200 Turks in Nigeria
 Slovakia 161 Turks in Slovakia
 Belarus 150 Turks in Belarus
 Brazil 150 Turks in Brazil
 Chile 147 Turks in Chile
 Thailand 140 Turks in Thailand
 Kenya 129 Turks in Kenya
 Slovenia 122 Turks in Slovenia
 Guinea 120 Turks in Guinea
 Mali 109 Turks in Mali
 Philippines 100 Turks in the Philippines
 Indonesia 97 Turks in Indonesia
 Latvia 95 Turks in Latvia
 Lithuania 45 Turks in Lithuania
 Senegal 79 Turks in Senegal
 India 76 Turks in India
 Estonia 72 Turks in Estonia
 Cuba 62 Turks in Cuba
 Belize 60 Turks in Belize
 Tanzania 56 Turks in Tanzania
 Bangladesh 53 Turks in Bangladesh
 Venezuela 40 Turks in Venezuela
 Uganda 37 Turks in Uganda
 Costa Rica 35 Turks in Costa Rica
 Ethiopia 35 Turks in Ethiopia
 Panama 25 Turks in Panama
 Democratic Republic of the Congo 22 Turks in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
 Vietnam 16 Turks in Vietnam
 Cambodia 15 Turks in Cambodia
 Burma 15 Turks in Burma
 Ivory Coast 12 Turks in Ivory Coast
 Burkina Faso 11 Turks in Burkina Faso
 Gambia 11 Turks in Gambia
 Suriname 10 Turks in Suriname
 Uruguay 10 Turks in Uruguay
 Guatemala 6 Turks in Guatemala
   Nepal 5 Turks in Nepal
 Republic of the Congo 4 Turks in the Republic of the Congo
 Sri Lanka 4 Turks in Sri Lanka
 Burundi 3 Turks in Burundi
 Paraguay 3 Turks in Paraguay
 Bolivia 2 Turks in Bolivia
 Angola 1 Turks in Angola
 Cape Verde 1 Turks in Cape Verde
 Honduras 1 Turks in Honduras
Total 3,765,175

Diaspora of Turks from traditional areas of settlement[edit]

Algerian Turks diaspora[edit]

See also: Algerian Turks

There are many Algerian Turks who have emigrated to other countries and hence make up part of Algeria's diaspora, for example, there is a noticeable Algerian community of Turkish descent living in England. Many Algerians attend the Suleymaniye Mosque which is owned by the British-Turkish community.[4] France, Germany, Switzerland, the Netherlands, Belgium, Canada, and Spain are also top receiving countries of Algerian citizens.[5]

Bulgarian Turks diaspora[edit]

See also: Bulgarian Turks
Country Population Further information
 Turkey 1,160,614 have emigrated between 1879-1992[6] not including descendants
 Sweden 30,000[7]
 Netherlands 10,000-30,000[8]
 Austria 1,000[9]

Cypriot Turks diaspora[edit]

Country TRNC Ministry of Foreign Affairs
(2001 estimate)[10]
Other estimates Further information
 Turkey 500,000 300,000[11][12]-500,000[13][14]
 United Kingdom 200,000 300,000[1][15]-400,000[16][17] British Cypriots
British Turks
 Australia 40,000 60,000[18][19]-120,000[14] Turkish Australian
North America
 United States
Cypriot American
Turkish American
Turkish Canadians
 Germany 2,000[14]
 New Zealand 1,600[14]
 South Africa N/A[14]
Other 5,000

20000 mostly in Prizren, Prishtina, Vushtria.

Macedonian Turks diaspora[edit]

Meskhetian Turks diaspora[edit]

Country Population Further information
 Kazakhstan 150,000[20]
 Azerbaijan 90,000-110,000[20]
 Russia 70,000-90,000[21]
 Kyrgyzstan 50,000[20]
 Turkey 40,000[21]
 United States 15,000[22]
 Uzbekistan 15,000[21]
 Ukraine 10,000[21]

Greek Turks diaspora[edit]

Between 300,000 to 400,000 Turks have left Greece's region of Western Thrace since 1923, most of which immigrated to Turkey.[23][24] 25,000 to 40,000 Western Thrace Turks have immigrated to Western Europe, about 80% are living in Germany.[25] Western Thrace Turks have also immigrated to the Netherlands, the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia, Austria and Italy.[26]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Home Affairs Committee (2011). "Implications for the Justice and Home Affairs area of the accession of Turkey to the European Union" (PDF). The Stationery Office. p. Ev 34. 
  2. ^ Çalışma ve Sosyal Güvenlik Bakanlığı. "YURTDIŞINDAKİ VATANDAŞLARIMIZLA İLGİLİ SAYISAL BİLGİLER (31.12.2009 tarihi itibarıyla)". Retrieved 2011-09-27. 
  3. ^ bq magazine. "Qatar´s population by nationality (7.12.2014)". 
  4. ^ Communities and Local Government (2009), The Algerian Muslim Community in England: Understanding Muslim Ethnic Communities (PDF), pp. 34–53, ISBN 978-1-4098-1169-5 
  5. ^ Communities and Local Government (2009), The Algerian Muslim Community in England: Understanding Muslim Ethnic Communities (PDF), p. 22, ISBN 978-1-4098-1169-5 
  6. ^ Eminov, Ali (1997), Turkish and other Muslim minorities in Bulgaria, C. Hurst & Co. Publishers, p. 79, ISBN 1-85065-319-4 
  7. ^ Laczko, Frank; Stacher, Irene; Klekowski von Koppenfels, Amanda (2002). New challenges for Migration Policy in Central and Eastern Europe. Cambridge University Press. p. 187. ISBN 90-6704-153-X 
  8. ^ TheSophiaEcho. "Turkish Bulgarians fastest-growing group of immigrants in the Netherlands". Retrieved 2009-07-26. 
  9. ^ Balkan Türkleri Kültür ve Dayanışma Derneği. "Avusturya'daki Bulgaristan Türkleri hala Bulgar isimlerini neden taşıyor?". Retrieved 2011-10-18. 
  10. ^ TRNC Ministry of Foreign Affairs. "Briefing Notes on the Cyprus Issue". Retrieved 2010-10-03. 
  11. ^ Salih, Halil Ibrahim (1968). Cyprus: An Analysis of Cypriot Political Discord. Brooklyn: T. Gaus' Sons. p. 53. ASIN B0006BWHUO (UK) 
  12. ^ Soulioti, Stella (2006). Fettered Independence: Cyprus, 1878-1964, Volume 2. University of Minnesota. p. 54. ISBN 0-9791218-1-7 
  13. ^ Economist Intelligence Unit (1997). "Country Report: Cyprus, Malta". Economist Intelligence Unit. p. 27 
  14. ^ a b c d e f g Star Kıbrıs. "'Sözünüzü Tutun'". Retrieved 2012-09-10. 
  15. ^ BBC. "Network Radio BBC Week 39: Wednesday 28 September 2011: Turkish Delight?". Archived from the original on 2011-09-23. Retrieved 2011-09-14. 
  16. ^ Laschet, Armin (17 September 2011). "İngiltere'deki Türkler". Hurriyet. Retrieved 2011-09-27. 
  17. ^ Cemal, Akay (2 June 2011). "Dıştaki gençlerin askerlik sorunu çözülmedikçe…". Kıbrıs Gazetesi. Archived from the original on 2011-08-01. Retrieved 17 June 2011. 
  18. ^ Kibris Gazetesi. "Avustralya'daki Kıbrıslı Türkler ve Temsilcilik..". Retrieved 2011-05-31. 
  19. ^ BRT. "AVUSTURALYA'DA KIBRS TÜRKÜNÜN SESİ". Retrieved 2011-07-18. 
  20. ^ a b c Aydıngün, Ayşegül; Harding, Çiğdem Balım; Hoover, Matthew; Kuznetsov, Igor; Swerdlow, Steve (2006). "Meskhetian Turks: An Introduction to their History, Culture, and Resettelment Experiences" (PDF). Center for Applied Linguistics. p. 13 
  21. ^ a b c d Aydıngün, Ayşegül; Harding, Çiğdem Balım; Hoover, Matthew; Kuznetsov, Igor; Swerdlow, Steve (2006). "Meskhetian Turks: An Introduction to their History, Culture, and Resettelment Experiences" (PDF). Center for Applied Linguistics. p. 14 
  22. ^ The Seattle Times (2006-03-07). "Refugees' road leads to Tukwila". Retrieved 2010-11-16. 
  23. ^ Whitman, Lois (1990). Destroying ethnic identity: the Turks of Greece. Human Rights Watch. p. 2. ISBN 0-929692-70-5 
  24. ^ Hirschon, Renée (2003). Crossing the Aegean: An Appraisal of the 1923 Compulsory Population Exchange Between Greece and Turkey. Berghahn Books. p. 107. ISBN 1-57181-562-7 
  25. ^ Şentürk, Cem (2008). "Batı Trakya Türklerinin Avrupa´ya Göçleri, Bulundukları Ülkelerdeki Yaşam Koşulları ve Kimlik Algılamaları" (PDF). The Journal of International Social Research 1 (2): 420 
  26. ^ Kultur. "BATI TRAKYA TÜRK EDEBİYATI" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-05-20.