White Christmas (song)

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"White Christmas"
1942 78 single release of "White Christmas" by Bing Crosby on Decca Records, 18429 A, with Ken Darby Singers and John Scott Trotter and His Orchestra, Matrix # DLA 3009.
Single by Bing Crosby
from the album Merry Christmas
B-side "Let's Start the New Year Right"
"God Rest Ye Merry Gentlemen"
Released 1942, 1946, 1947, 1950, 1955, 1983
Format 7-inch, 10-inch
Recorded May 29, 1942
March 19, 1947
Genre Christmas, pop
Length 3:02 (1942 recording)
3:04 (1947 recording)
Label Decca (1942-1973 issues)
MCA (1983-1985 issues)
Writer(s) Irving Berlin
Bing Crosby singles chronology
"Be Careful, It's My Heart"
(1942)
"White Christmas"
(1942)
"Moonlight Becomes You"
(1942)

"White Christmas" is an Irving Berlin song reminiscing about an old-fashioned Christmas setting. According to the Guinness Book of World Records, the version sung by Bing Crosby is the best-selling single of all time, with estimated sales in excess of 50 million copies worldwide. Other versions of the song, along with Bing Crosby's, have sales over 100 million copies.[1][2][3][4]

Accounts vary as to when and where Berlin wrote the song.[4] One story is that he wrote it in 1940, in warm La Quinta, California, while staying at the La Quinta Hotel, a frequent Hollywood retreat also favored by writer-director-producer Frank Capra, although the Arizona Biltmore also claims the song was written there.[5] He often stayed up all night writing — he told his secretary, "Grab your pen and take down this song. I just wrote the best song I've ever written — heck, I just wrote the best song that anybody's ever written!"[6]

Bing Crosby version[edit]

1945 V-Disc release by the U.S. Army of "White Christmas" and "I'll Be Home for Christmas" by Bing Crosby as No. 441B.
Picture sleeve of 1959 reissue by Decca Records (9-23778)

The first public performance of the song was by Bing Crosby, on his NBC radio show The Kraft Music Hall on Christmas Day, 1941; a copy of the recording from the radio program is owned by the estate of Bing Crosby and was loaned to CBS Sunday Morning for their December 25, 2011, program.[4] He subsequently recorded the song with the John Scott Trotter Orchestra and the Ken Darby Singers for Decca Records in just 18 minutes on May 29, 1942, and it was released on July 30 as part of an album of six 78-rpm songs from the film Holiday Inn.[4][7] At first, Crosby did not see anything special about the song. He just said "I don't think we have any problems with that one, Irving."[8]

The song initially performed poorly and was overshadowed by Holiday Inn's first hit song: "Be Careful, It's my Heart".[7] By the end of October 1942, however, "White Christmas" topped the "Your Hit Parade" chart. It remained in that position until well into the new year.[7] (It has often been noted that the mix of melancholy — "just like the ones I used to know" — with comforting images of home — "where the treetops glisten" — resonated especially strongly with listeners during World War II. The Armed Forces Network was flooded with requests for the song. The song is noted for Crosby's whistling during the second Chorus.[7])

In 1942 alone, Crosby's recording spent eleven weeks on top of the Billboard charts. The original version also hit number one on the Harlem Hit Parade for three weeks,[9] Crosby's first-ever appearance on the black-oriented chart. Re-released by Decca, the single returned to the #1 spot during the holiday seasons of 1945 and 1946 (on the chart dated January 4, 1947), thus becoming the only single with three separate runs at the top of the U.S. charts. The recording became a chart perennial, reappearing annually on the pop chart twenty separate times before Billboard magazine created a distinct Christmas chart for seasonal releases.

Following its prominence in the musical Holiday Inn, the composition won the Academy Award for Best Original Song in 1942.[10] In the film, Bing Crosby sings "White Christmas" as a duet with actress Marjorie Reynolds, though her voice was dubbed by Martha Mears. This now-familiar scene was not the moviemakers' initial plan; in the script as originally conceived, Reynolds, not Crosby, was to sing the song.[7]

The version most often heard today is not the original 1942 Crosby recording, as the master had become damaged due to frequent use. Crosby re-recorded the track on March 18, 1947, accompanied again by the Trotter Orchestra and the Darby Singers, with every effort made to reproduce the original recording session.[6] There are subtle differences in the orchestration, most notably the addition of a celesta and flutes to brighten up the introduction.

Crosby was dismissive of his role in the song's success, saying later that "a jackdaw with a cleft palate could have sung it successfully." But Crosby was associated with it for the rest of his career. Another Crosby vehicle — the 1954 musical White Christmas — was the highest-grossing film of 1954.

Sales figures[edit]

Crosby's "White Christmas" single has been credited with selling 50 million copies, the most by any release and therefore it is the biggest-selling single worldwide of all time. The Guinness Book of World Records 2009 Edition lists the song as a 100-million seller, encompassing all versions of the song, including albums.[3][4] Crosby's holiday collection Merry Christmas was first released as an LP in 1949, and has never been out of print since.

There has been confusion and debate on whether Crosby's record is or is not the best-selling single, due to a lack of information on sales of "White Christmas," because Crosby's recording was released before the advent of the modern-day US and UK singles charts.[11] However, after careful research, Guinness World Records in 2007 concluded that, worldwide, Crosby's recording of "White Christmas" has, in their estimation, sold at least 50 million copies, and that Elton John's recording of "Candle in the Wind 1997" has sold 33 million, making Crosby's recording the best-selling single of all time.[1] However, an update in the 2009 edition of the book decided to further help settle the controversy amicably by naming both John's and Crosby's songs to be "winners" by stating that John's recording is the "best-selling single since UK and US singles charts began in the 1950s," while maintaining that "the best-selling single of all time was released before the first pop charts," and that this distinction belongs to "White Christmas," which it says "was listed as the world's best-selling single in the first-ever Guinness Book of Records (published in 1955) and - remarkably - still retains the title more than 50 years later."[12]

Historic influence[edit]

In 1999, National Public Radio included it in the "NPR 100", which sought to compile the one hundred most important American musical works of the 20th century. Crosby's version of the song also holds the distinction of being ranked #2 on the "Songs of the Century" list, behind only Judy Garland's "Over the Rainbow," as voted by members of the RIAA.[13] In 2002, the original 1942 version was one of 50 historically significant recordings chosen that year by the Library of Congress to be added to the National Recording Registry.

The recording was broadcast on the radio on April 30, 1975, as a secret, pre-arranged signal precipitating the U.S. evacuation from Saigon.[14]

Original verse[edit]

Irving Berlin's opening verse is often dropped in recordings, but is included on A Christmas Gift for You from Philles Records, sung by Darlene Love, on Barbra Streisand's A Christmas Album, on The Carpenters Christmas Portrait sung by Karen Carpenter, on Bette Midler's Cool Yule, on Libera's Christmas Album and on Crash Test Dummies' Jingle All the Way.[6]

The sun is shining, the grass is green,
The orange and palm trees sway.

There's never been such a day
in Beverly Hills, L.A.
But it's December the twenty-fourth,—

And I am longing to be up North—
—Verse dropped from original version[15]

This opening verse was also included on country singer Collin Raye's version of the song, as featured on his 2004 album, Christmas: The Gift. British band Keane's version of the song also included this introduction, but with changed lyrics to give the song a melancholic feeling:

The sun's been hiding, the streets are gray,
The rain has been falling down.

Seems everyone wears a frown
for Christmas in London town
It reminds me each time I roamed.

I'm longing to be back home
—Keane version of the introduction

Certifications[edit]

Region Certification Sales/shipments
Sweden (GLF)[16] Platinum 50,000x
United States (RIAA)[17] Diamond 10,000,000^

^shipments figures based on certification alone
xunspecified figures based on certification alone

Other versions[edit]

"White Christmas" is the most-recorded Christmas song; there have been more than 500 recorded versions of the song, in several different languages.[18]

  • 1942: Gordon Jenkins and his Orchestra (with Bob Carroll on lead vocal) released a version of the song (Capitol F-124) that reached number 16 on Billboard magazine's pop singles chart.[19]
  • 1942: Charlie Spivak and his Orchestra (with Garry Stevens on lead vocal) released a version of the song that reached number 18 on Billboard magazine's pop singles chart.[20]
  • 1942: Freddy Martin and his Orchestra (with Clyde Rogers on lead vocal) released a version of the song that reached number 20 on Billboard magazine's pop singles chart (this same version charted on the Billboard pop singles chart again in December 1945, reaching number 16).[21]
  • 1944: Frank Sinatra released a version of the song (with backing orchestration under the direction of Axel Stordahl) that reached number 7 on Billboard magazine's pop singles chart (this same version charted on the Billboard pop singles chart two more times: in December 1945, reaching number 5, and in December 1946, reaching number 6).[22]
  • 1945: On December 23, Kay Thompson performed her version of the song on the CBS radio program Request Performance backed by the Kay Thompson Rhythm Singers and an orchestra conducted by Leith Stevens. A recording of this radio performance has survived and can be heard on Sepia Records' 2009 3-CD compilation Think Pink! A Kay Thompson Party produced and annotated by Sam Irvin, author of Kay Thompson: From Funny Face to Eloise published by Simon & Schuster in 2010.
  • 1946: Jo Stafford (with backing vocals by the Lyn Murray Singers and backing orchestration by Paul Weston) released a version of the song that reached number 9 on Billboard magazine's pop singles chart.[20]
  • 1947: Eddy Howard and his Orchestra released a version of the song that reached number 21 on Billboard magazine's pop singles chart.[23]
  • 1947: Perry Como (with backing orchestration by Lloyd Shaffer) released a version of the song that reached number 23 on Billboard magazine's pop singles chart.[24]
  • 1948: R&B vocal group The Ravens released a version of the song that reached number 9 on Billboard magazine's Rhythm & Blues Records chart in January 1949. Their version was released as the flip-side of a single that included their version of "Silent Night".[25]
  • 1952: Mantovani and His Orchestra released a version of the song that reached number 23 on Billboard magazine's pop singles chart.[21]
  • 1954: The Drifters released a cover version of the song that showcased the talents of lead singer Clyde McPhatter and the bass vocals of Bill Pinkney. Their recording of the song peaked at number 2 on Billboard's Rhythm & Blues Records chart in December 1954 (it also returned to the same chart in the next two years). In December 1955, "White Christmas" became the Drifters' first of 34 singles to register on the mainstream Billboard Top 100 singles chart, reaching number 80.[28] For decades, the Drifters' version of the song was primarily heard on R&B radio stations, getting little exposure elsewhere. The song received a boost in the early 1990s,[citation needed] when it was prominently featured in the film Home Alone during a scene in which the lead character Kevin (Macaulay Culkin) is applying his father's aftershave while mouthing the lyrics. Radio stations formats as diverse as oldies, adult contemporary, Top 40, and country began playing the Drifters' version of the song, which was also featured in the 1994 films Mixed Nuts and The Santa Clause.
  • 1961: Mitch Miller included the song on his album Holiday Sing Along with Mitch. Instead of the lyrics, Miller printed a disclaimer on the album cover stating "The publisher assumes everyone knows the lyrics to this song!"
  • 1961: Haunani Kahalewai sang the song, including some lyrics in Hawaiian language, on the holiday album A Merry Hawaiian Christmas by the Hawaii Calls Orchestra and Chorus.
  • 1963: Before he emigrated to the USA, Italo-American tenor Sergio Franchi recorded an Italian-language version of the song titled "Bianco Natale." It was recorded in Italy and produced in Canada (Durium DC 26099).
  • 1963: Robert Goulet recorded the song for his holiday album, This Christmas I Spend with You.
  • 1963: Andy Williams recorded the song for his first holiday album, The Andy Williams Christmas Album. This version of "White Christmas" was also released as a single, and reached number 1 on Billboard's special, year-end, weekly Christmas Singles chart (the B-side of the single contained Williams's version of "The Christmas Song"). This same version of "White Christmas" charted again on Billboard's Christmas Singles chart again in 1967, reaching number 22.
  • 1963: Jimmy McGriff recorded the song for his holiday album, Christmas with McGriff.
  • 1963: Jim Reeves recorded the song for his holiday album, Twelve Songs of Christmas.
  • 1964: Jack Jones recorded the song for his holiday album, The Jack Jones Christmas Album.
  • 1964: Jerry Vale recorded the song for his holiday album, Christmas Greetings from Jerry Vale.
  • 1965: Bob Marley recorded the song with The Wailers and released it as a single. This version later appeared on his compilation album Destiny: Rare Ska Sides from Studio 1.
  • 1966: Eydie Gorme, backed by Trio Los Panchos, recorded "Blanca Navidad", a Spanish-language version of the song.
  • 1966: Dean Martin recorded the song for his holiday album, The Dean Martin Christmas Album.
  • 1966: Kate Smith recorded the song for her holiday album, The Kate Smith Christmas Album.
  • 1968: Otis Redding's version of the song was released as a single (posthumously), and reached number 12 on Billboard magazine's special, year-end, weekly Christmas Singles chart in December of '68.[25]
  • 1968: Lana Cantrell released a version of the song on the various-artists holiday album Christmas Day with Colonel Sanders. This version was later included on other various-artists Christmas albums.
  • 1972: Keith Lamb recorded a reggae version of the song with his band Hush in December 1972 (EPW 263) for Warner for an EP entitled Hush Power.
  • 1973: Shu-Bi-Dua, from Denmark, released a rock version of the song under the title "Rap Jul" ("Quack Christmas") with Danish lyrics depicting a duck (that turns out to be none other than Donald Duck) not looking forward to Christmas, because all humans tend to eat duck at Christmas Eve.
  • 1975: John Denver recorded the song during the sessions for his holiday album, Rocky Mountain Christmas. While the song was not included on the original LP, it later appeared as a bonus track on the 1998 CD reissue of the album.
  • 1979: Stiff Little Fingers covered the song and released it as part of the "Silly Encores" B-side to their UK 7" single "At the Edge". This version also appeared as a bonus track on the American 2005 CD reissue of the band's 1980 live album, Hanx!
  • 1980: Slim Whitman covered this song on the Epic album Christmas With Slim Whitman.
  • 1981: Boney M. covered the song creating a reggae-version in the process and included it on their album Christmas Album.
  • 1985: The Canadian Brass recorded an instrumental version for their holiday album, A Canadian Brass Christmas.
  • 1991: Marco T. La Voz del Rock and Roll in Colombia recorded the song in Spanish for his album Pequeño Pueblo de Belen.
  • 1992: Neil Diamond recorded a doo-wop version of the song for his first holiday album, The Christmas Album.
  • 1992: Garth Brooks covered the song for his first holiday album, Beyond the Season. This version of the song reached number 70 on Billboard's Hot Country Singles & Tracks chart in January 1995.[30]
  • 1993: Shu-Bi-Dua, from Denmark, this time under the pseudonym "Shu-Bi-40" (parodying British based reggae-band UB 40), recorded a Christmas album containing reggae versions of well-known Christmas songs including "White Christmas", making it their second cover version of the song (see also 1973).
  • 1995: Michie Tomizawa (as Sailor Mars) covered the song on the holiday album Sailor Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon SuperS: Christmas For You
  • 1998: Martina McBride covered the song for her holiday album, White Christmas. This version of the song charted twice, reaching number 75 on Billboard's Hot Country Singles & Tracks chart in December 1999, and number 62 on the same chart in December 2000.[31]
  • 1998: Samples of the song are in Jane McDonald's medley "Cruise into Christmas".
  • 2004: Dionne Warwick recorded the song for her holiday album, My Favorite Time of the Year.
  • 2004: Jazz guitarist Royce Campbell recorded the song for his holiday album, A Jazz Guitar Christmas.
  • 2005: Dutch singer René Froger covered the song on his first holiday album, Pure Christmas (re-released as Happy Christmas in 2009).
  • 2008: Neil Sedaka recorded the song for his first holiday album, The Miracle of Christmas.
  • 2008: Al Jarreau recorded the song for his holiday album, Christmas.
  • 2008: Edyta Górniak recorded the song for her holiday album, Zakochaj się na Święta w kolędach (Fall in love for Christmas in carols), with Polish/English lyrics.
  • 2008: Italian singer Irene Grandi recorded an Italian version of the song, titled "Bianco Natale", for her Christmas album, Canzoni per Natale.
  • 2008: Rick Astley sang the song at the DR Christmas Show.
  • 2008: Jason Castro recorded and released the song for a free download.
  • 2009: Andrea Bocelli recorded the song for his first holiday album, My Christmas. The song debuted at No. 30 on the Portuguese Singles Chart; it spent the following two weeks at No. 19, then rose to No. 18 in its fourth week, before reaching No. 16 in its fifth week.[34] The song also debuted at No. 7 on the Hungarian Singles Chart.[35]
  • 2009: Boy George recorded a cover of the song that was released as a single in digital download format.
  • 2009: Marco Mengoni recorded a cover of the song for the compilation album X Factor - The Christmas Album. Despite not being released as a single, the song charted at number 13 on the Italian Singles Chart, based on digital downloads of the track.[36]
  • 2010: In October, Argos released an advert appearing to show Crosby beatboxing to the tune of the song.
  • 2010: Panic! at the Disco released their version of the song to their fan club "Northern Downpour".
  • 2011: Michael Bublé recorded the song again in a duet featuring Shania Twain, this time for his full-length holiday album, Christmas. This version is based on the 1954 arrangement by The Drifters.
  • 2011: Asker recorded and released a version for their holiday EP, A Yuletide Yell.
  • 2012: Taylor Schlicht recorded the song for her first holiday album, Christmas 2012.
  • 2013: A version performed by Iggy Pop was included on the compilation album Psych-Out Christmas

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ a b Guinness Book of Records, 2007 Edition, page 187
  2. ^ Guinness Book of Records, 2008 Edition, page 181
  3. ^ a b Guinness Book of Records, 2009 Edition, pages 14, 15 & 169
  4. ^ a b c d e Roy J. Harris, Jr. (December 5, 2009). "The Best-Selling Record of All. 'White Christmas' and the reasons it endures". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2009-12-06. "It was a peaceful song that became a wartime classic. Its unorthodox, melancholy melody, and mere 54 words, expressing the simple yearning for a return to happier times—sounded instantly familiar when sung by America's favorite crooner. But 67 years after its introduction, some still are surprised to learn that Bing Crosby's recording of the Irving Berlin ballad "White Christmas" became not only the runaway smash-hit for the World War II holidays, but the best-selling record of all time." 
  5. ^ "History of ""The Jewel of the Desert"" | Arizona Biltmore, a Waldorf Astoria Hotel". Arizonabiltmore.com. Retrieved 2013-11-13. 
  6. ^ a b c White Christmas
  7. ^ a b c d e John Mueller (1986). Astaire Dancing - The Musical Films. London: Hamish Hamilton. pp. 204, 425. ISBN 0-241-11749-6. 
  8. ^ Wook Kim (Dec 17, 2012). "Yule Laugh, Yule Cry: 10 Things You Didn’t Know About Beloved Holiday Songs (With holiday cheer in the air, TIME takes a closer look at some of the weird stories behind our favorite seasonal tunes)". TIME.  - "White Christmas" (p. 6)
  9. ^ Whitburn, Joel (2004). Top R&B/Hip-Hop Singles: 1942-2004. Record Research. p. 139. 
  10. ^ Roberts, David (2006). British Hit Singles & Albums (19th ed.). London: Guinness World Records Limited. p. 134. ISBN 1-904994-10-5. 
  11. ^ "RIAA News Room - The American Recording Industry Announces its Artists of the Century - Nov 10, 1999". Recording Industry Association of America website. RIAA. 1999-11-10. Retrieved 2010-02-08. 
  12. ^ Guinness Book of Records 2009 states that "Candle in the Wind 1997" is the "best-selling single since charts began"; however, not of all time. Bing Crosby's "White Christmas" is still recognized as the best selling single of all time, but since it was released prior to the start of many charts, its sales prior to the 1950s are estimated. John's 1997 song has sold the most copies when looking at copies sold since charts began, as verified in Guinness World Records. ISBN 1-904994-37-7.  See also: Guinness Book of Records, 2009 Edition, pages 14, 15 & 169 [1]
  13. ^ "New song list puts 'Rainbow' way up high". CNN. March 7, 2001. 
  14. ^ Todd, Olivier (1990), Cruel April: The Fall of Saigon, W.W. Norton & Company, p. 353 . For more information, see Fall of Saigon, the end of the Vietnam War.
  15. ^ White Christmas piano solo, Hal Leonard
  16. ^ "Guld- och Platinacertifikat − År 1987−1998" (PDF) (in Swedish). IFPI Sweden. Retrieved 21 December 2012. 
  17. ^ "American single certifications – Bing Crosby – White Christmas". Recording Industry Association of America. Retrieved 22 December 2012.  If necessary, click Advanced, then click Format, then select Single, then click SEARCH
  18. ^ "ASCAP Announces Top 25 Holiday Songs of the Decade". ASCAP. November 23, 2009. Retrieved December 9, 2011. 
  19. ^ Whitburn, Joel (2004). Christmas in the Charts (1920-2004). Wisconsin: Record Research Inc. p. 42. ISBN 0-89820-161-6. 
  20. ^ a b Whitburn, Joel (2004). Christmas in the Charts (1920-2004). Wisconsin: Record Research Inc. p. 59. ISBN 0-89820-161-6. 
  21. ^ a b Whitburn, Joel (2004). Christmas in the Charts (1920-2004). Wisconsin: Record Research Inc. p. 47. ISBN 0-89820-161-6. 
  22. ^ Whitburn, Joel (2004). Christmas in the Charts (1920-2004). Wisconsin: Record Research Inc. p. 58. ISBN 0-89820-161-6. 
  23. ^ Whitburn, Joel (2004). Christmas in the Charts (1920-2004). Wisconsin: Record Research Inc. p. 41. ISBN 0-89820-161-6. 
  24. ^ Whitburn, Joel (2004). Christmas in the Charts (1920-2004). Wisconsin: Record Research Inc. p. 29. ISBN 0-89820-161-6. 
  25. ^ a b Whitburn, Joel (2004). Christmas in the Charts (1920-2004). Wisconsin: Record Research Inc. p. 55. ISBN 0-89820-161-6. 
  26. ^ Whitburn, Joel (2004). Christmas in the Charts (1920-2004). Wisconsin: Record Research Inc. p. 62. ISBN 0-89820-161-6. 
  27. ^ RCA Victor Records in the 20-4500 to 20-4999 series
  28. ^ CD sleeve: Billboard Greatest Christmas Hits (1955 - Present), 1989 Rhino Records Inc.
  29. ^ Whitburn, Joel (2004). Christmas in the Charts (1920-2004). Wisconsin: Record Research Inc. p. 22. ISBN 0-89820-161-6. 
  30. ^ Whitburn, Joel (2004). Christmas in the Charts (1920-2004). Wisconsin: Record Research Inc. p. 23. ISBN 0-89820-161-6. 
  31. ^ Whitburn, Joel (2004). Christmas in the Charts (1920-2004). Wisconsin: Record Research Inc. p. 48. ISBN 0-89820-161-6. 
  32. ^ Whitburn, Joel (2004). Christmas in the Charts (1920-2004). Wisconsin: Record Research Inc. p. 49. ISBN 0-89820-161-6. 
  33. ^ laut.de | Twisted Sister - "A Twisted Christmas" (CD-Kritik)
  34. ^ "White Christmas-bianco Natale" on acharts.com
  35. ^ "White Christmas-bianco Natale" Hungary Top 10, Week 51/2009
  36. ^ "Italian Charts - Marco Mengoni - White Christmas (song)". Italiancharts.com. Hung Medien. Retrieved 21 December 2012. 
  37. ^ "White Christmas by Kelly Clarkson" (in German). Germany: Amazon.de. Retrieved October 7, 2013. 

External links[edit]